Classic Chinese Novels

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In sinology, the Classic Chinese Novels are two sets of the four or six best-known classic Chinese novels. The Four Classic Novels are Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West, Water Margin and Dream of the Red Chamber. The Six Classic Novels add Rulin waishi and Jin Ping Mei to this list. These are among the world's longest and oldest novels,[1] and they are the most read, studied and adapted works of pre-modern Chinese fiction.[2][3][4][5]

Nomenclature and subgroupings[edit]

Several terms have been used to refer to the novels and various subgroupings of them. Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West, Water Margin, and Dream of the Red Chamber are most commonly grouped as the Four Great Classic Novels (Chinese: 四大名著; pinyin: sì dà míngzhù; lit. 'four great masterpieces').[6][7] Another term used is Classical Novels (simplified Chinese: 古典小说; traditional Chinese: 古典小說; pinyin: gǔdiǎn xiǎoshuō).[8][9] Prior to the composition of Unofficial History of the Scholars and the Dream of the Red Chamber, the earlier four began to be referred to as the Four Great Masterworks (四大奇书; 四大奇書; sì dà qíshū; 'four extraordinary books').[10]

In chronological order, they are:

English Simplified Chinese Traditional Chinese Pinyin Attributed to Century
Romance of the Three Kingdoms 三国演义 三國演義 Sānguó Yǎnyì Luo Guanzhong 14th
Water Margin 水浒传 水滸傳 Shuǐhǔ Zhuàn Shi Nai'an[a] 14th
Journey to the West 西游记 西遊記 Xī Yóu Jì Wu Cheng'en 16th
Dream of the Red Chamber 红楼梦 紅樓夢 Hónglóu Mèng Cao Xueqin 18th

The other two novels are:

English Simplified Chinese Traditional Chinese Pinyin Attributed to Century
The Plum in the Golden Vase 金瓶梅 金瓶梅 Jīn Píng Méi The Scoffing Scholar of Lanling 16th-17th
The Scholars 儒林外史 儒林外史 Rúlín Wàishǐ Wu Jingzi 18th


Chinese fiction, rooted in narrative classics such as A New Account of the Tales of the World, Soushen Ji, Wenyuan Yinghua, Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang, Taiping Guangji and official histories, developed into the novel as early as the Song dynasty. The novel as an extended prose narrative which realistically creates a believable world of its own evolved in China and in Europe from the 14th to 18th centuries, though a little earlier in China. Chinese audiences were more interested in history and were more historically minded. They appreciated relative optimism, moral humanism, and relative emphasis on collective behavior and the welfare of the society.[11]

The rise of a money economy and urbanization under the Song Dynasty led to a professionalization of entertainment which was further encouraged by the spread of printing, the rise of literacy, and education. In both China and Western Europe, the novel gradually became more autobiographical and serious in exploration of social, moral, and philosophical problems. Chinese fiction of the late Ming dynasty and early Qing dynasty was varied, self-conscious, and experimental. In China, however, there was no counterpart to the 19th-century European explosion of novels. The novels of the Ming and early Qing dynasties represented a pinnacle of classic Chinese fiction.[12]

The scholar and literary critic Andrew H. Plaks argues that Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water Margin, Journey to the West as well as Jin Ping Mei (not considered one of the four classic novels but discussed by him as one of the four masterworks of the Ming dynasty) collectively constituted a technical breakthrough reflecting new cultural values and intellectual concerns. Their educated editors, authors, and commentators used the narrative conventions developed from earlier storytellers, such as the episodic structure, interspersed songs and folk sayings, or speaking directly to the reader, but they fashioned self-consciously ironic narratives whose seeming familiarity camouflaged a Neo-Confucian moral critique of late Ming decadence. Plaks explores the textual history of the novels (all published after their author's deaths, usually anonymously) and how the ironic and satirical devices of these novels paved the way for the great novels of the 18th century.[13]

Plaks further shows these Ming novels share formal characteristics. They are almost all over 100 chapters in length; divided into ten chapter narrative blocks which are broken into two to three chapter episodes; arranged into first and second halves which are symmetrical; and arrange their events in patterns which follow seasons and geography. They manipulated the conventions of popular storytelling in an ironic way in order to go against the surface meanings of the story. Three Kingdoms, he argues, presents a contrast between the ideal, that is, dynastic order, and the reality of political collapse and near anarchy; Water Margin likewise presents heroic stories from the popular tradition in a way that exposes the heroism as brutal and selfish; Journey to the West is an outwardly serious spiritual quest undercut by comic and sometimes bawdy tone. Jin Ping Mei is the clearest and most sophisticated example; the action is sometimes grossly sexual, but in the end emphasizes conventional morality.[14]


The four novels were highly influential in the development of vernacular works in Chinese literary history. Traditionally, fiction and drama were not held in "high regard" in the Chinese or East Asian literary hierarchy,[15] and they were generally not seen as true "literature" by scholars.[1] Writers in these forms would not have the same level of prestige as poets or scholars of Chinese classics would have had.

All four of the novels were written in a style that is a mixture of vernacular and classical Chinese,[1] with some that are more completely vernacular than the others.[16] For instance, Romance of the Three Kingdoms is known for its mix of classical prose with folklore and popular narratives,[17] while the Dream of the Red Chamber is known for the use of poetry within its mostly vernacular style. These four novels are thought to have popularized, and more importantly "legitimatized" the role of vernacular literature among the literary circles of China.

The term "classic novels", writes Andrew H. Plaks, is a "neologism of twentieth-century scholarship" which seems to have come into common use under the influence of C. T. Hsia's Classic Chinese Novel.[18] Paul Ropp, following Hsia's selection,[19] notes that "an almost universal consensus affirms six works as truly great", including, in addition to those above, Jin Ping Mei by Lanling Xiaoxiaosheng and The Unofficial History of the Scholars by Wu Jingzi.[20]

Because of its explicit descriptions of sex, Jin Ping Mei has been banned for most of its existence. Despite this, many if not most scholars and writers, including Lu Xun, place it among the top Chinese novels.[21]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ There is considerable debate on the authorship of Water Margin. While most attribute the novel to Shi Nai'an, there were some who believe that the novel, or portions of it, was written by others, such as Luo Guanzhong (the author of Romance of the Three Kingdoms), Shi Hui (施惠) and Guo Xun (郭勛).


  1. ^ a b c "Big Little Talk (Review of Lin Yutang, Moment in Peking)". Time. November 20, 1939.
  2. ^ Hsia, C. T. (2016). The Classic Chinese Novel: A Critical Introduction. Chinese University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9789629966577.
  3. ^ Berry, Margaret (2010). The Chinese Classic Novels (Routledge Revivals): An Annotated Bibliography of Chiefly English-Language Studies. Routledge. ISBN 9781136836589.
  4. ^ Rolston, David L. (2014). How to Read the Chinese Novel. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400860470.
  5. ^ France, Peter (2001). The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199247844.
  6. ^ Shep, Sydney J. (2011), "Paper and Print Technology", The Encyclopedia of the Novel, Encyclopedia of Literature, Vol. 2, John Wiley & Sons, p. 596, ISBN 9781405161848, Dream of the Red Chamber ... is considered one of China's four great classical novels
  7. ^ Li Xiaobing (2016), "Literature and Drama", Modern China, Understanding Modern Nations, Sta Barbara: ABC-CLIO, p. 269, ISBN 9781610696265, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Outlaws of the Marsh, A Dream of Red Mansions, and Journey to the West have become the Four Great Classic Novels of Chinese literature.
  8. ^ Plaks, Andrew H. (2015). The Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel: Ssu ta ch'i-shu. Princeton University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9781400843930.
  9. ^ France, Peter (2001). The Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation. Oxford University Press. p. 232. ISBN 9780199247844.
  10. ^ Plaks, Andrew H. (2015). The Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel: Ssu ta ch'i-shu. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400843930.
  11. ^ Ropp (1990), p. 310-311.
  12. ^ Ropp (1990), p. 311.
  13. ^ Andrew H. Plaks, Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1987), esp. pp. 497-98.
  14. ^ Plaks, Four Masterworks, Ch 6 summarizes this argument.
  15. ^ Mark Bender, Literature in East Asia Archived 2012-03-30 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Anne Elizabeth McLaren (1998). Chinese popular culture and Ming chantefables. Brill. p. 4. ISBN 90-04-10998-6.
  17. ^ Dale, Corinne H. (2004). Chinese aesthetics and literature: a reader. SUNY Press. p. 110. ISBN 0-7914-6021-5.
  18. ^ Plaks (1987), p. 4.
  19. ^ Hsia (1968).
  20. ^ Ropp (1990), p. 317.
  21. ^ Lu Xun, A Brief History of Chinese Fiction (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1959), pp. 232–234.

Further reading[edit]

For critical studies specific to the individual novels, see their separate articles.

  • Chang, Shelley Hsueh-lun (1990). History and Legend: Ideas and Images in the Ming Historical Novels. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 047210117X. 279p. Explores the Ming world of fiction and ideas of historical change; the hero; social, political, cosmic order and morality; and reactions to the growth of imperial despotism.
  • Hanan, Patrick (1964), "The Development of Fiction and Drama", in Raymond, Dawson (ed.), The Legacy of China, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, pp. 115–143
  • Hegel, Robert E. (1994). "Traditional Chinese Fiction--the State of the Field". The Journal of Asian Studies. 53 (2): 394–426. doi:10.2307/2059840. JSTOR 2059840.
  • Hsia, Chih-tsing (1968). The Classic Chinese Novel: A Critical Introduction. New York: Columbia University Press. rpr. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980; 413p. ISBN 0253202582). A key introduction for Western general readers to six novels considered in China to be the classics: Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi yanyi); Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan); Journey to the West (Xiyou ji); Golden Lotus, or Plum in the Golden Vase (Jinpingmei); The Scholars (Rulin waishi); and Story of the Stone (Hongloumeng or Shitou ji)
  • Knight, Sabina (2012). Chinese Literature: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195392067.
  • Li, Wai-Yee (2001), "Full-Length Vernacular Fiction", in Mair, Victor (ed.), Columbia History of Chinese Literature, New York: Columbia Univ Press, pp. 620–658
  • Lu Xun, A Brief History of Chinese Fiction. (Foreign Languages Press, tr. 1959 Translated by Gladys Yang and Yang Xianyi. Various Reprints). China's leading early 20th-century writer surveyed traditional fiction in this pioneering survey, based on a series of 1923 lectures, in order to serve as a basis for modern writers.
  • Plaks, Andrew H. (1978). "Full-Length Hsiao-Shuo and the Western Novel: A Generic Reappraisal" (PDF). New Asia Academic Bulletin. 1: 163–176. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
  • Plaks, Andrew H. (1987). The Four Masterworks of the Ming Novel : Ssu Ta Ch'i-Shu. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691067082. A seminal exploration of "literati novels". Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Water Margin (or, Men of the Marshes), Journey to the West, and Golden Lotus (or Plum in a Golden Vase).
  • Rolston, David L. & Shuen-fu Lin (1990). How to Read the Chinese Novel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691067538. 534 p. Chinese critics of the 17th and 18th centuries wrote commentaries – called dufa ("how to read") – which were interspersed in the text so that the text and the commentary formed one experience for the reader. Scholars in this volume translate and introduce such commentaries for the six now classic novels.
  • Ropp, Paul S. (1990), "The Distinctive Art of Chinese Fiction", in Paul S, Ropp (ed.), The Heritage of China: Contemporary Perspectives, Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 308–334, ISBN 0-520-06441-0 Introductory article summarizing scholarship in the field.
  • Wu, Yenna (1999), "Six Classic Chinese Novels", in Schellinger, Paul (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Novel, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 1226–1231, ISBN 1579580157. Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi yanyi); Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan); Journey to the West (Xiyou ji); Golden Lotus, or Plum in the Golden Vase (Jinpingmei); The Scholars (Rulin waishi); and Story of the Stone (Hongloumeng or Shitou ji).
  • —— (2013). Ming-Qing Fiction. Oxford Online Bibliographies (Chinese Studies). Oxford University Press. Retrieved June 16, 2014. Annotated bibliography of books and articles in Western languages and Chinese (subscription required).