|Species||European yew (Taxus baccata)|
|Date seeded||circa 2,000 BC|
The Fortingall Yew is an ancient European yew (Taxus baccata) in the churchyard of the village of Fortingall in Perthshire, Scotland. Considered one of the oldest trees in Britain, modern estimates place its age at an average of 5,000 years.
Some estimates put the tree's age at between 2,000 and 3,000 years; it may also be a remnant of a post-Roman Christian site and around 1,500 years old. Others have suggested an age as great as 5,000 to 9,000 years, with Forestry and Land Scotland considering it to be 5,000 years old. This makes it one of the oldest known trees in Europe. (The root system of the Norway spruce Old Tjikko in Sweden is at least 9,500 years old.) The Fortingall Yew is possibly the oldest tree in Britain.
The tree's once massive trunk (52 ft or 16 m in girth when it was first recorded in writing, in 1769) with a former head of unknown original height, is split into several separate stems, giving the impression of several smaller trees, with loss of the heartwood rings that would establish its true age. This is a result of the natural decay of the ancient heartwood, which reduced the centre of the trunk down to ground level by 1770. Other than this, the tree is still in good health, and may last for many more centuries. By 1833 it was noted that "large arms had been removed and even masses of the trunk, carried off, to make drinking-cups and other curiosities." It is protected by a low wall, erected in 1785 to preserve it, but can still be easily viewed.
Clippings from the tree have been taken to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, to form part of a mile-long hedge. The purpose of this "Yew Conservation Hedge Project" is to maintain the DNA of Taxus baccata from ancient specimens in the UK as, worldwide, the trees are threatened by felling and disease.
In 2019 concern was expressed by the Tree Warden for Fortingall and the coordinator of the Tayside Biodiversity Community Partnership that tourist activity on and around the tree posed a threat to its survival.
The area immediately surrounding Fortingall has a variety of prehistoric archaeological sites including Càrn na Marbh, a Bronze Age tumulus. Place-name and archaeological evidence hint at an Iron Age cult centre at Fortingall, which may have had this tree as its focus. The site was Christianised during the Early Middle Ages, with the yew already full grown, perhaps because it was already a sacred place. A recollection of 1804 noted that "the boys of the village" had damaged the yew "kindling their fire of Bealltuinn at its root."
Sex of the tree
The yew is male, however in 2015 scientists from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh reported that one small branch on the outer part of the crown had changed sex and begun to bear a small group of berries, an occurrence occasionally noted in some dioecious plant species, including yews. This is possibly as a result of environmental stress. The seeds have been preserved for study and will be used to help maintain genetic diversity in yews.
According to local legend, Pontius Pilate was born in its shade and played there as a child. Dr Paul S Philippou, honorary research fellow in history at the University of Dundee, has suggested the legend is historically inaccurate and is an embellished myth.
- "Yew". Forestry and Land Scotland. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
- Bevan-Jones (2004) pp. 38–39
- "Wanted: Fat, old, gnarled trees" (28 June 2007) Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved on 29 September 2007. "The Fortingall Yew near Callendar in Scotland - believed to be the oldest tree in the UK and possibly Europe."
- Owen, James. "Oldest Living Tree Found in Sweden". National Geographic. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
- Hon. Daines Barrington, Transactions of the Royal Society, 1769.
- This is also true of the Llangernyw Yew in North Wales.
- Notice by Thomas Pennant, who measured the girth at 56½ feet, and noted that within living memory the heartwood had conjoined the trunks at a height of three feet (noted by Lindsay (1884): 221).
- Patrick Neill, in Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, noted in Lindsay.
- "By the father of Dr. Irvine of Pitlochry" according to Lindsay.
- Ross, Shan (7 November 2008) "You may not be able to trace your roots back 5,000 years — but yew trees can". Edinburgh. The Scotsman.
- Gardner, Martin. "Yew Hedge". Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- "Threat to ancient Scots yew, UK's oldest tree, as tourists rip off branches for souvenirs". www.scotsman.com. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
- Meredith, Allen (1986). "A Living Legend" (PDF). ancient-yew.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "At the commencement of my incumbency, 32 years ago", according to Rev. Robert Macdonald in 1836, noted in Lindsay (1884) p. 222
- Keay and Keay (1994) p. 393.
- Coleman, Max. "Oldest yew tree switches sex". Botanics Stories. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- Gosden, Emily (1 November 2015). "Britain's oldest tree appears to be undergoing a sex change after 3,000 years". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
- "5,000-year-old tree in Scotland is changing from male to female".
- "Berries show ancient Fortingall yew tree is 'changing sex'". 2 November 2015 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
- "Ancient tree 'one of UK's best'". 14 July 2008 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- Dickie, Douglas (19 April 2019). "Yew can't believe in Pontius Pilate myth". dailyrecord. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Bevan-Jones, Robert (2004). The ancient yew: a history of Taxus baccata. Bollington: Windgather Press. ISBN 0-9545575-3-0.
- Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. ISBN 0002550822
- Lindsay, John (1884) "On yews—with special reference to the Fortingall Yew". Transactions of the Edinburgh Field Naturalists' and Microscopical Club. 85.