In psychology, the four stages of competence, or the "conscious competence" learning model, relates to the psychological states involved in the process of progressing from incompetence to competence in a skill. People may have several skills, some unrelated to each other, and each skill will typically be at one of the stages at a given time. Many skills require practice to remain at a high level of competence.
The four stages suggest that individuals are initially unaware of how little they know, or unconscious of their incompetence. As they recognize their incompetence, they consciously acquire a skill, then consciously use it. Eventually, the skill can be utilized without it being consciously thought through: the individual is said to have then acquired unconscious competence.
The four stages appeared in the 1960 textbook Management of Training Programs by three management professors at New York University. Management trainer Martin M. Broadwell called the model "the four levels of teaching" in an article published in February 1969. Paul R. Curtiss and Phillip W. Warren mentioned the model in their 1973 book The Dynamics of Life Skills Coaching. The model was used at Gordon Training International by its employee Noel Burch in the 1970s; there it was called the "four stages for learning any new skill". Later the model was frequently attributed to Abraham Maslow, incorrectly since the model does not appear in his major works.
Several elements, including helping someone "know what they don't know" or recognize a blind spot, can be compared to elements of a Johari window, which was created in 1955, although Johari deals with self-awareness, while the four stages of competence deal with learning stages.
The four stages are:
- Unconscious incompetence
- The individual does not understand or know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit. They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on to the next stage. The length of time an individual spends in this stage depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn.
- Conscious incompetence
- Though the individual does not understand or know how to do something, they recognize the deficit, as well as the value of a new skill in addressing the deficit. The making of mistakes can be integral to the learning process at this stage.
- Conscious competence
- The individual understands or knows how to do something. It may be broken down into steps, and there is heavy conscious involvement in executing the new skill. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires concentration, and if it is broken, they lapse into incompetence.
- Unconscious competence
- The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it has become "second nature" and can be performed easily. As a result, the skill can be performed while executing another task. The individual may be able to teach it to others, depending upon how and when it was learned.
- Bloom's taxonomy – Classification system in education
- Decision theory – Branch of applied probability theory
- Grand strategy – Long-term strategy employed by a nation to further its interests
- Dreyfus model of skill acquisition – Model of learning
- Dunning–Kruger effect – Cognitive bias about one's own skill
- Erikson's stages of psychosocial development – Eight stages model of psychoanalytic development
- Flow – Full immersion in an activity
- Formula for change
- Illusory superiority – Overestimating one's abilities and qualifications; a cognitive bias
- Immunity to change – Method of self-reflection and mindset change
- Instructional scaffolding – Support given to a student by an instructor throughout the learning process
- Learning styles – Largely debunked theories that aim to account for differences in individuals' learning
- Motivation – Inner state causing goal-directed behavior
- SECI model of knowledge dimensions – Model of knowledge creation
- Solution-focused brief therapy – Goal-directed approach to psychotherapy
- Theory of multiple intelligences – Theory of intelligence proposed by Howard Gardner
- Transtheoretical model, also known as Stages of change – Integrative theory of therapy
- Zone of proximal development – Difference between what a learner can do without help and what they can do with help
- Flower, Joe (January 1999). "In the mush". Physician Executive. 25 (1): 64–66. PMID 10387273.
- De Phillips, Frank Anthony; Berliner, William M.; Cribbin, James J. (1960). "Meaning of learning and knowledge". Management of training programs. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin. p. 69. OCLC 604759.
- Broadwell, Martin M. (20 February 1969). "Teaching for learning (XVI)". wordsfitlyspoken.org. The Gospel Guardian. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- Curtiss, Paul R.; Warren, Phillip W. (1973). The dynamics of life skills coaching. Life skills series. Prince Albert, Saskatchewan: Training Research and Development Station, Dept. of Manpower and Immigration. p. 89. OCLC 4489629.
- Adams, Linda. "Learning a new skill is easier said than done". gordontraining.com. Gordon Training International. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
- Hansen, Alice (2012). "Trainees and teachers as reflective learners". In Hansen, Alice; et al. (eds.). Reflective learning and teaching in primary schools. London; Thousand Oaks, CA: Learning Matters; SAGE Publications. pp. 32–48 (34). doi:10.4135/9781526401977.n3. ISBN 9780857257697. OCLC 756592765.
A few examples among many peer-reviewed articles that mention the four stages:
- Conger, D. Stuart; Mullen, Dana (December 1981). "Life skills". International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. 4 (4): 305–319. doi:10.1007/BF00118327. S2CID 189890482.
- Engram, Barbara E. (October 1981). "Communication skills training for rehabilitation counselors working with older persons". Journal of Rehabilitation. 47 (4): 51–56. PMID 7321003.
- Lipow, Anne Grodzins (Summer 1989). "Why training doesn't stick: who is to blame?". Library Trends. 38 (1): 62–72. hdl:2142/7651.
- Beeler, Kent D. (Winter 1991). "Graduate student adjustment to academic life: a four-stage framework". NASPA Journal. 28 (2): 163–171. doi:10.1080/00220973.1991.11072201.
- Underhill, Adrian (January 1992). "The role of groups in developing teacher self-awareness". ELT Journal. 46 (1): 71–80. doi:10.1093/elt/46.1.71.
- Naidu, Som (January 1997). "Collaborative reflective practice: an instructional design architecture for the Internet". Distance Education. 18 (2): 257–283. doi:10.1080/0158791970180206.
- Lee, Jiyeon; Gibson, Chere Campbell (September 2003). "Developing self-direction in an online course through computer-mediated interaction". American Journal of Distance Education. 17 (3): 173–187. doi:10.1207/S15389286AJDE1703_4. S2CID 62716687.
- Goldfried, Marvin R. (March 2004). "Integrating integratively oriented brief psychotherapy". Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 14 (1): 93–105. doi:10.1037/1053-0418.104.22.168.
- Donati, Mark; Watts, Mary (November 2005). "Personal development in counsellor training: towards a clarification of inter-related concepts". British Journal of Guidance & Counselling. 33 (4): 475–484. doi:10.1080/03069880500327553. S2CID 144594377.
- Lazanas, Panagiotis (January 2006). "A new integrated approach for the transfer of knowledge". South African Journal of Higher Education. 20 (3): 461–471. doi:10.4314/sajhe.v20i3.25588.
- Cutrer, William B.; Sullivan, William M.; Fleming, Amy E. (October 2013). "Educational strategies for improving clinical reasoning". Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care. 43 (9): 248–257. doi:10.1016/j.cppeds.2013.07.005. PMID 24070582.
- Getha-Taylor, Heather; Hummert, Raymond; Nalbandian, John; Silvia, Chris (March 2013). "Competency model design and assessment: findings and future directions" (PDF). Journal of Public Affairs Education. 19 (1): 141–171. doi:10.1080/15236803.2013.12001724. JSTOR 23608938. S2CID 116247757. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2018-11-27.