Foxes in popular culture
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The fox appears in the folklore of many cultures, especially European and East Asian folklores, as a figure of cunning or trickery, or as a familiar animal possessed of magic powers. The fox is also sometimes associated with transformation. This folkore root has resulted in many influenced works, in literature, film, television, games, and music, and elsewhere.
The term "foxy" in English ("having the qualities of a fox") can also connote attractiveness, sexiness or being red-haired. The term "to outfox" means "to beat in a competition of wits", similarly to "outguess", "outsmart", and "outwit".
- 1 In folklore and wisdom
- 2 In language
- 3 Literature
- 4 Film and television
- 5 Music
- 6 Other media
- 7 Performance arts and opera
- 8 Other
- 9 References
- 10 External links
In folklore and wisdom
There is a Tswana riddle that says that "Phokoje go tsela o dithetsenya [Only the muddy fox lives] meaning that, in a philosophical sense, 'only an active person who does not mind getting muddy gets to progress in life.'
Kuma Lisa is a fox from Bulgarian folklore and Russian folklore who usually plays the role of the trickster. Kuma Lisa is encountered with another character known as Kumcho Vulcho - a wolf which is opposite to her and very often suffers from her tricks.
In Finnish mythology, the fox is depicted usually a cunning trickster, but seldom evil. The fox, while weaker, in the end outsmarts both the evil and voracious wolf and the strong but not-so-cunning bear. It symbolizes the victory of intelligence over both malevolence and brute strength.
An Occitan song dating from the Middle Ages, 'Ai Vis Lo Lop', features a wolf (lo lop), a fox (lo rainard) and a hare (lebre) dancing and circling a tree. It has been suggested that the three animals represent the King, Lord and Church who were responsible for taxation (the lyrics go on to refer to money gained over the year and how nothing was left after seeing 'the wolf, the fox and the hare').
The Bible's Song of Solomon (2:15) includes a well-known verse "Catch for us the foxes, the little foxes that ruin the vineyards, our vineyards that are in bloom" which had been given many interpretations over the centuries by Jewish and Christian Bible commentators.
To the Jewish sage Matteya ben Heresh, of the 2nd century CE, is attributed the maxim: "Meet each man with friendly greeting; be the tail among lions rather than the head among foxes". "The head among foxes" in this context is similar to the English expression "A big fish in a small pond". "Fox fables" are attributed to Rabbi Meir and Johanan ben Zakai, and appeared in a large compilation by Berechiah ha-Nakdan.
In Chinese, Japanese, and Korean folklores, foxes (huli jing in China, kitsune in Japan, and kumiho in Korea) are powerful spirits that are known for their highly mischievous and cunning nature, and they often take on the form of female humans to seduce men. In contemporary Chinese, the word "huli jing" is often used to describe a mistress negatively in an extramarital affair. In Shinto of Japan, kitsune sometimes helps people as an errand of their deity, Inari.
The Moche people of ancient Peru worshiped animals and often depicted the fox in their art. The Moche people believed the fox to be a warrior that would use his mind to fight. The fox would not ever use physical attack, only mental.
In the Uncle Remus collection of 19th-century African-American folktales adapted and compiled by Joel Chandler Harris, "Br'er Fox" is a major character, often acting as the antagonist towards the stories' main character, "Br'er Rabbit".
As an epithet
During World War II, the German commander in North Africa, Erwin Rommel, was grudgingly nicknamed the "Desert Fox" by his British adversaries, as a tribute to his cunning and skill in operational art.
Figures of speech
The words "fox" or "foxy" have become slang in English-speaking societies for an individual (most often female) with sex appeal. The word "vixen", which is normally the common name for a female fox, is also used to describe an attractive woman—although, in the case of humans, "vixen" tends to imply that the woman in question has a few nasty qualities.
- (in chronological order)
- 4 BC - Aesop's Fables from classical antiquity, contain numerous tales involving a fox.
- 800 - "Renshi zhuan" (任氏传) [The story of Lady Ren] by Shen Ji-ji,: Story of a love affair between Zheng and a were-fox named Ren.
- 921 - Kuzunoha: Abe no Seimei's mother is a kitsune (fox spirit) named Kuzunoha
- 1100 - The medieval story of Reynard, a classic anthropomorphic epic.
- 1390s - Geoffrey Chaucer, The Nun's Priest's Tale, based on an incident in the Reynard cycle.
- 1480s – Robert Henryson, The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian, where the figure of the fox, as Lowrence, is portrayed in an ongoing rivalry with the wolf.
- 1532 - Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince: The successful prince must have the traits of both the lion and the fox.
- 1668 - Jean de la Fontaine (1621–1695), the French fabulist, brilliantly refashioned Aesop's fables into poems, including some involving the fox such as:
- 1679 - Pu Songling, Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio, about encounters between humans and Huli jing (fox spirits).
- 1880-1905 - Joel Chandler Harris, Uncle Remus: Oral tradition including Brer Fox, from the American South.
- 1881-1883 - The Fox and the Cat (Italian: Il Gatto e la Volpe) are a pair of fictional characters who appear in Carlo Collodi's book The Adventures of Pinocchio. Both are con-men who lead Pinocchio astray and unsuccessfully attempt to murder him. They pretend to have disabilities - the Fox to lameness and the Cat to blindness. The Fox is the more articulate, the Cat usually limiting itself to repeating the Fox's words.
- 1894 - "Scrapefoot". A tale with a fox as antagonist that bears striking similarities to Robert Southey's "The Story of the Three Bears" was uncovered by the folklorist Joseph Jacobs and may predate Southey's version in the oral tradition. Some sources state that it was illustrator John D. Batten who in 1894 reported a variant of the tale at least 40 years old. In this version, the three bears live in a castle in the woods and are visited by a fox called Scrapefoot who drinks their milk, sits in their chairs, and rests in their beds.
- 1905? - Ernest Thompson Seton, The Biography of a Silver-Fox, Or, Domino Reynard of Goldur Town: Realistic story with author's drawing, later made into a feature film.
- 1909 - L. Frank Baum, The Road to Oz: Fox king Dox of Foxville changes a boy's head into fox's.
- 1920 - Rudolf Těsnohlídek, Liška Bystrouška (Vixen Sharpears or The Cunning Little Vixen).
- 1922 - David Garnett, Lady into Fox is about transformation into animal, first physical then mental.
- 1932 - Niimi Nankichi, Gon, the Little Fox: The fox was misunderstood, and it was shot. The moral of result of revenge.
- 1938 - B.B., Wild Lone: The Story of a Pytchley Fox: A novel about a fox's life in Northamptonshire, the home of the Pytchley Hunt.
- 1943 - Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, The Little Prince: A fox indicates the true value of friendship.
- 1957 - Ted Hughes, The Thought-Fox: A poem featured in Hughes's The Hawk in the Rain.
- 1960 - Vercors, Sylva, inspired by David Garnett where a fox changes into a lady.
- 1965 - István Fekete Vuk, about life of abandoned fox and his revenge on a hunter. Also made into an animated film.
- 1967 - Daniel P. Mannix, The Fox and the Hound stars a fox named Tod as one of the two protagonists. Made into an animated film by Disney.
- 1976 - John Crowley, Beasts features a genetically-engineered half-human-half-fox named Reynard as one of the main characters.
- 1977 - Richard Adams, The Plague Dogs has a protagonist named "The Tod" who helps out Snitter and Rowf along in their adventures.
- 1986–2011 - Brian Jacques, Redwall series: Fox characters include Fortunata, Sela, Chickenhound/Slagar, Urgan Nagru, Silvamord, Nightshade, Vizka Longtooth, and Rasconza. An animated television series based on three of the books was also produced.
- 1989 - Garry Kilworth, Hunter's Moon: The life and tragedies of a fox family which describes foxes' own mythology.
- 1989 - William Wharton, Franky Furbo: A magical fox rescues an American soldier and then journeys in search for proof of the unusual story.
- 1994 - Gillian Rubinstein, Foxspell, in which a fox's god propose that a young boy become a fox in favor to proper burial of dead fox's body.
- 1995 – Lajos Parti Nagy, Fox Affair at Sunset (lit. "Fox Object at Sunset"), a postmodern death poem with nostalgic irony.
- 1998 - Elizabeth Hand, Last Summer at Mars Hills: An Indian boy has magical amulet which allows him change into a fox.
- 1999 - Kij Johnson, The Fox Woman, in which one of the protagonists is a fox woman named Kitsune.
- 2001 and 2003 - Mordicai Gerstein, Fox Eyes and Old Country, in which anyone can switch bodies with fox if he looks into their eyes long enough.
- 2002 - N. M. Browne, Hunted: A comatose girl wakes up in a fox's body in a fantasy world.
- 2005 - Victor Pelevin, The Sacred Book of Werewolf: The kitsune A-huli searches for a path to Nirvana for were-creatures.
- 1908 and 1912 - Beatrix Potter included foxes in her anthropomorphic children's tales—as pursuer in The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck and as title character in The Tale of Mr. Tod.
- 1913 - Thornton W. Burgess's The Green Forest: Reddy Fox.
- 1924 - Aquilino Ribeiro, Romance da Raposa: Portuguese adaptation of the medieval story of Reynard.
- 1961 - Peter Spier, The Fox Went Out on a Chilly Night: an adaptation of the folk song of the same name.
- 1970s - Richard Scarry, series of books, Fixit Fox, a mechanic; also animated
- 1970 - Roald Dahl, Fantastic Mr. Fox: Mr. and Mrs. Fox and their four pups.
- 1972 - Nonny Hogrogian's children's book "One Fine Day": a story of a fox that has its tail chopped off
- 1982 - William Steig's children's book Dr. Desoto contains an unnamed vulpine patient.
- 1998 - Michel Gagné, A Search for Meaning—The Story of Rex : Continues in comics magazine Flight (comic)
- 2006 - Ali Sparkes, Finding the Fox: the first of a series of novels about a boy who has the ability to change into a fox.
- 1965 - Dr. Seuss, "Fox in Socks". Dr. Seuss' story about tongue-twisters.
- 1966-76 - David Thomson, "Danny Fox" book series
- 2013 - Ylvis and Svein Nyhus, "What does the Fox Say?", picture book based on the youtube hit the Fox (What Does the Fox Say?)
- 2016 - Jonathan Schork, "The Love of Simon Fox", in which a talking fox living in an enchanted forest befriends a little girl
Film and television
- 1937 - Ladislas Starevich's puppet-animated feature film, Le Roman de Renard ("The Tale of the Fox").
- 1940 - Disney's Pinocchio: J. Worthington Foulfellow (also known as Honest John, and ironically is extremely dishonest).
- 1941–1950 – Screen Gems The Fox and the Crow: Fauntelroy Fox, one of the principal characters of the animated film series.
- 1946 - Disney's Song of the South: Brer Fox.
- 1960 - Hanna Barbera's Yogi Bear series had short cartoons, Yakky Doodle, in which the duckling is pursued by Fibber Fox.
- 1964 - The Irish-accented fox from Disney's Mary Poppins
- 1972 - Ralph Bakshi's 1972 film Fritz the Cat: Winston Schwartz, the on-and-off-again girlfriend of Fritz.
- 1973 - Disney's Robin Hood: Robin Hood and Maid Marian
- 1973 - Zuiyo Eizo episodes Fables of the Green Forest based on a book The Green Forest.
- 1980s - The World of David the Gnome, animated show
- 1980s - Lis Leon, Polish animated show
- 1981 - Disney's The Fox and the Hound: Tod and Vixey;
- 1981 - Attila Dargay's Vuk, a young fox who is one of the most famous Hungarian cartoon characters.
- 1982 - The Plague Dogs, based on the book.
- 1983 and 1997 – Encore Enterprises' animated series Chucklewood Critters: fox character Rusty.
- 1985 - A French animated series, Moi Renart[fr].
- 1986 – Hospital Radio's The Space Gypsy Adventures: D.C. Bones, D.C. Fusky, Gemma and Damien Mildury (animated).
- 1986 - Dutch TV series The Bluffers: Sharpy, one of the main protagonists.
- 1987 – Sunbow Productions' serial Visionaries: Knights of the Magical Light: Ectar of the Spectral Knights possessed the totem of the fox.
- 1987 – Sylvanian Families: The members of the Slydale Family are Slick, Velvette, Buster, Scarlett, Skitter and Lindy from the animated TV series.
- 1987 – Maple Town: The members of the Fox Family are Fanny, Freddy, Mr. and Mrs Fox from the animated series.
- 1990 – Disney's Talespin: several fox characters appear in the series.
- 1990-91 - Kyatto Ninden Teyandee (Samurai Pizza Cats) : whose main antagonist Kitsunezuka Ko'on-no-Kami a prime minister in Edoropolis (in the Saban English version he's known as Seymour "The Big" Cheese, and is a rat instead).
- 1991 – Don Bluth's Rockadoodle, based on Chantecler by Edmond Rostand, a tale about a rooster; one of antagonists of the story is a fat fox named Pinky.
- 1991 – TV series Bucky O'Hare: Vixen Captain Mimi LaFloo; based on 1970s comics.
- 1992/2006 – Operation Lifesaver Video Sly Fox and Birdie teaches kids about railroad safety
- 1993–1996 – The Animals of Farthing Wood TV series and movie: Fox and his mate Vixen.
- 1993, 1996 and 2007 – Flemming Quist Møller's Danish animated films Jungledyret Hugo: Rita, an urban fox.
- 1993 – Tezuka's Akuemon: Anime based on Japanese folk tale about fox-wife.
- 1993 - Adventures Of Sonic The Hedgehog: A TV series based on the characters Sonic The Hedgehog, Tails the fox, and Doctor Robotnik.
- 1997 – Tezuka's In the Beginning: The Bible Stories: Vixy, a vixen narrator.
- 1999 – Cosgrove Hall's The Foxbusters: Cartoon series based on Dick King Smith's novel about a group of chickens defending their farm against a gang of foxes.
- 1999–2001 - Pablo the Little Red Fox: A BBC series that revolves around the adventures of three child foxes and the misadventures they have.
- 1999-2001 – Nelvana's Redwall series, based on the book.
- 1999–2003 – Nickelodeon's Dora the Explorer - Swiper the Fox, mischievous thief fox.
- 2002 - Balto II: Wolf Quest, sequel to 1995's Balto, featuring a cunning fox fooling Balto while the latter searches for his daughter.
- 2003-2006 - Sonic X is a TV series which focused on Sonic The Hedgehog, Tails The Fox, and all of their friends being teleported to the real world.
- 2005 – A Thierry Schiel CGI film Le Roman de Renart ("Renard the Fox").
- 2005 - Foxy Loxy from Disney's 2005 film Chicken Little.
- 2006 - The Fox and the Hound 2, followup to the animated film The Fox and the Hound
- 2007 – Lee Sung-gang's South Korean animated film Yobi, the Five Tailed Fox: Yobi, a young kumiho girl.
- 2007 – TV series Skunk Fu!: Fox, on whom Rabbit has a big crush.
- 2007 - The Fox and the Child: a young girl who befriends a fox.
- 2009 - Fantastic Mr. Fox, Wes Anderson's stop-motion animation adaptation of Roald Dahl's children's book
- 2010 - My Girlfriend is a Nine-Tailed Fox is a South Korean romantic comedy where a young girl plays a nine-tailed fox in the form of a human.
- 2011 - Angelique from the CGI film Rango
- 2016 - Disney's animated film Zootopia (also known as Zootropolis in some countries) features the fox character Nick Wilde, one of the main protagonists.
- 2016 - Vix from the CGI film Spark: A Space Tail.
- Aggretsuko - Fenneko
- Dragonball - Donbe
- Dog Days - Yukikaze Panettone
- Gingitsune Messenger Fox Of The Gods Shinto Religion of Japan Anime
- Digimon - Renamon, Kudamon, Kyuubimon, Pokomon, Taomon, Sakuyamon and Youkomon
- Gugure! Kokkuri-san - Kokkuri-san
- Hiiro no Kakera - O-Chan, Yuuichi Komura
- Hyper Police - Sakura Bokuseiinmonzeninari
- Inu x Boku - Soushi Miketsukami
- Inukami! - Yoko and Dai Yoko
- Inuyasha - Shippo
- Jewelpet - Larimar and Gumimin
- Kaiketsu Zorori - Zorori
- Kamisama Kiss - Tomoe
- Kanokon - Chizuru and Tayura Minamoto, and Tamamo
- Kanon - Makoto Sawatari
- Kekkaishi - Hime
- Kemono Friends - The females Ezo Red Fox and Silver Fox appear as a couple in the show.
- Kyatto Ninden Teyandee - Kitsunezuka Ko'on-no-Kami
- Naruto - Naruto Uzumaki, host to the fox-like Tailed Beast Kurama
- Natsume's Book of Friends - Natsume, the main protagonist, meets with a young kitsune on day on a walk.
- One Piece - Foxy, and Suu the cloud fox
- Pokémon - Vulpix, Ninetales, Zorua, Zoroark, Fennekin, Braixen, and Delphox
- Rise of the Nura Clan - Hagoromo Gitsune
- Rosario + Vampire - Kuyou
- Shaman King - Conchi
- Slayers - Jillas Jillos Jillas
- Sonic the Hedgehog - Miles "Tails" Prower
- Star Driver ~Kagayaki no Takuto~ - Fukubuchou/VP
- Strike Witches - Eila Ilmatar Juutilainen
- Tactics - Yoko
- Tales of Symphonia - Corrine and Venus
- Tayutama: Kiss on my Deity - Mashiro Mito
- Urusei Yatsura - The little fox, whose name is a "little fox" too.
- Urara Meirochou - The protagonist love interest, Kon, is possessed frequently by the fox spirit Kokkuri-san.
- Wagaya no Oinari-sama - Kugen Tenko, Gyokuyou Tenko, Ogami and Daigorou
- xxxHolic - Mugetsu
- Yu Yu Hakusho - Kurama
- Zoids - The Shadow Fox
- 1973 - Ukrainian movie director Igor Negrescul's Domino: A Life of a Silver Fox.
- 1990 - Akira Kurosawa's Dreams: A boy goes to the forest to see where the foxes have their weddings.
- 1994 - Russian director Ury Klimov's Once Lives a Fox: Story of a fox escaped from the zoo.
- 2005 Andrew Adamson's The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe: Mr. Fox, voiced by Rupert Everett. A fox also appears during a Christmas feast in the novel, and is turned to stone by the White Witch.
- 2006 - Helen the Baby Fox Seven-year-old Taichi found a baby fox named "Helen."
- 2007 - "The Fox and the Child," directed by Luc Jacquet, is about a young girl who befriends a fox.
- 2009 - Antichrist directed by Lars von Trier has a possibly supernatural fox appearing throughout the film.
- 2009 - Fantastic Mr. Fox directed by Wes Anderson.
- 1966 - The Hollies & Peter Sellers' "After the Fox"; popular theme song from the movie of the same name
- 1967 - The Jimi Hendrix Experience's "Foxy Lady"
- 1968 - Manfred Mann's Earth Band's "Fox on the Run"
- 1975 - Sweet's "Fox on the Run"
- 1981 - Elton John's 1981 album The Fox, and the title track therefrom.
- 1996 - Belle & Sebastian's album If You're Feeling Sinister features a song called The Fox in the Snow.
- 2000 - Nickel Creek's "The Fox" is a variation of a folk song about a fox stealing food for his family.
- 2001 - Millencolin's album Pennybridge Pioneers includes a song simply titled "Fox".
- 2004 - mewithoutYou's sophomore studio album is titled Catch for Us the Foxes. The band's subsequent albums feature the songs "The Fox, the Crow, and the Cookie" (It's All Crazy! It's All False! It's All a Dream! It's Alright, 2009) and "Fox's Dream of the Log Flume" (Ten Stories 2012).
- 2004 - Rilo Kiley's album More Adventurous features a song titled "Portions For Foxes"
- 2005 - Sleater-Kinney's album The Woods features a song called "The Fox".
- 2008 - Rapper Nas recorded the song "Sly Fox" on his untitled 2008 album. In the song he disses Fox News, considering it to be sly and deceitful.
- 2008 - Born Ruffians' song "Foxes Mate For Life" appears on their debut album Red, Yellow & Blue.
- 2008 - Fleet Foxes, a five-piece band from Seattle.
- 2012 - Louisa Rose Allen or known as her stage name Foxes
- 2013 - Ylvis's "The Fox (What Does the Fox Say?)"
- 2014 - Taylor Swift's song I Know Places from 1989 references foxes.
- 2015 - The music video for The Prodigy's "Nasty".
- Mr Fox 1970s folk rock band.
- Heather Dale's song, "The Black Fox", based on the Graham Pratt poem,
- June Tabor - Reynard The Fox
- Miles "Tails" Prower, a two-tailed fox that can spin his tails like a helicopter to fly, from the Sonic the Hedgehog series.
- Fox McCloud, James McCloud, and Krystal from the Nintendo Star Fox series
- Keaton of the Legend of Zelda series
- Vulpix, Ninetales, Zorua, Zoroark, and Fennekin in the Pokémon series
- Inspector Carmelita Montoya Fox, a police officer in the Sly Cooper series of video games.
- Rif and Rhene of the Fox Tribe from the video game Inherit the Earth: Quest for the Orb.
- Spy Fox, a James Bond parody computer game series.
- Crazy Redd, the black market salesman from the Animal Crossing games.
- In Trickster Online, Fox is the female sense type character.
- Video game series, Metal Gear Solid, the special forces group is known as "FOXHOUND". Additionally the title of Grey Fox was given to Frank Jaeger.
- Ninetails, a major boss character from the game Ōkami.
- Titus the Fox: To Marrakech and Back, fox mascot in the 1990s platform game
- In the video game Drawn To Life for the Nintendo DS, the charters of the village are "Raposas" which is Portuguese for fox
- Kitsune (or Fox) in Persona 4 who is part of the social links.
- Jade Empire, the RPG by BioWare, contains fox spirits as well as a non-playable character who uses the alias Silk Fox.
- Psycho Fox, the main character in a Sega Master System game of the same name.
- The 2009 video game League of Legends includes a kumiho character named Ahri, the nine-tailed fox.
- The horror game Five Nights at Freddy's features the animatronic character Foxy the Pirate Fox.
Comics and visual novels
- Slylock Fox, in the Sherlock Holmes parody comic strips from Slylock Fox & Comics for Kids
- Raposão/McFox, a character from the Brazilian comic series Lionel's Kingdom.
- Fix and Foxi, a German comic series where the title characters are two fox brothers.
- In Kiss, in Psycho Circus #14 and #15, the members of Kiss are portrayed as supernatural beings who train a Feudal Japanese samurai to outsmart supernatural foxes.
- Ninjara, a character who appeared in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
- The main female protagonist in Neil Gaiman's The Sandman: The Dream Hunters illustrated novella, and comic is a legendary Kitsune
- Scarlet Ann Starfox and the Solar Foxes whom feature in the anthropomorphic comic book series Extinctioners.
- The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles comic series from IDW Publishing features the character of Alopex, an Arctic fox ninja.
- Ozy and Millie - foxes starring in a webcomic of the same name
- Kevin and Kell - Fiona Fennec and George Fennec, her father, are both fennec foxes.
- Gunnerkrigg Court - The comic's main character Antimony has a fox companion whose spirit is trapped in a doll of a white wolf, a symbol for Antimony in Alchemy.
- In the trading card game Magic: The Gathering, Eight-and-a-Half-Tails is a legendary fox monk of great power and purity.
Performance arts and opera
- c.1036 Wild fox koan, an influential kōan story in the Zen tradition
- 1963, 1968, 2002, 2006 Peter Firmin's Basil Brush, British television sock-puppet
- Flora Fox, The Get Along Gang
- Various characters in the radio series The Space Gypsy Adventures including Gemma and Damien Mildury, and Meic Bones.
- Mozilla Firefox's logo is a fox on a globe
- The Catholic Church used images of foxes dressed as monks or priests preaching to geese in church art as propaganda against the Lollards. These images were based on the story of the preaching fox found in The History of Reynard the Fox and its sequel, The Shifts of Reynardine (the son of Reynard).
- The canting coat of arms of Châteaurenard in France displays a fox, as do the coats of arms of Poligny in France and Tuliszków in Poland.
- The reynard (male fox) as dexter supporter and vixen (female fox) as sinister supporter of the arms of La Boussac in Brittany.
- The English association football team Leicester City are nicknamed 'the Foxes'.
- The athletic teams of Marist College in Poughkeepsie, New York are known as the Red Foxes.
- Benton, Janetta Rebold (1 April 1997). Holy Terrors: Gargoyles on Medieval Buildings. Abbeville Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-7892-0182-9.
- Pirḳe Abot, iv. 15 
- Katherine Berrin & Larco Museum (1997). The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson.
- Shenanigan, Your dictionary.com
- David Garnett (1922). Lady into Fox. London: Chatto and Windus, retrieved from Gutenberg
- Fox Affair at Sunset with English translation at BabelMatrix
- Benton, Janetta Rebold (1 April 1997). Holy Terrors: Gargoyles on Medieval Buildings. Abbeville Press. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-7892-0182-9.