1863–75 cholera pandemic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The fourth cholera pandemic of the 19th century began in the Ganges Delta of the Bengal region and traveled with Muslim pilgrims to Mecca. In its first year, the epidemic claimed 30,000 of 90,000 Mecca pilgrims.[1] Cholera spread throughout the Middle East and was carried to Russia, Europe, Africa and North America, in each case spreading from port cities and along inland waterways.

The pandemic reached Northern Africa in 1865 and spread to sub-Saharan Africa, killing 70,000 in Zanzibar in 1869–70.[2] Cholera claimed 90,000 lives in Russia in 1866.[3] The epidemic of cholera that spread with the Austro-Prussian War (1866) is estimated to have taken 165,000 lives in the Austrian Empire, including 30,000 each in Hungary and Belgium and 20,000 in the Netherlands.[4]

In London in June 1866, a localized epidemic in the East End claimed 5,596 lives, just as the city was completing construction of its major sewage and water treatment systems (see London sewerage system); the East End section was not quite complete.[5] Epidemiologist William Farr identified the East London Water Company as the source of the contamination. Farr made use of prior work by John Snow and others pointing to contaminated drinking water as the likely cause of cholera in an 1854 outbreak. In the same year, the use of contaminated canal water in local water works caused a minor outbreak at Ystalyfera in South Wales. Workers associated with the company and their families were most affected, and 119 died.

In 1867, Italy lost 113,000 lives and 80,000 died of the disease in Algeria.[2] Outbreaks in North America in the 1870s killed some 50,000 Americans as cholera spread from New Orleans along the Mississippi River and to ports on its tributaries.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cholera's seven pandemics". CBC News. CBC-Radio Canada. May 9, 2008. Retrieved 23 February 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M. ABC-CLIO. p. 107. ISBN 0-313-34102-8. 
  3. ^ "Eastern European Plagues and Epidemics 1300-1918". Retrieved 23 February 2016. 
  4. ^ Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R.; Cliff, Andrew D. (June 2004). "Impact of infectious diseases on war". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America. 18 (2): 341–368. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2004.01.009. Retrieved 23 February 2016. 
  5. ^ Johnson, Steven (2006). The ghost map : the story of London's most terrifying epidemic--and how it changed science, cities, and the modern world. New York: Riverhead Books. ISBN 1594489254. 
  6. ^ Beardsley GW (2000). "The 1832 Cholera Epidemic in New York State: 19th Century Responses to Cholerae Vibrio (part 2)". The Early America Review. 3 (2). Retrieved 2010-02-01. 

External links[edit]