Four Arrows

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Four Arrows
Donald Trent Jacobs

1946 (age 74–75)
St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Other namesFour Arrows
Alma materSouthwest Missouri State University, Boise State University, Columbia Pacific University
OccupationOnline (distance education) college professor

Donald Trent Jacobs, also known as Wahinkpe Topa or Four Arrows,[1] (born 1946 in St. Louis, Missouri) is an American college professor, writer and activist for American Indian rights whose work has focused on indigenous worldviews, wellness and counter-hegemonic education. He lives in Mexico.[2]

Early life and education[edit]

He has a bachelor's degree from Southwest Missouri State University, an Ed.D. from Boise State University, and a Ph.D from the unaccredited Columbia Pacific University.[3][4][5]

Jacobs is of Cherokee, Muscogee Creek[6] and Scots-Irish ancestry.[7]


Jacobs is a faculty member in the School of Educational Leadership for Change at Fielding Graduate University.

He was formerly a tenured associate professor at Northern Arizona University and prior to that Dean of Education at Oglala Lakota College on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota.[8][9] In 2014 he was put on the International Fulbright Scholars list.


He is author of 23 published books and numerous articles and invited book chapters, including:

  1. Four Arrows (2020) Sitting Bulls Words for a World in Crises, DIO Press
  2. Four Arrows (2016) Point of Departure: Returning to Our Authentic Worldview for Education and Survival. Information Age Publishing
  3. Four Arrows (2013) Teaching Truly: A Curriculum to Indigenize Mainstream Education. New York: Peter Lang
  4. Four Arrows (2011) Differing Worldviews in Higher Education: Two Disagreeing Scholars Argue Cooperatively about Justice Education. Netherlands: Sense Publishers
  5. Four Arrows (2011). Last Song of the Whales. Maui, Hawaii: Savant Press
  6. Four Arrows, aka Jacobs, D.T. and Cajete, G. (2010), Critical Neurophilosophy and Indigenous Wisdom. Netherlands: Sense Publishers
  7. Four Arrows, aka Jacobs, D.T. (2008) The Authentic Dissertation: Alternative Ways of Knowing, Research and Representation. London: Routledge
  8. Four Arrows. (2006) The Shrimp Habit: How it is Destroying Our World. Victoria: Trafford.
  9. Four Arrows, aka Jacobs, D.T. Ed., (2006) Unlearning the Language of Conquest: Scholars Challenge Anti-Indianism in America. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  10. Four Arrows and Fetzer, J. (2004) American Assassination: The Strange Death of Senator Paul Wellstone. New York: Vox Pop.
  11. Jacobs, D. and Jacobs-Spencer, J. (2001) Teaching Virtues: Building Character Across the Curriculum. Landham, Md.: Scarecrow Education Press, a division of Roman and Littlefield.
  12. Jacobs, D. (1997) Primal Awareness: A True Story of Survival, Transformation and Awakening with the Raramuri Shamans of Mexico. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions International.
  13. Jacobs, D. (1994 ) The Bum’s Rush: The Selling of Environmental Backlash. Boise, Id.: Legendary Publishing.
  14. Jacobs, D. (1988) Patient Communication for First Responders: The First Hour of Trauma. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
  15. Jacobs, D. (1988) Physical Fitness Programs for Public Safety Employees, 2nd edition, Boston: NFPA.


  1. ^ "Four Arrows." The Entertainers. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Four Arrows (Don Trent Jacobs), PhD , EdD Archived 2016-01-01 at the Wayback Machine, Fielding Graduate University website
  5. ^ NETNOTES: Columbia Pacific University Alumni Info
  6. ^ . He is a made relative of the Ogalala and a member of the Medicine Horse Tiospaye who has fulfilled his Sun Dance vows with Rick Two Dogs. He is the author of a number of publications including: "Four Arrows." Teaching Virtues. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  7. ^ "Unlearning the Language of Conquest." University of Texas Press., Sitting Bull's Words for a World in Crises, 2020, DIO Press, et al Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  8. ^ " - Diese Website steht zum Verkauf! - Informationen zum Thema chairperson chairman head hunters college president dean department chair academic leadership". Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-05-04. Retrieved 2010-02-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]