Fosamprenavir

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Fosamprenavir
Fosamprenavir structure.svg
Fosamprenavir ball-and-stick.png
Clinical data
Trade names Lexiva, Telzir
AHFS/Drugs.com Monograph
MedlinePlus a604012
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability Unknown
Protein binding 90%
Metabolism Hydrolysed to amprenavir and phosphate in GI tract epithelium
Biological half-life 7.7 hours
Excretion Fecal (as metabolites of amprenavir)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
NIAID ChemDB
Chemical and physical data
Formula C25H36N3O9PS
Molar mass 585.608 g/mol
623.700 g/mol (calcium salt)
3D model (Jmol)
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Fosamprenavir (marketed by ViiV Healthcare as the calcium salt under the trade names Lexiva in the U.S. and Telzir in Europe) is a drug for the treatment of HIV infections. It is a pro-drug of the protease inhibitor and antiretroviral drug amprenavir. The FDA approved it October 20, 2003, while the EMA approved it on July 12, 2004. The human body metabolizes fosamprenavir in order to form amprenavir, which is the active ingredient. That metabolization increases the duration that amprenavir is available, making fosamprenavir a slow-release version of amprenavir and thus reducing the number of pills required versus standard amprenavir.

A head-to-head study with lopinavir[1] showed the two drugs to have comparable potency, but patients on fosamprenavir tended to have a higher serum cholesterol. Fosamprenavir's main advantage over lopinavir is that it is cheaper.

Medical uses[edit]

Fosamprenavir is used for the treatment of HIV-1 infections, typically but not necessarily in combination with low-dose ritonavir or other antiviral drugs.[2][3]

Adverse effects[edit]

The most common adverse effect is diarrhea. Other common side effects include headache, dizziness and exanthema, which is usually transient. Severe allergic reactions (Stevens–Johnson syndrome) are rare.[2]

Interactions[edit]

Amprenavir (the active metabolite of fosamrenavir, which is found in blood plasma, liver and other organs) is metabolized via the liver enzyme CYP3A4 and also weakly inhibits this enzyme. This means that combination with drugs that are also metabolized by CYP3A4 can increase their plasma concentrations and thus side effects; and combination with drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 can increase amprenavir concentrations.[2]

When combining fosamprenavir with low doses of the CYP3A4 inhibitor ritonavir, this interaction is intended as it allows for application of lower fosamprenavir doses.[2]

Pharmacology[edit]

Fosamprenavir is quickly activated to amprenavir, even before it reaches the circulation. Amprenavir is a HIV protease inhibitor.[2]

HIV-1 protease dimer with amprenavir (sticks) bound in the active site. PDB entry 3nu3[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eron J Jr; Yeni P; Gathe J Jr; et al. (2006). "The KLEAN study of fosamprenavir-ritonavir versus lopinavir-ritonavir, each in combination with abacavir-lamivudine, for initial treatment of HIV infection over 48 weeks: a randomised non-inferiority trial". Lancet. 368 (9534): 476–82. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69155-1. PMID 16890834. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Jasek, W, ed. (2007). Austria-Codex (in German) (62nd ed.). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. pp. 8009–17. ISBN 978-3-85200-181-4. 
  3. ^ Drugs.com: Lexiva Monograph.
  4. ^ Shen, C. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Kovalevsky, A. Y.; Harrison, R. W.; Weber, I. T. (2010). "Amprenavir complexes with HIV-1 protease and its drug-resistant mutants altering hydrophobic clusters". FEBS Journal. 277 (18): 3699–3714. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07771.x. PMC 2975871Freely accessible. PMID 20695887.