Four Masters of the Ming dynasty
The Four Masters of the Ming dynasty (Chinese: 明四家; pinyin: Míng Sì Jiā) are a traditional grouping in Chinese art history of four famous Chinese painters of the Ming dynasty. The group are Shen Zhou (1427-1509), Wen Zhengming (1470-1559), both of the Wu School, Tang Yin (1470-1523), and Qiu Ying (c.1494-c.1552). They were approximate contemporaries, with Shen Zhou the teacher of Wen Zhengming, while the other two studied with Zhou Chen. Their styles and subject matter were varied.
There are several alternative terms for these four leading painters:
- Four Great Masters of the Ming (Chinese: 明四大家; pinyin: Míng Sì Dàjiā)
- Four Masters of Suzhou: all four came from the vicinity of Suzhou.
- Four Masters of Wu (simplified Chinese: 吴门四家; traditional Chinese: 吴門四傢; pinyin: Wúmén Sìjiā): all four came from the region of Wu, which surrounds the city of Suzhou.
The "Four Masters" designation was first used in the mid-Ming dynasty, probably during the Jiajing era, and has continued to be applied since then.
The painters were friends when they were living, and were very familiar with each other's work. Their family backgrounds varied; Tang Yin was born into a rich merchant family, Wen Zhengming was born into a bureaucratic family and was himself a government official. Qiu Ying was a craftsman of dyes and lacquers.
Shen Zhou was one of the main founders of the Wu School of painting. Shen's early mentor was Du Qiong, and Shen's paternal grandfather was a friend of Wang Meng, an artist of the late Yuan dynasty. Shen's father and uncle were both painters.
Both Shen Zhou and Qiu Ying were most accomplished in shan shui painting, and they were well-versed in the painting style of the imperial court. Tang Yin was accomplished in nearly all styles of traditional Chinese painting. Wen Zhengming was accomplished in blue-green shan shui painting and the gongbi style.
Wen Zhengming was a student of Shen Zhou. Zhou Chen was an important coach in Tang's early career, while Qiu Ying was self-taught. Except for Qiu, the other three were also classical Confucian scholars and accomplished calligraphers and poets.
- Four Masters of the Yuan dynasty
- Ming dynasty painting
- Ink and wash painting
- Bird-and-flower painting
- Four Arts of the Chinese Scholar
- Tang Yin: One of the Four Masters of Ming dynasty
- Book: Four Masters of the Ming dynasty (in Chinese)(in English); ISBN 962-7239-42-9
- "Four Masters of Ming" (in Chinese). Baidu Baike. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
- Rawson, p. 340
- "Wumen Painting School and Four Master Painters of Suzhou". Chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
- "Biography of Shen Zhou" (in Chinese). Baidu Baike. Retrieved 31 May 2010.
- "Tang Yin: One of the Four Masters of Ming Dynasty". cultural-china.com. 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2010.