|Alternative Chinese name|
The Four Beauties or Four Great Beauties are four ancient Chinese women, renowned for their beauty. The scarcity of historical records concerning them meant that much of what is known of them today has been greatly embellished by legend. They gained their reputation from the influence they exercised over kings and emperors and, consequently, the way their actions impacted Chinese history. Three of the Four Beauties brought kingdoms to their knees and their lives ended in tragedy.
The Four Great Beauties lived in four different dynasties, each hundreds of years apart. In chronological order, they are:
- Xi Shi (c. 7th to 6th century BC, Spring and Autumn period), said to be so entrancingly beautiful that fish would forget how to swim and sink below the surface when seeing her reflection in the water. Xi Shi's hometown is Zhuji, Zhejiang Province. Zhuji was the capital of Ancient Yue Kingdom. Gou Jian, the King of Yue Kingdom, endured ten years hardship (sleeping on brushwood and tasting the gall) to accomplish his ambition to beat Fu Chai, the King of Wu Kingdom. Xi Shi was part of his plan. Despite that Xi Shi had Fan Li as the man of her dreams, Gou Jian sent Xi Shi as a gift to Fu Chai who was dazzled by her beauty and fell in love with her. Fu Chai lost his fighting will after he met Xi Shi but spending his time entertaining with Xi Shi. Finally, Gou Jian defeated Fu Chai.
- Wang Zhaojun (c. 1st century BC, Western Han Dynasty), said to be so beautiful that her appearance would entice birds in flight to fall from the sky.
- Diaochan (c. 3rd century, Late Eastern Han/Three Kingdoms period), said to be so luminously lovely that the moon itself would shy away in embarrassment when compared to her face. Unlike the other Beauties, there is no evidence she actually existed historically.
- Yang Guifei (719–756, Tang Dynasty), said to have a face that puts all flowers to shame.
|xī shī chén yú
zhāo jūn luò yàn
diāo chán bì yuè
guì fēi xiū huā
|sai1 si1 cam4 jyu4
ciu1 gwan1 lok6 ngaan6
diu1 sim4 bai3 jyut6
gwai3 fei1 sau1 faa1
|Se Si tîm gû
Chiau-kun lo̍k gān
Tiau Siâm pì goa̍t
Kùi-hui siu hoa
|Xi Shi sinks fish
Wang Zhaojun entices birds into falling
Diaochan eclipses the moon
Yang Guifei shames flowers
These separate idioms are sometimes merged to describe especially beautiful women or simply to refer to the Four Beauties' legendary good looks. The merged idiom is 沉魚落雁, 閉月羞花 (sinks fish and entices birds to fall, eclipses the moon and shames flowers); the two parts can also be used separately.
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