Great uncial codices
Only four great codices have survived to the present day: Codex Vaticanus, Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Alexandrinus, and Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus. Although discovered at different times and places, they share many similarities. They are written in a certain uncial style of calligraphy using only majuscule letters, written in scriptio continua (meaning without regular gaps between words). Though not entirely absent, there are very few divisions between words in these manuscripts. Words do not necessarily end on the same line on which they start. All these manuscripts were made at great expense of material and labour, written on vellum by professional scribes. They seem to have been based on the most accurate texts in their time.
- Vaticanus – 27 × 27 cm (10.6 × 10.6 in); ca. 325–350
- Sinaiticus – 38.1 × 34.5 cm (15.0 × 13.6 in); written ca. 330–360
- Alexandrinus – 32 × 26 cm (12.6 × 10.4 in); ca. 400–440
- Ephraemi – 33 × 27 cm (13.0 × 10.6 in); ca. 450
Codex Vaticanus uses the most ancient system of text division in the Gospels. Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Ephraemi have the Ammonian Sections with references to the Eusebian Canons. Codex Alexandrinus and Ephraemi Rescriptus use also a division according to the larger sections – κεφάλαια (chapters). Alexandrinus is the earliest manuscript which uses κεφάλαια. Vaticanus has a more archaic style of writing than the other manuscripts. There is no ornamentation or any larger initial letters in Vaticanus and Sinaiticus, but there is in Alexandrinus. Vaticanus has no introduction to the Book of Psalms, which became a standard after 325 AD, whereas Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus do. They have different order of books.
In the 19th century, the Codex Bezae was also included to the group of the great uncials (F. H. A. Scrivener, Burgon). According to Dean Burgon, the five great uncials (א A B C D) were the by-products of innovation; this view is at odds with the scholarly consensus of modern critical New Testament scholarship.
Alexandrinus was the first of the greater manuscripts to be made accessible to scholars. Ephraemi Rescriptus, a palimpsest, was deciphered by Tischendorf in 1840–1841 and published by him in 1843–1845. Codex Ephraemi has been the neglected member of the family of great uncials.
Sinaiticus was discovered by Tischendorf in 1844 during his visit at Sinai. The text of the codex was published in 1862. Vaticanus has been housed at the Vatican Library at least since the 15th century, but it became widely available after a photographic facsimile of the entire manuscript was made and published by Giuseppe Cozza-Luzi in 1889–1890 (in three volumes).
- Edward Ardron Hutton and Francis Crawford Burkitt, An atlas of textual criticism: being an attempt to show the mutual relationship of the authorities for the text of the New Testament up to about 1000 A.D., University Press, 1911.
- Paleography Greek Writing
- B. L. Ullman, Ancient Writing and Its Influence (1932)
- Falconer Madan, Books in Manuscript: a Short Introduction to their Study and Use. With a Chapter on Records, London 1898, p. 73.
- C. H. Roberts, and T. C. Skeat, The Birth of the Codex, Oxford University Press, New York – Cambridge 1983.
- D. C. Parker, New Testament Manuscripts and Their Texts, Cambridge University Press 2008, p. 71.
- Greg Goswell, Early Readers of the Gospels: The Kephalaia and Titloi of Codex Alexandrinus, JGRChJ 66 (2009), p. 139.
- Barry Setterfield, The Alexandrian Septuagint History, March 2010.
- Daniel B. Wallace, ‘‘Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics: An Exegetical Syntax of the New Testament’’, p. 455.
- Kenyon, Frederick G. (1939). Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts (4th ed.). London: British Museum. p. 132.
- C. v. Tischendorf, Codex Ephraemi Syri rescriptus, sive Fragmenta Novi Testamenti, Lipsiae 1843–1845.
- Robert W. Lyon, New Testament Studies, V (1958–9), pp. 266–272.
- Constantin von Tischendorf: Bibliorum codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus. Giesecke & Devrient, Leipzig 1862.
- Eberhard Nestle and William Edie, "Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the Greek New Testament", London, Edinburg, Oxford, New York, 1901, p. 60.
- Metzger, Bruce M.; Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration (4th ed.). New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 15–16.