A popular four-player chessboard and initial setup
|Genre(s)||Abstract strategy game
|Skill(s) required||Strategy, tactics|
Four-player chess (also known as Four-handed, Four-man, or Four-way chess) is a family of chess variants typically played with four people. A special board made of standard 8×8 squares with an additional 3 rows of 8 cells extending from each side is common. Four sets of differently colored pieces are needed to play these variants. Four-player chess follows the same basic rules as regular chess. There are many different rule variations; most variants, however, share the same board and similar piece setup.
The Cox-Forbes theory of the origin of chess asserts that a four-player version was the earliest form of the game. This theory has long since been debunked, but a description of a four-player chess game is found in an Indian text written c. 1500. The Tithitattva of Raghunandana describes such a version, which continued to be played into the 20th century.
The most common form of play is two vs. two in which allied pieces cannot eliminate each other, but help the others in defense and offense. The allied players sit across from each other and help checkmate the people to the left and right of them. The game is over when both opposing kings are checkmated. If only one can be checkmated, the game is a draw.
Singles is substantially harder than team play. In this method, each player can attack any of the other three players and vice versa. Once a player is checkmated, the checkmated player can either remove their pieces from the board, or the player that checkmated can use the remaining pieces during that player's turn. Play continues until only one player remains.
- Players can only move their chess pieces on their turn.
- If a player is placed in check, that player must wait until their designated turn before that player can respond to the threat.
- Pawns move forward only, unless attacking in a diagonal forward manner.
- In the event a pawn reaches the King's row to the left, right or directly across, that pawn shall receive all the privileges of a pawn reaching King's row during a traditional chess game (i.e. promoting to a queen (most commonly), a rook, a bishop, or a knight).
- It is illegal for two or more of the players to team up (by combining their pieces) against one, unless stated before the game starts/ unless the game is team based.
- Partlett, David, The Oxford history of board games, Oxford University Press, 1999, p.281.
- "4 Player Chess". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved 29 September 2012.
- Pritchard, D. B. (1994). The Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. Games & Puzzles Publications. ISBN 0-9524142-0-1.
- Pritchard, D. B. (2007). Beasley, John, ed. The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants. John Beasley. ISBN 978-0-9555168-0-1.