Vernon Parish, Louisiana

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Vernon Parish, Louisiana
Vernon Parish Courthouse, LA.jpg
Vernon Parish Courthouse
Map of Louisiana highlighting Vernon Parish
Location in the U.S. state of Louisiana
Map of the United States highlighting Louisiana
Louisiana's location in the U.S.
Founded March 30, 1871
Named for Mount Vernon
Seat Leesville
Largest city Leesville
Area
 • Total 1,341 sq mi (3,473 km2)
 • Land 1,328 sq mi (3,440 km2)
 • Water 14 sq mi (36 km2), 1.0%
Population (est.)
 • (2015) 50,803
 • Density 39/sq mi (15/km²)
Congressional district 4th
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Website www.vppjla.com

Vernon Parish (French: Paroisse de Vernon) is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 52,334.[1] The parish seat is Leesville.[2] Bordered on the west by the Sabine River, the parish was founded in 1871 during the Reconstruction era.[3]

It was long a center of the timber industry, which harvested pine in the hills and bottomland hardwoods. Construction of a railway to the area in 1897 stimulated marketing of lumber and businesses in the area.

Since World War II, Fort Polk has been most important to the parish economy. The population of the Leesville rapidly increased fivefold after the fort was opened. Vernon Parish is part of the Fort Polk South, LA Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the DeRidder-Fort Polk South, LA Combined Statistical Area.

History[edit]

The area comprising Vernon was a part of a tract of land whose control was disputed in the late 18th century between the United States and Spain. They called this land the "Neutral Strip" and refrained from posting police or military personnel there. As a result, the area became a haven for outlaws. Prior to the United States acquisition of this territory through the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803, the primary settlers who came to the area were ethnic French and Spanish.

During this period, Dr. Timothy Burr, a Massachusetts native who had migrated to Louisiana from Mt. Vernon, Ohio, established the community of Burr Ferry at his landing on the Sabine River. This community became known as the "Gateway to Louisiana" from the west. For decades this area was part of the Natchitoches, Rapides, and Sabine parishes, which were established soon after the US acquired this territory in the early nineteenth century. The timber industry was most important to the local economy, with both pines of the hills and bottomland hardwoods being harvested. Some landowners had their land cleared by slaves to establish plantations for cotton cultivation.

During the American Civil War, an artillery site was constructed nearby. Now called the "Confederate Breast Works", it was manned by the Confederacy to guard against Union movements along the Nolan Trace.[4][5]

On March 30, 1871, the Louisiana General Assembly passed an act to create Vernon Parish, by taking territory from the three parishes noted above, as population had increased in the area. There are four versions of how the parish was named; the only official State version is that it was named in honor of Mt. Vernon, the home of George Washington.[6]

Leesville was designated as the parish seat of Vernon from the start. It was incorporated February 15, 1900. The city was founded by Dr. Edmund E. Smart, who donated land from his plantation for the development of the parish seat. It was named by Senator John Rowell Smart, his father, in honor of General Robert E. Lee. The Big House from the Smart plantation still stands, where the city has grown up around it. It is located at what today is the corner of Lula and First streets.[5]

Folklore accounts of the naming of the parish are: 1) that it was named after a race horse owned by Joe Moore, one of the members of the committee chosen to name the parish, who claimed that by naming the parish after his fast horse the committee would insure the growth of the parish: 2) that it was named after a popular teacher who had been an officer in the Royal Navy, only mentioned as "Mr. Vernon". The decision was made to avoid disputes among the parish founders, each of whom wanted to name it after himself. 3) The final account tells that the committee had been arguing over the name while drinking in a store. Trying to preserve his precious whiskey and profits, the host suggested the committee stop a local man passing by on a mule-drawn cart and name the parish whatever the man said was the mule's name. The man responded, "I calls him Vernon, 'cause he's the fastes' mule in de country."[7]

Vernon Parish Map, 1895.[8]
The Old First National Bank Building in downtown Leesville, LA, now the new Courthouse Annex building.
The Main Entrance to the new Vernon Parish Courthouse Annex in the old First National Bank Building.

In the late 1890s the timber industry, which was the dominant industry in the parish from its creation, began to boom with the construction of the Kansas City Southern Railway in 1897. It increased access to markets. The railway continues to operate in the early 21st century.[5]

20th century to present[edit]

In the period after World War I, Vernon Parish became the site of two socialist-based communities. The Llano del Rio Cooperative Colony[9] developed as New Llano, established in 1917. The second was the Christian Commonwealth Colony. These colonies attempted to attract economists and sociologists to conduct an experiment in communal membership and the sharing of labor duties. Llano del Rio was the larger community, with more than 10,000 people, and was also the longest-surviving. Both colonies failed in the 1930s during the economic stress of the Great Depression.[5]

In 1941, the United States Army opened Camp Polk, shortly after the outbreak of war in Europe, with the German invasion of Poland and other actions. Camp Polk quickly surpassed the timber industry as the dominant force in the parish's economy. After the camp opened, the population of the parish seat of Leesville rapidly climbed from 3,500 to 18,000. Named after Leonidas Polk, the first Episcopal Bishop in Louisiana and known as the "Fighting Bishop of the Confederacy", it served as one of the major Army training camps during World War II.

In the 21st century, Fort Polk is the 5th-largest military installation in the nation. The facility covers approximately 200,000 acres (800 km²). It has stimulated the development of associated businesses in the area and related populations. With the regular reassignment of soldiers, accompanied by dependents, to and from the fort, Vernon Parish has a more varied culture than might be expected from its location. Its residents come from all over the country.[5]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the parish has a total area of 1,341 square miles (3,470 km2), of which 1,328 square miles (3,440 km2) is land and 14 square miles (36 km2) (1.0%) is water.[10] It is the largest parish in Louisiana by land area.

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent parishes and counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 5,160
1890 5,903 14.4%
1900 10,327 74.9%
1910 17,384 68.3%
1920 20,493 17.9%
1930 20,047 −2.2%
1940 19,142 −4.5%
1950 18,974 −0.9%
1960 18,301 −3.5%
1970 53,794 193.9%
1980 53,475 −0.6%
1990 61,961 15.9%
2000 52,531 −15.2%
2010 52,334 −0.4%
Est. 2016 50,569 [11] −3.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[16] of 2010, there were 52,334 people residing in the parish. The population density was 39.4 people per square mile (15/km²). The racial makeup of the parish was 75.70% White, 14.2% Black or African American, 1.4% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.50% Pacific Islander, and 4.1% from two or more races. 7.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

In the parish the population was spread out with 9.2% under 5 years of age, 27.7% under the age of 18, and 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. Vernon parish residents are 48.8% female and 51.2% male.

There were 18,590 households with an average household size was 2.644. The median income for a household in the parish was $42,322. The per capita income for the parish was $14,036. About 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.60% of those under age 18 and 14.80% of those age 65 or over.

Education[edit]

The Vernon Parish Library in Leesville

Primary and secondary education[edit]

All public schools in Vernon Parish are operated by the Vernon Parish School Board, which operates 18 public schools and one optional school.[17] Schools providing a secondary education include:

Colleges and universities[edit]

The Louisiana Technical College (LTC) system operates the Lamar Salter campus south of New Llano. The Central Louisiana Technical College Lamar Salter campus is one of 40 LTC campuses across the state.[19]

Northwestern State University (NSU), is a four-year public university primarily situated in Natchitoches, Louisiana and is part of the University of Louisiana System. The NSU-Leesville/Fort Polk Campus is located on Highway 467 near Fort Polk. It serves the civilian communities of Vernon, Beauregard, and Sabine parishes, as well as the military community at Fort Polk. http://leesville.nsula.edu/

The Fort Polk Education Center offers self-development opportunities for Service members, military family members, Department of the Defense employees, military Retirees, Department of Defense contractors, and civilians from the local community in the classroom, distance learning, and online environments. Civilian students coming to the post for classes are required to use the main entrance located off U.S. Highway 171.[20]

Central Michigan University (CMU) operates a campus at Fort Polk.[21]

Central Texas College (CTC) is a public, open-admission community college offering associate degrees and certificate programs in academic, professional and vocational/technical fields. Due to its proximity to Fort Polk, CTC has evolved from a small junior college into a college catering to the military. CTC also help students transition from a 2-year to a 4-year degree through numerous articulation agreements with 4-year institutions nationwide.[22]

Louisiana State University offers a Master of Arts in Liberal Arts.[23]

The Upper Iowa University (UIU) at Fort Polk offers classes on post to both military personnel and civilians in the area. It was opened in 1995 and offers bachelor's degrees in nine majors. Courses can also be blended with UIU distance learning programs (online and independent study) to complete 11 other majors. Certificate programs are also available. UIU offers courses on post during five eight-week terms during the academic year. All courses are offered during the evenings and on weekends.[24]

Public libraries[edit]

The Vernon Parish Library operates public libraries. It operates the main library and the Dunbar Branch Library in Leesville and the Pitkin Branch Library in Pitkin.[25]

National Guard[edit]

The Louisiana Army National Guard maintains a maintenance facility which services its vehicles on Fort Polk. 3-156 IB part of 256th Tiger Brigade is located at fort polk.

Communities[edit]

Map of Vernon Parish, Louisiana With Municipal Labels

Cities[edit]

  • DeRidder (most of DeRidder is in Beauregard Parish, with a very small portion in Vernon)
  • Leesville (parish seat)

Towns[edit]

Villages[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Notable people[edit]

This is the Vernon Parish Police Jury's Gov't Complex located in the old First Liberty Federal Savings building.

Politics[edit]

Presidential Elections Results[32]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 81.0% 13,471 16.0% 2,665 3.0% 497
2012 77.8% 12,150 20.3% 3,173 1.8% 287
2008 75.8% 11,946 22.4% 3,534 1.8% 289
2004 72.4% 11,032 26.5% 4,035 1.1% 162
2000 63.6% 8,794 33.7% 4,655 2.7% 378
1996 39.0% 5,449 44.4% 6,195 16.6% 2,322
1992 40.0% 5,912 40.7% 6,005 19.3% 2,850
1988 58.4% 7,453 39.2% 4,998 2.4% 310
1984 67.6% 9,035 30.5% 4,076 1.9% 258
1980 43.7% 5,869 53.6% 7,198 2.7% 369
1976 37.9% 3,970 59.3% 6,202 2.8% 293
1972 77.6% 6,225 16.8% 1,345 5.6% 450
1968 18.3% 1,574 17.4% 1,496 64.3% 5,536
1964 50.9% 3,696 49.1% 3,564
1960 32.3% 1,991 51.1% 3,145 16.6% 1,024
1956 49.8% 2,372 45.3% 2,158 4.9% 232
1952 35.7% 2,130 64.3% 3,832
1948 6.5% 296 42.3% 1,939 51.2% 2,347
1944 25.0% 1,022 75.1% 3,075
1940 8.3% 311 91.7% 3,439
1936 24.7% 928 75.2% 2,831 0.1% 5
1932 1.6% 46 96.6% 2,868 1.9% 55
1928 18.6% 500 81.4% 2,191
1924 9.2% 142 88.7% 1,372 2.1% 33
1920 15.2% 205 84.8% 1,143
1916 3.5% 44 59.1% 754 37.5% 478

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ "Vernon Parish". Center for Cultural and Eco-Tourism. Retrieved September 5, 2014. 
  4. ^ The Nolan Trace
  5. ^ a b c d e Information in the History section may be found on the Greater Vernon Parish Chamber of Commerce Website.
  6. ^ The State of Louisiana maintains an official website for each of the State's 64 parishes at Louisiana.gov.
  7. ^ All four found in Tall Pines II: A History of Vernon Parish, Louisiana and its People / Wise, Erbon, Library Of Congress # 87-51644
  8. ^ The map may be found at this website; it was researched and posted by Pam Rietsch.
  9. ^ Not to be confused with the Llano del Rio established in Antelope Valley, California in 1915 and abandoned in 1917.
  10. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved September 2, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 11, 2015. Retrieved September 2, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 2, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 2, 2014. 
  16. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  17. ^ "Vernon Parish School District - School List". 
  18. ^ "Vernon Parish Optional School History". 
  19. ^ "Central Louisiana Technical College-Lamar Salter-Campus". 
  20. ^ "Fort Polk Education Center". 
  21. ^ "Central Michigan University at Fort Polk, Louisiana". 
  22. ^ "Central Texas College - Fort Polk Site". 
  23. ^ "Louisiana State University - Special Programs". 
  24. ^ "The Upper Iowa Center at Fort Polk, LA". 
  25. ^ "Sexual Predator Policy." (Archived 2013-03-23 at WebCite) Vernon Parish Library. Retrieved on March 23, 2013.
  26. ^ North Fort Polk is actually a military community contained within Fort Polk Army Installation.
  27. ^ South Fort Polk is actually a military community contained within Fort Polk Army Installation.
  28. ^ "Membership in the Louisiana House of Representatives, 1812-2016: Vernon Parish" (PDF). house.louisiana.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 6, 2014. Retrieved October 22, 2014. 
  29. ^ "James Armes, III's Biography". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved April 20, 2015. 
  30. ^ "Rep. Frank A. Howard". house.louisiana.gov. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  31. ^ "Obituary of Bryan A. Poston, Sr". Shreveport Times, October 4, 2009. Retrieved October 4, 2009. 
  32. ^ http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°07′N 93°11′W / 31.11°N 93.19°W / 31.11; -93.19