Fort des Têtes
|Fort des Têtes|
Fort des Têtes from the Croix de Toulouse
The Fort des Têtes, also known as the Fort des Trois-Têtes, is a fortification in the vicinity of Briançon in the Dauphiné region of southeastern France. It was first surveyed by Vauban in 1700. In 1709 the Marshal Berwick established a fortified camp on the plateau, overlooking the valley of the Durance from a height of 1,440 metres (4,720 ft). The position controlled the high valleys of Fontenil and Fontchristiane. A permanent bastioned triangular fort was built between 1721 and 1723 to designs by Tardif and Nègre. The position was used by the French Army in the defense of Briançon until 1940, when it was part of the Fortified Sector of the Dauphiné.
The fort is connected to the main town by the Pont d'Asfeld, designed by Vauban. The fort has three principal frontages and a lower fort covering the approaches. The garrison comprised about 1250 men serving 70 artillery pieces. The Fort des Trois-Têtes is linked to the nearby Fort du Randouillet by an enclosed, fortified gallery known as "Communication Y." In the 1880s two ammunition magazines were excavated, one within the rock, the other trenched and covered with earth.
The Fort des Têtes, along with Communication Y, the Fort du Randouillet and other military works of Briançon, was designated a Unesco World Heritage Site in 2008, as part of a network of Vauban-related sites.
- "Le fort des Têtes, Briançon ( 05 )" (in French). Chemins de Memoire. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
- Mary, Jean-Yves; Hohnadel, Alain; Sicard, Jacques (2009). Hommes et Ouvrages de la Ligne Maginot, Tome 5 (in French). Histoire & Collections. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-2-35250-127-5.
- "Le Fort des Tetes". Le patrimoine fortifie de Briancon. Ville de Briancon. Retrieved 22 July 2010.
- Puelinckx, Jean; Aublet, Jean-Louis; Mainguin, Sylvie (2010). "Têtes (fort es Trois)". Index de la fortification française 1874-1914 (in French). fortiff.be. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
- "Fortifications of Vauban". World Heritage. UNESCO.
- Fort des Têtes at Briançon Online (French)