Fossil status can also occur for word senses and for phrases. An example for a word sense is 'navy' in 'merchant navy', which means 'commercial fleet' (although that sense of navy is obsolete elsewhere). An example for a phrase is 'in point' (relevant), which is retained in the larger phrases 'case in point' (also 'case on point' in the legal context) and 'in point of fact', but is not otherwise used outside of a legal context.
English language examples
- ado, as in "without further ado" or "much ado about nothing", although the homologous form "to-do" remains attested ("make a to-do", "a big to-do", etc.)
- amok, as in "run amok"
- bandy, as in "bandy about" or "bandy-legged"
- bated, as in "wait with bated breath", although the derived term "abate" remains in nonidiom-specific use
- beck, as in "at one's beck and call", although the verb form "beckon" is still occasionally seen in nonidiom-specific use
- bygones, as in "let bygones be bygones"
- caboodle, as in "kit and caboodle" (a "born fossil" in that "kit and caboodle" evolved from "kit and boodle", which itself was a fixed phrase borrowed as a unit from Dutch kitte en boedel)
- craw, as in "sticks in (one's) craw"
- coign, as in "coign of vantage"
- deserts, as in "just deserts", although singular "desert" in the sense of "state of deserving" occurs in nonidiom-specific contexts including law and philosophy
- dint, as in "by dint of"
- druthers, as in "if I had my druthers..." (note that "druthers" is a "born fossil", having been formed by elision from " ['I'd/(I would) rathers' and never occurring outside the listed phrase to begin with)
- dudgeon, as in "in high dudgeon"
- eke, as in "eke out"
- fettle, as in "in fine fettle"
- fro, as in "to and fro"
- helter skelter, as in "scattered helter skelter about the office", Middle English skelten to hasten
- hither, as in "come hither", "hither and thither", and "hither and yon"
- immemorial, as in "time immemorial"
- jetsam, as in "flotsam and jetsam", except in legal contexts (especially admiralty, property, and international law)
- kith, as in "kith and kin"
- loggerheads as in "at loggerheads" or loggerhead turtle
- mettle, as in "test one's mettle"
- neap, as in "neap tide"
- offing, as in "in the offing"
- petard, as in "hoist[ed] by [one's] own petard"
- riddance, as in "good riddance"
- shebang, as in "the whole shebang", but the word can be used as a common noun in programmers' jargon, especially on Unix-like systems
- shrive, preserved only in inflected forms occurring only as part of fixed phrases: 'shrift' in "short shrift" and 'shrove' in "Shrove Tuesday"
- sleight, as in "sleight of hand"
- spick, as in "spick and span"
- tarnation, as in "what in tarnation...?" (a "born fossil" in that it evolved only in the context of fixed phrases formed by mincing of previously fixed phrases that include the term "damnation")
- turpitude, as in "moral turpitude"
- wreak, as in "wreak havoc"
- vim, as in "vim and vigor"
- yore, as in "of yore", usually "days of yore"
- Bound morpheme
- Collocation — tendency of one word to occur near another
- Cranberry morpheme — morpheme which has no independent meaning in a lexeme
- Fossilization (linguistics)
- Siamese twins (linguistics)
- fossil. Additions Series, 1993 (Second Edition, 1989 ed.). Oxford English Dictionary.
A word or other linguistic form preserved only in isolated regions or in set phrases, idioms, or collocations
- Curme, George Oliver (1931). Syntax. D. C. Heath and Company.
- Quinion, Michael. World Wide Words
- Yahoo dictionary kith and kin
- Phrase Finder at loggerheads
- Phrase Finder in the offing
- Phrase Finder 'short shrift'