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Fortuna Düsseldorf

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Fortuna Düsseldorf
Full nameDüsseldorfer Turn- und Sportverein
Fortuna 1895 e.V.
Nickname(s)Flingeraner, Fortunen, Rheinländer[citation needed]
Founded5 May 1895; 129 years ago (1895-05-05)
GroundMerkur Spiel-Arena
Capacity54,600[citation needed]
Board membersAlexander Jobst (Chair)[citation needed]
Klaus Allofs
Arnd Hovemann[citation needed]
Head coachDaniel Thioune
League2. Bundesliga
2023–242. Bundesliga, 3rd of 18
WebsiteClub website
Current season

Düsseldorfer Turn- und Sportverein Fortuna 1895 e.V., commonly known as Fortuna Düsseldorf (pronounced [fɔʁˈtuːna ˈdʏsl̩dɔʁf] ), is a German football club based in Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, that competes in the 2. Bundesliga.

Founded in 1895, Fortuna entered the league in 1913 and was a fixture in the top flight from the early 1920s up to the creation of the Bundesliga in 1963. 2023–24 will be their fourth season in a row in the 2. Bundesliga since getting relegated from the Bundesliga in the 2019–20 season. Fortuna captured one German championship in 1933 and two German cup DFB-Pokal wins in 1979 and 1980. Their greatest feat in European competition was a Cup Winners Cup final in 1979 where they lost to Barcelona.


Foundation to World War II[edit]

The earliest roots of the association go back to the establishment of the gymnastics club Turnverein Flingern on 5 May 1895 in the village of Flingern, today one of the eastern quarters of Düsseldorf. Two other sides figure in the club's early history: Düsseldorfer Fußballklub Spielverein, founded in 1908, and FK Alemania 1911, which was founded in 1911 and became Fortuna 1911 the following year. In mid-1912, these two clubs merged to form Düsseldorfer Fußball-Club Fortuna 1911, which played its debut season in the Westdeutschen Spielverband in 1913–14. TV Flingern joined Fortuna to create Düsseldorfer Turn- und Sportverein Fortuna on 15 November 1919.[1]

In the late 1920s, Fortuna won its first honours as a first tier side; it captured a district level Bezirksliga title in 1927, sent its first representative to the Germany national team in 1928 (Ernst Albrecht), and took a second Bezirksliga title in 1929. The team continued to perform well into the 1930s, winning its third and fourth district titles en route to a Western German football championship in 1931 and its greatest success, a German football championship in 1933 against Schalke 04, which was on the verge of becoming the era's dominant side in Germany. Fortuna was the first team to win the title without conceding a goal in the final rounds of the tournament. It beat Vorwärts-Rasensport Gleiwitz (9–0), Arminia Hannover (3–0), Eintracht Frankfurt (4–0) and finally Schalke 04 (3–0) en route to becoming the first national champion from the industrial Rhine-Ruhr area.

In the following season, the club began playing in Gauliga Niederrhein, 1 of 16 top-flight divisions formed in the re-organization of German football under the Third Reich. Düsseldorf dominated the division through the 1930s as five-time champions between 1936 and 1940, and made losing appearances in the national championship final in 1936 (1–2 to 1. FC Nürnberg) and the final of the Tschammerpokal, the predecessor of today's DFB-Pokal, in 1937 (1–2 against Schalke 04). The club was reglegated in 1942, but returneed to the top flight the following season. In 1944–45, it began play as the combined wartime side Kriegsspielgemeinschaft TSV Fortuna/SC 99 Düsseldorf with partner Düsseldorfer Sport Club 1899, but took part in only two matches as Nazi Germany fell before the advance of Allied armies.[2]

The most notable players of that era were Paul Janes, Germany's most capped player from 1942 to 1970 (71 caps), German team captain (1939–1942) and member of the Breslau Eleven that beat Denmark 8–0 in Breslau in 1937 and went on to win 10 of 11 games played during that year; Stanislaus Kobierski, who earned 26 caps and scored Germany's first ever FIFA World Cup goal; Ernst Albrecht; and Jakob Bender.

Post War era[edit]

Historical chart of Fortuna league performance

After World War II, Allied occupation authorities ordered the dissolution of all sports organizations in Germany. Fortuna was re-formed in 1945 and then played most of their football in the Oberliga West (I) in the years between 1947 and the creation of the Bundesliga, West Germany's professional football league, in 1963. It played as a lower-to-mid-table side, though it also made three appearances in the DFB-Pokal final in – 1957, 1958 and 1962 – but did not the prize, losing each of those matches to Bayern Munich, VfB Stuttgart and 1. FC Nürnberg. It was also during this era that Toni Turek, goalkeeper for West Germany's "Miracle of Bern" side at the 1954 World Cup; Erich Juskowiak (30 caps and World Cup player in 1958); and later national team coach Jupp Derwall all represented Fortuna.[3]

1960s and 1970s[edit]

Fortuna's performance was not good enough to earn them a place among the original 16 teams chosen for the newly founded Bundesliga in 1963, but the club played its way into the premier division three years later for a cameo appearance in 1966–67. Despite a sensational 2–1 away win at recent European Cup Winners' Cup winners Borussia Dortmund on its Bundesliga debut, Fortuna was immediately relegated, though only to return in 1971 for a stay that lasted 16 seasons and included two third-place league finishes (in 1972–73 and 1973–74). On 9 December 1978, Fortuna recorded a 7–1 victory against Bayern Munich, to date the highest away defeat for Bayern in its entire Bundesliga history. In addition, Fortuna continued its prosperous play in the DFB-Pokal, making another three appearances. After losing in its fifth appearance in the final in 1978 against local rivals 1. FC Köln (0–2), the club finally broke through and came away as champions in 1979, prevailing 1–0 against Hertha BSC, then repeating as champions 1980 with 2–1 victory against 1. FC Köln. During this period, the club established a record for consecutive DFB-Pokal match victories, with 18-straight between 1978 and 1981.

Fortuna is among a group of four teams which have made frequent appearances in the DFB-Pokal final only to come away empty-handed. Like 1. FC Kaiserslautern, Fortuna has just two wins against five losses. 1. FC Köln has four wins and six losses in the Cup final, while Schalke 04 has been frustrated most often, with five wins and seven losses. Four of the Düsseldorfer's losses were by a single goal and two of those were in extra time.

The club's best turn in European competition was in the 1979 European Cup Winners' Cup Final, where it finished as runners-up to Barcelona, losing 4–3 in extra time in an exciting finale at Basel. It was the first of four occasions that the Catalan club won the tournament.

Fortuna achieved its success mostly with hometown players like the famous Allofs brothers (Klaus Allofs and Thomas Allofs) or players like Gerd Zewe (440 games in the Bundesliga), Dieter Herzog, Reiner Geye, Wolfgang Seel and Rudi Bommer who joined the team as nearly unknown players and ended as internationals. Between 1960 and 1967, Peter Meyer scored 119 goals in 174 games.

1980s to the new century[edit]

Esprit arena in Düsseldorf. View from the Warsteiner Tribüne. Match: Fortuna Düsseldorf vs. FC St. Pauli.

Since its relegation in 1987, Fortuna has bounced back and forth between leagues, spending five more seasons in the Bundesliga in 1989–92 (after winning the 1988-89 2nd Bundesliga championship) and 1995–97 and slipping as low as Oberliga Nordrhein (IV) in 2002–04. In 2001, the club escaped relegation to tier IV only because two other clubs were denied licenses to play in tier III for financial reasons. Fortuna had its own money problems at the time but have since managed to arrange its finances more or less back into order. Between 2001 and 2003, the club was sponsored by German punk rock band Die Toten Hosen.[4]

Recent seasons[edit]

In 2008–09, Fortuna competed in the newly established 3. Liga, finishing second and gaining automatic promotion to the 2. Bundesliga, where it finished fourth in its comeback season, 2009–10. In this season, Fortuna was the only side unbeaten in home-matches in the three top German (nationwide) leagues.

After a promising 2009–10 season, the 2010–11 season began poorly for Fortuna. After the first six games of the season, the club was in last place, having lost every match. During these first six matches, the club scored only two goals – one of which was an own-goal by the other side. Despite this discouraging start, Fortuna bounced back and finished the season in seventh place. 2011–12 began very differently: after the first half of the season, Fortuna was in first place in the table with a remarkable record of 12 wins, 5 draws and 0 losses. The "Herbstmeister" title gave the team and the fans hope that this could be the year Fortuna returned to the Bundesliga. The second half of the season was more challenging, as Fortuna was unable to maintain its pace: it suffered four losses and a number of draws, slipping to third place in the final standings. Nonetheless, this was sufficient for them to qualify for the two-game relegation playoff against the third-last place team in the Bundesliga – Hertha BSC. The first game of the relegation was played on 10 May 2012 in Berlin, with Fortuna winning 2–1. Fortuna drew the deciding game which was played on 15 May in Düsseldorf. Hertha fans, however, threw firecrackers at the field and the players, and one minute before the match ended, overexcited Fortuna fans stormed the field.[5]

The promotion to the Bundesliga represented an extraordinary personal achievement for team captain Andreas Lambertz, as he became the first player in German football history to be promoted three times with the same club, from the then fourth-tier Oberliga to the Bundesliga. For striker Sascha Rösler, it marked the fourth time in his career that he was promoted from the Second Division into the Bundesliga.

Coming with the recent promotion, the club achieved a new record in German football history, becoming the only German club that has been relegated from the Bundesliga to a fourth-tier league (time period of downfall: 1997–2002) and promoted again to the Bundesliga afterwards (time period of ascent: 2004–2012).

Fortuna started the 2012–13 Bundesliga season strongly, ranking fifth after five games[6] and concerns about relegation seemed to have been put to rest. However, Fortuna's 1–0 home win over Greuther Fürth on 16 February would prove to be the club's final victory of the season.[7] The season concluded with Fortuna playing in Hannover 96, a match Fortuna lost 0–3. This defeat, combined with an Augsburg win over Greuther Fürth and a bizarre and unlikely victory by Hoffenheim over second-place Borussia Dortmund, resulted in Fortuna dropping two places.[8] Fortuna finished 17th and were again reglegated to the 2. Bundesliga.

Fortuna's relegation was the result not only of this unlikely series of occurrences on the final day of the season, but also a poor conclusion to the year. Of its final eight matches, it did not win a single one; just one win would have secured its position for the following season's Bundesliga. This poor performance contributed to the dismissal of head coach Norbert Meier.[9]

Reglegation to the 2. Bundesliga led to a period of generally disappointing performance. Fortuna spent the years between 2013 and 2017 in the middle of the table, often battling against relegation and rarely challenging for promotion back to the Bundesliga. During these years, the club went through a series of coaching changes, with Oliver Reck, Frank Kramer, and former player Mike Buskens among others leading the club at various points.[10] Success however remained elusive.

In March 2016, Friedhelm Funkel – a native of Neuss – took over as coach of Fortuna Düsseldorf. In his first game as coach, Funkel led the club to a 4–3 win against 1. FC Kaiserslautern, ending a month-long winless streak.[11] Funkel's start as coach marked the beginning of a period of increased stability and success for Fortuna.

At the start of the 2017–18 season, two of Fortuna's strongest performers from the previous year, goalkeeper Michael Rensing and forward Ihlas Bebou, were both lost from the club with Rensing suffering two broken ribs[12] and Bebou transferring to Bundesliga side Hannover 96.[13] A further setback was that Funkel's assistant Peter Hermann asked to be released from his contaract with Fortuna in order to reojoin his mentor Jupp Heynckes upon his return to Bayern.[14] With these three losses, it appeared that the 2017–18 season could be difficult for Fortuna. However, the club started extremely strongly: on the fourth day of the season, Fortuna had climbed to first place in the table, with a draw and three wins. For the remainder of the year, they would not drop below third place, benefitting from particularly strong play by Rensing's replacement in goal, Raphael Wolf, newly acquired Belgian forward Benito Raman, striker Rouwen Hennings, and midfielder Florian Neuhaus.[15] A late-season slump saw Fortuna lose three games in succession in early April, but Fortuna won their next two matches, securing promotion to the Bundesliga.[16][17] In the final game of the season, with promotion already secured, Fortuna defeated 1. FC Nürnberg 3–2 with a last-minute goal thereby securing first place and the 2. Bundesliga Championship, their second title after 1988–89. For coach Friedhelm Funkel, this marks the sixth time he had led a club to promotion—a German record.

Fortuna Düsseldorf's return to first-division football in 2018–19 was greeted with great enthusiasm by their supporters.[18] The first half of the season was marked by inconsistent play.[19] Fortuna played remarkably well against top Bundesliga sides, taking a point from Leipzig and defeating Hoffenheim and first-place Borussia Dortmund.[20] Most encouraging was an away draw against the defending champions Bayern Munich, when Fortuna came back after trailing 2–0 and 3–1, to secure a 3–3 draw in the 93rd minute, with Dodi Lukebakio scored all three of Fortuna's goals.[21] However, Fortuna failed to play well against clubs lower in the table, losing to Augsburg, Nürnberg and Mainz, and only managing a draw against Stuttgart.[19] Fortuna Düsseldorf entered the mid-winter break in 14th place in the table, concoluding the first half of the season with three successive wins against Freiburg, Dortmund and Hannover. Fortuna Düsseldorf enjoyed a better second half of the season, with away wins over Augsburg, Hertha Berlin and one of their best performances in recent times, a storming display in a 0–4 win at Schalke 04. A 4–1 win at home to Werder Bremen and a 3–1 victory over Borussia Mönchengladbach were highlights at home, whilst other home wins over VfB Stuttgart, Nürnberg and a final day defeat of Hannover 96 ensured a 10th-place finish in the Bundesliga. This achieved Fortuna Düsseldorf's highest league finish since the 1989–90 Bundesliga season, where they finished 9th.


For the 2017–18 season, online sports betting website Tipbet renewed its agreement as Premium Partners of Fortuna.[22] The deal involves marketing campaigns to raise brand awareness, while regular promotions are organised.[23]


Current squad[edit]

As of 15 June 2024[24]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
2 DF Japan JPN Takashi Uchino
3 DF Germany GER André Hoffmann (captain)
4 MF Japan JPN Ao Tanaka
5 DF Germany GER Joshua Quarshie (on loan from TSG Hoffenheim)
6 MF Germany GER Yannik Engelhardt
7 FW Greece GRE Christos Tzolis
8 MF Iceland ISL Ísak Bergmann Jóhannesson
9 FW Netherlands NED Vincent Vermeij
11 MF Germany GER Felix Klaus
15 DF Germany GER Tim Oberdorf
18 FW Germany GER Jona Niemiec
19 FW Germany GER Emmanuel Iyoha
No. Pos. Nation Player
20 DF Germany GER Jamil Siebert
21 GK Germany GER Dennis Gorka
22 FW Germany GER Christoph Daferner (on loan from Nürnberg)
23 MF Germany GER Shinta Appelkamp
25 DF Germany GER Matthias Zimmermann
27 FW Poland POL Dennis Jastrzembski
30 DF Netherlands NED Jordy de Wijs
31 MF Germany GER Marcel Sobottka
33 GK Germany GER Florian Kastenmeier (vice-captain)
34 DF France FRA Nicolas Gavory
36 FW Austria AUT Marlon Mustapha (on loan from Como)
46 MF Germany GER Sima Suso

Out on loan[edit]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
22 DF Austria AUT Benjamin Böckle (at Preußen Münster until 30 June 2024)


The club's honours are as follows:





Reserve team[edit]

League history[edit]

  • 1913–1914 C-Klasse (3rd tier) – Champions: 1914
  • 1914–1918 B-Klasse (2nd tier) – Champions: 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918
  • 1918–1919 A-Klasse (1st tier)
  • 1919–1920 A-Klasse (2nd tier) – Champions: 1920
  • 1920–1921 Gauliga Berg Mark (1st tier)
  • 1921–1922 A-Klasse (2nd tier)
  • 1922–1933 Gauliga Berg Mark (1st tier) – Champions: 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931, 1932, 1933
  • 1933–1942 Gauliga Niederrhein (1st tier) – Champions: 1936, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1940
  • 1942–1943 Bezirksklasse (2nd tier) – Champions: 1943
  • 1943–1944 Gauliga Niederrhein (1st tier)
  • 1944–1946 no contests (WW II)
  • 1946–1947 Bezirksliga Berg Mark (1st tier) – Champions: 1947
  • 1947–1949 Oberliga West (1st tier)
  • 1949–1950 2. Liga West (2nd tier)
  • 1950–1960 Oberliga West (1st tier)
  • 1960–1961 2. Liga West (2nd tier)
  • 1961–1963 Oberliga West (1st tier)
  • 1963–1966 Regionalliga West (2nd tier) – Champions: 1966
  • 1966–1967 Bundesliga (1st tier)
  • 1967–1971 Regionalliga West (2nd tier)
  • 1971–1987 Bundesliga (1st tier)
  • 1987–1989 2. Bundesliga (2nd tier) – Champions: 1989
  • 1989–1992 Bundesliga (1st tier)
  • 1992–1993 2. Bundesliga (2nd tier)
  • 1993–1994 Oberliga Nordrhein (3rd tier) – Champions: 1994
  • 1994–1995 2. Bundesliga (2nd tier)
  • 1995–1997 Bundesliga (1st tier)
  • 1997–1999 2. Bundesliga (2nd tier)
  • 1999–2000 Regionalliga West/Südwest (3rd tier)
  • 2000–2002 Regionalliga Nord (3rd tier)
  • 2002–2004 Oberliga Nordrhein (4th tier)
  • 2004–2008 Regionalliga Nord (3rd tier)
  • 2008–2009 3. Liga (3rd tier)
  • 2009–2012 2. Bundesliga (2nd tier)
  • 2012–2013 Bundesliga (1st tier)
  • 2013–2018 2. Bundesliga (2nd tier) – Champions: 2018
  • 2018–2020 Bundesliga (1st tier)
  • 2020–present 2. Bundesliga (2nd tier)

Recent seasons[edit]

The last five seasons are shown.

Season League Tier Position DFB-Pokal Av. Home Attendance Top Scorer(s)
2019–20 Bundesliga 1 17th QF 30,581 Germany Rouwen Hennings (15)
2020–21 2. Bundesliga 2 5th Round 2 441[25] Germany Rouwen Hennings (9)
2021–22 2. Bundesliga 2 10th Round 2 17,526[26] Germany Rouwen Hennings (13)
2022–23 2. Bundesliga 2 4th Round of 16 29,420 Poland Dawid Kownacki (14)
2023–24 2. Bundesliga 2 3rd Semifinals 39,672 Greece Christos Tzolis (22)

Notable players[edit]

Internationals for the Germany national team[edit]

Twenty-five Fortuna players have made appearances with the national side earning 240 caps between them. With the exception of Erich Juskowiak, all players debuted as Fortuna players:



Records and firsts[edit]

  • 1928: first German team to visit Africa for friendly competition
  • 1960: first German team to sign an African player (Charles Gyamfi)
  • 1978 – 7 Dec.: Fortuna obtained a 7–1 victory against Bayern Munich, to date the worst away defeat for Bayern in its entire Bundesliga history.
  • 1978 – 1981: consecutive DFB-Pokal match victories (18)
  • 2009: Fortuna set an all-time attendance record for third-level football in Germany: 50,095 visitors saw a 1–0 victory against Werder Bremen U23 that meant promotion into the 2. Bundesliga.

Rivalries and fan culture[edit]

Fortuna's fiercest rivalry is with 1. FC Köln, which stems from the geographic proximity of Düsseldorf and Cologne as well as the historic rivalry between the two cities.[27] However, in recent seasons, the clubs have rarely played in the same division, meaning that head-to-head encounters have become rarer. The 2013–14 season marked the last time the two clubs met in competitive matches when both played in the Second Division. For the 2018–19 season, Fortuna was promoted to the 1. Bundesliga precisely as 1. FC Köln was demoted from the Bundesliga to the Second Division, again avoiding the "Rheinland Derby".

Fortuna's other historic rivals are Rot-Weiss Essen, Bayer 04 Leverkusen, and Wuppertaler SV. During the 1970s, all four clubs played in the Bundesliga. Both Essen and Wuppertal have since dropped to lower leagues. Bayer Leverkusen, on the other hand, has emerged as a powerful force in the Bundesliga. Leverkusen's financial support from the Bayer chemical conglomerate has led to many Düsseldorf fans criticizing the club as "plastic" and inauthentic, without any real tradition. During the seasons when they both played in the Second Division, Fortuna's matches against MSV Duisburg and Borussia Mönchengladbach were hotly contested and were often referred to as "Lower Rhein Derbys". Fortuna Düsseldorf and Rot-Weiss Essen have played one another 59 times, and many fans still regard this as a heated rivalry, but direct matches have been rare in recent years. Fortuna also has inter-city rivalries with Düsseldorf SC99 and TuRU Düsseldorf, yet these have also lost their intensity. During the post-war years, no other club within the Düsseldorf city limits has ever played in a higher division than Fortuna.

Because of the dominance of FC Bayern München in recent decades, Fortuna also has a competitive rivalry with the Bavarians. Although Düsseldorf has not mounted a serious challenge for the Bundesliga championship since the early 1970s, matches between Fortuna and FC Bayern have been fiercely contested. In a 1975 match, Bayern led at halftime 4–2, but Fortuna came back to win 6–#5. On 9 December 1978, Fortuna defeated FC Bayern 7–1,[28] an outcome which, to this day, remains FC Bayern's worst-ever away loss. During the 1985–86 season, Fortuna was the only team to win both of its games against the eventual champions from Munich, winning 4–0 and 3–2. The band Die Toten Hosen, many of whose members are enthusiastic fans of Fortuna Düsseldorf, have celebrated the team's success against FC Bayern in their song "Bayern", which appears on their album Immortal.[29] The last Bundesliga game was a draw after Munich had led 3–1. Fortuna scored two goals to make it 3–3 in the last 10 minutes.

The club has a particular strong affiliation with English Premier League side Ipswich Town, with their supporters making annual visits to see them at their home ground, Portman Road, since 2006. Ipswich fans have also done the same, with some coming to cheer Düsseldorf on at the Merkur Spiel-Arena.[30]

Fortuna Düsseldorf enjoys a strong a spirited fan base, and supporters in the "ultra" curve of the stadium are well known for their elaborate choreographed displays[31] and enthusiastic support for their club, which occasionally includes the lighting of "Bengalos" or fireworks in the stands.

Members of the band Die Toten Hosen, including lead singer Campino, are often present at Fortuna matches at home and on the road, and when Fortuna celebrated its recent 2. Division championship in front of thousands of fans at Düsseldorf's city hall on 14 May 2018, the band appeared with them.[32] The band is also highly regarded by the club for serving as sponsors during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 seasons, when the club had been relegated to the Regional League and faced financial difficulty.


Since 1 June 2015, Fortuna Düsseldorf has its futsal department. Since then, the Futsal department has developed into one of the strongest in Germany. They took part in the Deutsche Futsal Meisterschaft 2021 of the DFB as the winner of the Futsalliga West in the 2020–21 season and is one of the founding members of the Futsal Bundesliga.[33]


  1. ^ a b Grüne, Hardy (2001). Vereinslexikon. Kassel: AGON Sportverlag ISBN 3-89784-147-9
  2. ^ Grüne, Hardy (1996). Vom Kronprinzen bis zur Bundesliga. Kassel: AGON Sportverlag ISBN 3-928562-85-1
  3. ^ Werner Raupp: Toni Turek – "Fußballgott". Eine Biographie, Hildesheim: Arete Verlag 2019 (ISBN 978-3-96423-008-9), p. 73-97.
  4. ^ ""Tote Hosen" steigen mit Million bei Fortuna Düsseldorf ein". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  5. ^ "Fortuna Düsseldorf Wins Promotion In Chaos Filled Playoff". www.sbnation.com. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2023.
  6. ^ Germany, kicker online, Nürnberg. "1. Bundesliga 2012/13, der 5. Spieltag". kicker online. Retrieved 3 June 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Germany, kicker online, Nürnberg. "Fortuna Düsseldorf – Alle Termine der Saison 2012/13". kicker online. Retrieved 3 June 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ ONLINE, RP (19 May 2013). "Fortuna Düsseldorf: 'Ansatz des gut Spielens zu hoch angesiedelt'". RP ONLINE. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  9. ^ ONLINE, RP (28 May 2013). "Düsseldorf: Fortuna Düsseldorf trennt sich von Trainer Meier". RP ONLINE. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Fortuna Düsseldorf – Manager history". Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  11. ^ Germany, kicker online, Nürnberg. "Funkels Debüt gelingt – Nummer fünf für Fünfstück: Fortuna Düsseldorf – 1. FC Kaiserslautern 4:3 (3:1)". kicker online.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Janning, Falk (9 February 2018). "Fortuna-Torwart Rensing: 'Ich habe keinen Zeitdruck'". RP ONLINE.
  13. ^ "Ihlas Bebou wechselt nach Hannover 96 – Transfer von Ryan Kent platzt". 31 August 2017.
  14. ^ "Heynckes-Wunschassistent Hermann: Ja, er will". Der Spiegel. 6 October 2017.
  15. ^ Germany, kicker online, Nürnberg. "Fortuna Düsseldorf – der Verlauf der 2017/18 im interaktiven Chart". kicker online.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ Jolitz, Bernd (29 April 2018). "2:1-Sieg in Dresden: Fortuna Düsseldorf ist zurück in der Bundesliga!". RP ONLINE.
  17. ^ Dresden, Bernd Jolitz (29 April 2018). "'Wir steigen auf, und Köln steigt ab': Fortuna Düsseldorf und der historische 28. April". RP ONLINE.
  18. ^ "Fortuna Düsseldorf Nachrichten". Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  19. ^ a b "Fortuna Düsseldorf Vereinstermine". kicker.de. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
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  21. ^ "Lukebakio beschert Fortuna-Fans eine Sternstunde". rponline.de. 24 November 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  22. ^ "SBC". SBC News. 14 July 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  23. ^ Sports betting, Tipbet. "Tipbet Sports Odds". Tipbet. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  24. ^ "Fortuna Düsseldorf 1895: Kader" [Fortuna Düsseldorf 1895: Squad]. f95.de (in German). Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  25. ^ The majority of the matches were played behind closed doors due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  26. ^ The majority of the first half of the season was played behind closed doors due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  27. ^ "Rivalry on the Rhine – Cologne vs Dusseldorf". businessimmo.com. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  28. ^ "16. Spieltag – Bundesliga 1978/79". kicker.de. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  29. ^ "Die Toten Hosen – Bayern Lyrics". songmeanings.com. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  30. ^ "Supporters Club from Germany Travel to Ipswich to Cheer on Blues". Ipswich Star. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  31. ^ "Fortuna Düsseldorf: Choreo zur besten Aktion gewählt". faszination-fankurve.de. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  32. ^ "Mannschaft rockt mit den Toten Hosen – So läuft die große Fortuna-Party am Rathaus". express.de. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2019.[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ "Die jüngste Sportart im Verein | www.f95.de". www.f95.de (in German). Retrieved 4 January 2023.

External links[edit]