Foucauldian discourse analysis
Besides focusing on the meaning of a given discourse, the distinguishing characteristic of this approach is its stress on power relationships. These are expressed through language and behaviour, and the relationship between language and power. This form of analysis developed out of Foucault's genealogical work, where power was linked to the formation of discourse within specific historical periods. Some versions of this method stress the genealogical application of discourse analysis to illustrate how discourse is produced to govern social groups. The method analyses how the social world, expressed through language, is affected by various sources of power. As such, this approach is close to social constructivism, as the researcher tries to understand how our society is being shaped (or constructed) by language, which in turn reflects existing power relationships. The analysis attempts to understand how individuals view the world, and studies categorizations, personal and institutional relationships, ideology, and politics.
Foucauldian discourse analysis, like much of critical theory, is often used in politically oriented studies. It is preferred by scholars who criticize more traditional forms of discourse analysis as failing to account for the political implications of discourse. Political power is gained by those in power being more knowledgeable and therefore more legitimate in exercising their control over others in both blatant and invisible ways.
Kendall and Wickham outline five steps in using "Foucauldian discourse analysis". The first step is a simple recognition that discourse is a body of statements that are organized in a regular and systematic way. The subsequent four steps are based on the identification of rules on:
- how those statements are created;
- what can be said (written) and what cannot;
- how spaces in which new statements can be made are created;
- making practices material and discursive at the same time.
Areas of study
Studies employing the Foucauldian discourse analysis might look at how figures in authority use language to express their dominance, and request obedience and respect from those subordinate to them. The disciplinary interaction between authority and their followers emphasize the power dynamic found within the relationships. In a specific example, a study may look at the language used by teachers towards students, or military officers towards conscripts. This approach could also be used to study how language is used as a form of resistance to those in power. Foucauldian discourse analysis has also been deployed to illustrate how scholars and activists at times unwittingly reproduce the very discourses that they aim to challenge and overcome.
- Critical discourse analysis
- Cultural studies
- Difference (philosophy)
- Discipline and Punish
- Discourse analysis
- Foucault's lectures at the College de france
- Michel Foucault bibliography
- The Archaeology of Knowledge
- The History of Sexuality
- Lisa M. Given (2008). The Sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods. SAGE. p. 249. ISBN 978-1-4129-4163-1. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
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- Arribas-Ayllon, Michael; Walkerdine, Valerie (2008). Foucauldian Discourse Analysis. London: Sage. pp. 91-108. ISBN 9781412907804.
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- Robin Wooffitt (23 April 2005). Conversation analysis and discourse analysis: a comparative and critical introduction. SAGE. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-7619-7426-0. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
- Gavin Kendall; Gary Wickham (8 February 1999). Using Foucault's methods. SAGE. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-7619-5717-1. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
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- Johannes Angermuller. Poststructuralist Discourse Analysis. Subjectivity in Enunciative Pragmatics. Postdisciplinary Studies in Discourse. Basingstoke, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.
- Johannes Angermuller. Why There Is No Poststructuralism in France. The Making of An Intellectual Generation. London: Bloomsbury, 2015.
- Lucy Niall. A Dictionary of Postmodernism. Wiley-Blackwell, 2016.
- Sara Mills. Discourse: The New Critical Idiom. Series Editor: John Drakakis, Routledge, 1997.