As a means of recording the passage of
time, the 14th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. Political and natural disaster and black death ravaged four khanates of the Mongolian Empire as well as Europe. Consequently, the Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed in Persia, the Chaghatayid dissolved into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as great power in Eastern Europe.
Europe, as previously mentioned, the Black Death claimed anywhere between 75 to 200 million lives, while England and France fought in the protracted Hundred Year's War after Charles IV of France's death led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France.
The transition from the
Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Beginning of the
Ottoman Empire, early expansion into the Balkans. Early 14th century - Attributed to Kao Ninga
Monk Sewing is made. Kamakura period. It is now kept at The Cleveland Museum of Art.
1309, King Jayanegara succeeds Kertarajasa Jayawardhana as ruler of Majapahit. [2 ] The
Avignon papacy transfers the seat of the Popes from Italy to France The
Great Famine of 1315-1317 kills millions of people in Europe.
1318, an Italian Franciscan monk, Mattiussi visited Sumatra, Java, and Banjarmasin in Borneo. In his record he described Majapahit kingdom. (to 1330)
1323 Malietoafaiga ordered cannibalism to be abolished in Tutuila, now known as American Samoa. Forced out of previous locations, the
Mexica found the city of Tenochtitlan in 1325
1328. Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi succeeds Jayanegara as ruler of Majapahit. Beginning of the
Renaissance in Italy The death of the
Ilkhan Abu Said in 1335, causing the disintegration of the Mongol rule in Persia. The
Vijayanagara Empire is founded in South India by Harihara in 1336 The
Hundred Years' War begins when Edward III of England lays claim to the French throne. ( 1337) The French recruit troops and ships in Genoa, Monaco, and Nice ( 1345– 1346).
Black Death kills around a third of the population of Europe. ( 1347– 1351).
1347, Adityawarman moved the capital of Dharmasraya and established the kingdom of Malayupura in Pagarruyung, West Sumatra. [3 ]
1350, Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara succeeds Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi as ruler of Majapahit; his reign is considered the empire's 'Golden Age'. [2 ]
Under its military commander Gajah Mada, Majapahit stretches over much of modern-day Indonesia.
1357, In the Battle of Bubat, the Sundanese royal family were massacred by the Majapahit army under the order of Gajah Mada. The death toll including Sundanese King Lingga Buana and the princess Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi that committed suicide. [4 ] The
Battle of Lake Poyang, a naval conflict between Chinese rebel groups led by Chen Youliang and Zhu Yuanzhang, took place in August to October of 1363, and was one of the largest naval battles in history.
1365, The Old Javanese text is written. Nagarakertagama [2 ] The end of
Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty ( 1368) The
Lollardy movement rises in England
1377, Majapahit sends a punitive expedition against Palembang in Sumatra. Palembang's prince, Parameswara (later Iskandar Syah) flees, eventually finding his way to Malacca and establishing it as a major international port. [2 ] The
Great Schism of the West begins in 1378, eventually leading to 3 simultaneous popes.
An account of
Buddha's life, translated earlier into Greek by St John of Damascus and widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, became so popular Buddha (under the name Josaphat) was made a Catholic saint. [5 ]
Singapore emerges for the first time as a fortified city and trading centre of some importance. Reunification of
Poland under Władysław I of Poland
Ciompi Revolt in Florence
Peasants' Revolt in England
Islam reaches Terengganu, on the Malay Peninsula. The
Hausa found several city-states in the south of modern Niger. The
Mali Empire expands westward and conquers Tekrur. The poet
Petrarch coins the term Dark Ages to describe the preceding 900 years in Europe, beginning with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 through to the renewal embodied in the Renaissance. The Scots win the
Scottish Wars of Independence.
Union of Krewo between Poland and Lithuania (1385)
Battle of Kosovo in 1389 between Serbs and Ottoman Turks, Prince Lazar, sultan Murat I and Miloš Obilić were killed
1389, Wikramawardhana succeeds Sri Rajasanagara as ruler of Majapahit. [2 ] in
1392, Taejo of Joseon established Joseon Dynasty The
Kalmar Union is established in 1397, uniting Norway, Sweden and Denmark into one kingdom.
Iwan vault, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Persia ( Iran), is built. Work begins on the Great Enclosure at
Great Zimbabwe, built of un-cemented, dressed stone. The city's population is now between 10,000 and 40,000.
Significant people [ edit ]
Guillaume de Machaut
(at right) receiving Nature and three of her children, from an illuminated Parisian manuscript of the 1350s.
Ibn Taymiyyah, Islamic scholar,theologian and logician
Ibn Battuta, Berber Muslim traveler ( 1304– 1368/ 1377)
Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect and engineer
Chen Youliang, Chinese rebel leader and nemesis to Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor)
Jiao Yu, Chinese general and author of the military treatise Huolongjing
Liu Bowen, a Chinese general, court advisor, philosopher, and co-editor of the Huolongjing
William of Ockham, English Franciscan friar and philosopher (c. 1285– 1347)
Geoffrey Chaucer, English writer and author of The Canterbury Tales
Alauddin Khilji, an Afghanized Turk ruler, strongest emperor of his age, ruling from Delhi over South Asia, crushing Mongol invasions and Rajput rebellions.
Artists [ edit ]
Literary figures [ edit ]
Dante Alighieri, Italian poet and writer ( 1265– 1321). Francesco Petrarca (
Petrarch in English), Italian poet and writer ( 1304– 1374).
Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian poet and writer ( 1313– 1375).
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343– 1400?) was an English author, poet, philosopher, bureaucrat, courtier and diplomat.
Hafiz, Persian poet (c. 1310– 1379).
William Langland (ca. 1332 – ca. 1386) is the conjectured author of the English dream-vision . Piers Plowman
John Kukuzelis, Byzantine composer, singer and reformer of Orthodox Church music (c. 1280– 1360).
Philippe de Vitry, French composer, music theorist and poet ( 1291- 1361).
Guillaume de Machaut, French composer and poet (c. 1300– 1377).
Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, Spanish author ( 1282– 1349).
Christine de Pizan, French writer ( 1364– 1430).
Shi Nai'an (1296—1372), Chinese writer; author of Water Margin
Luo Guanzhong (1330–1400), Chinese writer; author of Romance of the Three Kingdoms
Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468), German printer and inventor; author of Gutenberg Bible
Monarchs [ edit ]
Europe and Near East
Osman I ( 1258– 1326, Osman Gazi or Osman Bey or I.Osman or Osman Sayed II) leader of the Ottoman Turks, founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire.
Robert the Bruce ( 1274– 1329) King of Scotland, victor in the First War of Scottish Independence against invasion by the Kingdom of England.
Edward II ( 1284– 1327?) of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March ( 1287– 1330) an English nobleman, was for three years de facto ruler of England, after leading a successful rebellion against Edward II.
Charles I of Hungary ( 1288– 1342) military, diplomatic and financial reformer, restoring the Kingdom of Hungary to power.
Ivan I of Moscow ( 1288– 1340) called The Moneybag, was Prince of Moscow, who made his principality most powerful state in Russia.
Isabella of France (c. 1295– 1358) queen consort and regent of the Kingdom of England.
Stephen Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia ( 1308– 1355) Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks.
Casimir III of Poland ( 1312– 1377) expansionist and financial reformer.
Joan of the Tower ( 1321– 1362) a.k.a. Joan of England, was the first wife and Queen consort of David II of Scotland. She was born at the Tower of London and was the youngest daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France.
David II of Scotland ( 1324– 1371) King of Scots, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. 1327), was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife. [6 ]
Edward III ( 1327– 1377) King of England. His claim to the throne of France resulted in the Hundred Years' War.
Edward, the Black Prince( 1330– 1376) or Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England.
Philip VI of France ( 1293- 1350), called the Fortunate' was King of France from 1328 to his death and was the first king of France from the House of Valois.
John II of France ( 1319- 1364), called the Good, was King of France from 1350 to his death and a member of the House of Valois.
Charles V ( 1338– 1380), called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death and a member of the House of Valois.
Charles VI of France ( 1368- 1422), called the Mad, had a reign troubled by his controlling uncles during his minority and Charles' bouts of insanity, was King of France from 1380 to his death and a member of the House of Valois.
Louis the Great of Hungary (king: ( 1342–1 382) King of Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia, Jerusalem, Sicily and Poland from 1370. He led campaigns From Lithuania to Southern Italy, From Poland to Northern Greece. He had the greatest military potential of the century with his enormous armies (often over 100,000 men.)
Charles IV ( 1346– 1378) King of Bohemia, one of most powerful men in Europe.
Dmitry I of Moscow ( 1350- 1389), Grand Duke of Moscow. His nickname, "Donskoy" (i.e., "of the Don"), alludes to his great victory against the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo ( 1380) which took place on the Don River.
Richard II ( 1367– 1400) was the King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399.
Tvrtko I ( 1338- 1391) was the ban of Bosnia from 1353– 1377 and later the king of Bosnia, from 1377- 1391.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Filippo Brunelleschi, Totally History
^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 18
^ Kern, J.H.C., (1907), De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghapāça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
^ Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) . Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2 , 2nd ed. (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72.
^ Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
^ Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7
^ Pound lock
Decades and years [ edit ]