Four Great Characteristic Melodies
Kunqiang (崑腔), also known as Kunshanqiang (崑山腔), or Kunqu (崑曲) was listed as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2001.
Yiyang qiang (Gao qiang)
Yiyang qiang (弋陽腔) or outside Peking called Gao qiang (高腔) consists of Chaoju 潮剧, Chuanju 川剧, Xiangju (湘剧 also in Pihuangqiang), Ganju 赣剧, Dianju (滇剧 again also in Pihuang qiang), Chenhexi 辰河戏, Diaoqiang 调腔, etc.
- Theatrical imagi-nations: Peking opera and China's cultural, p. 2, Joshua Lewis Goldstein – 2000 "At this time Bangzi and Pihuang were not yet fully developed. Around 1860, Bangzi and Pihuang were competing neck and neck with Kun and Yi styles, and with all four styles around equal, no one style deserved to be named " Jingxi" (capital ..."
- Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture, Edward L. Davis – 2012 "Banqiangti structure is employed in Xiqu music from the actorcentred musical systems: bangziqiang ('tunes of the Bangzi clapper') and pihuang (named for its two principal modes, [xi]pi and [er]huang). Following banqiangti structure, vocal ..."
- Andrea Goldman – Opera and the City: The Politics of Culture in Beijing, 1770–1900, 2012, p. 250 "The neologism pihuang is a contraction of xipi and erhuang. qinqiang 秦腔: A genre of opera associated with the ... The musical structure of qinqiang is within the bangzi musical system, in which the music is underscored by strong ... yabu 雅部: Elegant opera; a generic designation for kunju, or Kun opera; the term was in circulation by the late seventeenth century. ... host locales; in Beijing this musical style was known as yiqiang 弋腔, or, alternatively, jingqiang 京腔 or gaoqiang 高腔."
- Yiyang qiang 弋陽腔: Yiyang melody; one of the four major musical systems of the mid-Ming