|Part of a series on|
A four-day week, or a compressed work schedule, is an arrangement where a workplace or school has its employees or students work or attend school over the course of four days per week rather than the more customary five. This arrangement can be a part of flexible working hours, and is sometimes used to cut costs, as seen in the example of the so-called "4/10 work week," where employees work a normal 40 hours across four days, i.e. a "four-ten" week. However, a four-day week can also be a fixed work schedule.
More modest attempts to enact a 32-hour workweek (a four-day week and an eight-hour day combined) have remained elusive in the following 80 years despite pockets of residual support.
The push towards implementing the 'four-day week' has remained loosely relevant within the contemporary workplace due to the various possible benefits it may yield. Although mostly untested, these benefits mainly lie within increased cost-cutting, productivity and work-life balance. The theory behind this is that by having employees or students work or attend school one less day a week, then they will have additional time to pursue hobbies, spend time with family, get more sleep and increase overall morale. There are several ways the four-day week can take shape. Taking Fridays off, half days, and different days off for different employees are all options that are considered when starting the four-day week. Consequently, these employees or students will be more productive and refreshed for working or learning, which will make up for the lost day where they would otherwise be overworked and/or overtired. In addition, by having the workplace or school open one less day a week, the operating costs and environmental costs will decrease for businesses and society alike.
Utah state government
In 2008, employees of the Utah state government all began working ten-hour days from Monday to Thursday. By closing state government offices on Fridays, the state expected to save on operating costs such as electricity, heat, air conditioning, and gasoline for state-owned vehicles. Utah ended this practice however, in 2011, with the Utah Legislature overriding Governor Gary Herbert's veto of five-day work week legislation.
K-12 public schools in the United States
Public schools in Hawaii closed on 17 Fridays in 2010.[why?] Over 100 school districts in rural areas in the United States have changed the school week to a four-day week;[when?] most also extended each school day by an hour or more. The changes were often made in order to save money on transportation, heating, and substitute teachers.
The Gambia civil service
In The Gambia, a four-day work week was introduced for public officials by president Yahya Jammeh, effective 1 February 2013. Working hours were limited to Monday through Thursday, 08:00 to 18:00, with Friday designated as a day of rest to allow residents more time for prayer and agriculture. This regulation was abolished in early 2017 by his successor, president Adama Barrow, who decreed a half-day of work on Fridays.
Perpetual Guardian trial in New Zealand
In New Zealand, trust company Perpetual Guardian announced in February 2018 that it would begin trialing a four-day work week in March 2018. The six-week trial, initiated by founder Andrew Barnes, saw the company's 240-plus staff nominating a day off each week whilst still receiving full pay. The trial, held in March and April 2018, attracted international media attention. In late March 2018, Barnes noted that the trial was going well with staff reporting more time for their families, hobbies, completing their to-do lists and doing home maintenance.
The trial, which was tracked and assessed by the University of Auckland Business School and Auckland University of Technology, was described as a success and 'a total win-win'. Perpetual Guardian then extended the four-day work week scheme permanently. The trial saw increased productivity, customer engagement levels, and staff engagement; reduced staff stress levels; and improved work–life balance. The company's revenue remained stable while costs went down, due to less power being used throughout the period.
The trial sparked publicity both in New Zealand and internationally. New Zealand workplace relations minister Iain Lees-Galloway said the trial was 'fascinating'.
The initiative was held up by Barnes as a way of helping to close the gender pay gap and increase diversity in the workforce. Barnes also held the scheme up as a potential blueprint for the workplace of the future, ensuring companies were attractive to millennials and easing Auckland's traffic congestion.
However, while four-day work weeks were deemed a success for most, not everyone involved within the Perpetual Guardian trial was able to adapt, with some reporting feeling increased pressure to complete work within a shorter time frame, particularly around deadlines.
United Kingdom, c. 2018–2019
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2019)
In the United Kingdom, late 2018 and early 2019 saw an increased interest in organisations switching to a four-day work week, including call centre Simply Business, Aizle restaurant in Edinburgh and the productivity firm Think Productive. Research foundation the Wellcome Trust was reported in early 2019 to be considering moving all its employees to a four-day week but ultimately decided against the move after a three-month study. The UK Labour Party, however, has adopted the four day week as official party policy and pledged to shift the country to it (without loss of pay) by 2029, if they won the December 2019 general election.
Since the Labour Party lost the 2019 United Kingdom general election, many have worried that the 4 day work week would be abandoned as Labour policy, but former Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn assured many, that the loss is merely a set back and not a vote against the policy.
Plymouth based Portcullis Legals also gained significant media exposure in 2019 following their conversion to the four-day working week whilst increasing pay following a 5-month trial and colleague consultation. Portcullis Legals highlighted improvement with productivity and stress levels amongst staff, whilst providing higher levels of satisfaction amongst its clients.
Microsoft Japan conducted a trial 4-day work week in summer 2019, granting workers paid leave on Fridays. At the same time it cut the length of most meetings from a full hour to half an hour, and capped attendance at five employees. For the duration of the trial, the company reported a 23% reduction in electricity costs.
The Japanese government's 2021 annual economic policy guidelines recommended that companies allow their workers to opt for a four day work week, as part of an initiative aimed at improving work-life balance in the country.
According to a 2021 study, which examined four-day school weeks in Oregon, the switch to four-day school weeks led to lower test scores in reading and math.
- Fact Sheet: Compressed Work Schedules, from United States Office of Personnel Management
- Rex L. Facer II and Lori L. Wadsworth. 2010. "Four-day Workweeks: Current Research and Practice" Connecticut Law Review 42, (4): 1031-1046.
- "Hyatt & Coslor Compressed Lives: How " Flexible " are Employer- Imposed Compressed Work Schedules". Retrieved 2017-09-19.
- "Home Page". Shorterworkweek.com. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
- "Impacts of the 4-Day Work Week". Victor E. Sterpu. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
- "Utah is going to a 4-day workweek". NBC News. Associated Press. July 3, 2008.
- Heather Kerrigan, Utah's Demise of the Four-Day Workweek, Governing (July 13, 2011).
- Lori L. Wadsworth, Rex L. Facer II, and Chyleen A. Arbon. 2010. "Alternative Work Schedules in Local Government: Qui Bono?" Review of Public Personnel Administration 30, (3): 322-340.
- Rex L. Facer II and Lori L. Wadsworth. 2008. "Alternative Work Schedules and Work Family Balance: A Research Note." Review of Public Personnel Administration 28, (2): 166-177.
- Rex L. Facer II, Lori L. Wadsworth, and Chyleen Arbon. 2009. "Cities Leading the Way: The Use of Alternative Work Schedules by Cities. 2009 Municipal Yearbook. ICMA Press: Washington DC, pp. 28-33.
- Herring, Chris (March 8, 2010). "Schools' New Math: The Four-Day Week". The Wall Street Journal.
- Toppo, Greg (August 20, 2002). "In rural areas, the four-day school week is growing in popularity". The Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press.
- "Four-Day School Weeks". National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- "Gambia's President Barrow scraps Jammeh's four-day week". BBC. 2017-02-03. Retrieved 2017-02-04.
- "Kiwi firm Perpetual Guardian to test four-day week with workers on full pay". NZ Herald.
- "New Zealand trust company trials three-day weekends for employees". 9Finance Australia.
- "Work four days, get paid for five: New Zealand company's new shorter week". The Guardian.
- "New Zealand company to trial four-day work week". The Straits Times.
- "Στη Νέα Ζηλανδία μία εταιρεία θα πληρώνει τους υπαλλήλους της για πέντε μέρες εργασίας ενώ θα δουλεύουν τέσσερις". HuffPost Greece.
- "Quattro giorni di lavoro e cinque di paga: la sperimentazione di un'azienda neozelandese". Vanity Fair Italy.
- "Perpetual Guardian to test four-day week". Stuff.co.nz.
- "'Heck it was productive': New Zealand company trials four-day work week .... but will it stick?". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
- "Perpetual Guardian's four-day working week trial going well". Stuff. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
- "Workers embrace four-day week at Perpetual Guardian". NZ Herald. 2018-03-29. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
- Peters, Lucia. "A Company Is Testing Out Four-Day Work Weeks — And It's Having MASSIVE Success". Bustle. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
- "Kiwi company trials four-day working week for more 'energised, engaged workforce'". TVNZ. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "Kiwi company trials four-day working week for more 'energised, engaged workforce'". TVNZ. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Working four-day weeks for five days' pay? Research shows it pays off". Stuff. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- Yeung, Jessie. "A New Zealand company tried a four-day work week. It was a 'resounding success'". CNNMoney. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "Seven Sharp". Facebook.com. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "Perpetual Guardian founder Andrew Barnes hails four-day week trial". Newshub. 2018-07-18. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Perpetual Guardian makes four-day week permanent". Stuff. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Why this company switched to a four-day work week". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Kiwi business hails four-day work week trial". RadioLIVE. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Perpetual Guardian founder Andrew Barnes hails four-day week trial". Newshub. 2018-07-18. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "Four-day working week trial at Perpetual Guardian a success, boss wants to make it permanent". NZ Herald. 2018-07-21. ISSN 1170-0777. Archived from the original on 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- Lea, Brittany De (2018-07-19). "New Zealand company tested four-day work week, results may surprise you". Fox Business. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Perpetual Guardian improves work-life balance using four-day week". Employeebenefits.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- Roy, Eleanor Ainge (2018-07-18). "Work less, get more: New Zealand firm's four-day week an 'unmitigated success'". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "A 4-Day Workweek? A Test Run Shows a Surprising Result". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- Herald, Newstalk ZB Staff ; Damien Venuto, NZ. "Four-day working week may become permanent for Kiwi company". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Four-day working week trial at Perpetual Guardian a success, boss wants to make it permanent". NZ Herald. 2018-07-21. ISSN 1170-0777. Archived from the original on 2018-12-25. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Four-day week. Yes we can!". Radio New Zealand. 2018-07-18. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "A 4-Day Workweek? A Test Run Shows a Surprising Result". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "'We've seen a massive increase in engagement'". NewsComAu. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- Would a four-day working week boost productivity?, 2018-07-18, retrieved 2018-07-24
- "Company Tests 4-Day Work Week, Employees Return Energised After Long Weekend - WORLD OF BUZZ". Worldofbuzz.com. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "New Zealand company switches to four-day working week | DW | 18.07.2018". DW.COM. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "Four-Day Workweeks Create More Productive Employees, New Study Shows". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Four-day work week trial 'very interesting' - Workplace Relations Minister Iain Lees-Galloway". Newshub. 2018-07-19. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "Four-day working week trial a bonus for working mums". Stuff. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "Kate Hawkesby: Why women should negotiate their pay based on productivity". NZ Herald. 2018-07-29. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
- "Millennials are rejecting the 9-5 workday". Stuff. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "Four-day week could help to ease Auckland's traffic woes". NZ Herald. 2018-07-18. ISSN 1170-0777. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- "'Would rather come to work': Four-day working week trial a success, but didn't work for everyone". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2018-07-17. Retrieved 2018-07-24.
- Roy, Eleanor Ainge (May 20, 2020). "Jacinda Ardern flags four-day working week as way to rebuild New Zealand after Covid-19". The Guardian. Retrieved June 13, 2021.
- "'UK call centre to trial four-day week for hundreds of staff'". The Guardian. 2019-05-03. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
- "'The four-day week: who's making it work?'". ITV News. 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
- "'Wellcome Trust drops plans to trial four day working week'". The Guardian. 2019-04-12. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
- "'I'm taking Friday's off permanently'". International Politics and Society. 2019-03-18. Retrieved 2019-05-20.
- "'General election 2019: What is Labour's four-day working week plan?'". BBC News. 2019-11-13. Retrieved 2019-11-25.
- "4 day work week- Labour promises it, what on Earth?". Politic-ed. September 23, 2019.
- "'Workers given four day week at law firm'". Metro Online. 2019-05-24. Retrieved 2019-08-28.
- 4-Day Workweek Boosted Workers' Productivity By 40%, Microsoft Japan Says
- "Japan proposes four-day working week to improve work-life balance | DW | 22.06.2021". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
- Thompson, Paul N. (2021-01-01). "Is four less than five? Effects of four-day school weeks on student achievement in Oregon". Journal of Public Economics. 193: 104308. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104308. ISSN 0047-2727.