Foxes in popular culture, films and literature
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The fox appears in the folklore of many cultures, but especially European and East Asian, as a figure of cunning, trickery, or a familiar animal possessed of magic powers. The fox is also sometimes associated with transformation. This folkore is found in literature, film, television, games, and music, and elsewhere.
The term "foxy" in English ("having the qualities of a fox") can also connote attractiveness, sexiness, or being red-haired. The term "to outfox" means "to beat in a competition of wits", similarly to "outguess", "outsmart", and "outwit".
In folklore and wisdom
There is a Tswana riddle that says that "Phokoje go tsela o dithetsenya [Only the muddy fox lives] meaning that, in a philosophical sense, 'only an active person who does not mind getting muddy gets to progress in life.'
Kuma Lisa is a female fox from Bulgarian folklore and Russian folklore who usually plays the role of the trickster. Kuma Lisa is encountered with another character known as Kumcho Vulcho - a wolf which is opposite to her and very often suffers from her tricks.
In Finnish mythology, the fox is depicted usually a cunning trickster, but seldom evil. The fox, while weaker, in the end outsmarts both the evil and voracious wolf and the strong but not-so-cunning bear. It symbolizes the victory of intelligence over both malevolence and brute strength. In Northern Finland, the fox is said to conjure the aurora borealis while it runs through the snowy hills. When the fox’s fur touches the snow it creates magical sparks and sets the sky ablaze. Still today, the Finnish word for the aurora is “revontulet” which literally translates to “fox-fires”.
An Occitan song dating from the Middle Ages, Ai Vis lo Lop, features a wolf (lo lop), a fox (lo rainard) and a hare (lebre) dancing and circling a tree. It has been suggested that the three animals represent the King, Lord and Church who were responsible for taxation (the lyrics go on to refer to money gained over the year and how nothing was left after seeing 'the wolf, the fox and the hare').
In the ancient Greek story of the Teumessian Fox, the god Dionysus sends a giant fox as punishment to eat the children of Thebes. To defend the children, Creon, the leader of Thebes, sends a dog with special powers to catch the giant fox. Zeus then intervenes and turns both animals into stone and throws them into the sky, where they become the constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor.
The Bible's Song of Solomon (2:15) includes a well-known verse "Catch for us the foxes, the little foxes that ruin the vineyards, our vineyards that are in bloom" which had been given many interpretations over the centuries by Jewish and Christian Bible commentators.
To the Jewish sage Matteya ben Heresh, of the 2nd century CE, is attributed the maxim: "Meet each man with friendly greeting; be the tail among lions rather than the head among foxes". "The head among foxes" in this context is similar to the English expression "A big fish in a small pond". "Fox fables" are attributed to Rabbi Meir and Johanan ben Zakai, and appeared in a large compilation by Berechiah ha-Nakdan; the term in fact refers also to fables featuring animals other than foxes.
In Classic of Mountains and Seas (edited by Liu Xiang in Han Dynasty and probably composed by people before Qin Dynasty), foxes eat people, and predicts war. In Chinese, Japanese, and Korean folklores, foxes (huli jing in China, kitsune in Japan, and kumiho in Korea) are powerful spirits that are known for their highly mischievous and cunning nature, and they often take on the form of female humans to seduce men. In contemporary Chinese, the word huli jing is often used to describe a mistress negatively in an extramarital affair. In Shinto of Japan, kitsune sometimes helps people as an errand of their deity, Inari.
The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped animals and often depicted the fox in their art. The Moche people believed the fox to be a warrior that would use his mind to fight. The fox would not ever use physical attack, only mental.
In the Uncle Remus collection of 19th-century African-American folktales adapted and compiled by Joel Chandler Harris, "Br'er Fox" is a major character, often acting as the antagonist towards the stories' main character, "Br'er Rabbit".
As an epithet
During the American Revolution Continental Army Officer Francis Marion became so adept at attacking and ambushing British forces in the swamps of South Carolina that he became known as the “Swamp Fox”.
During World War II, the German commander in North Africa, Erwin Rommel, was grudgingly nicknamed the "Desert Fox" by his British adversaries, as a tribute to his cunning and skill in operational art.
The Italian sociologist and economist Vilfredo Pareto (1848–1923) in his Trattato di Sociologia Generale (1916) developed the concept of an elite social class, which he divided into cunning 'foxes' and violent 'lions'. In his view of society, the power constantly passes from the 'foxes' to the 'lions' and vice versa.
Figures of speech
The words fox and foxy have become slang in English-speaking societies for an individual (most often female) with sex appeal. The word vixen, which is normally the common name for a female fox, is also used to describe an attractive woman—although, in the case of humans, "vixen" tends to imply that the woman in question has a few nasty qualities.
- (in chronological order)
- 4 BC - Aesop's Fables from classical antiquity, contain numerous tales involving a fox.
- 800 - "Renshi zhuan" (任氏传) [The story of Lady Ren] by Shen Ji-ji,: Story of a love affair between Zheng and a were-fox named Ren.
- 921 - Kuzunoha: Abe no Seimei's mother is a kitsune (fox spirit) named Kuzunoha
- 1100 - The medieval story of Reynard, a classic anthropomorphic epic.
- 1390s - Geoffrey Chaucer, The Nun's Priest's Tale, based on an incident in the Reynard cycle.
- 1480s – Robert Henryson, The Morall Fabillis of Esope the Phrygian, where the figure of the fox, as Lowrence, is portrayed in an ongoing rivalry with the wolf.
- 1532 - Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince: The successful prince must have the traits of both the lion and the fox. As the lion cannot protect himself from traps and the fox cannot defend himself from wolves.
- 1668 - Jean de la Fontaine (1621–1695), the French fabulist, brilliantly refashioned Aesop's fables into poems, including some involving the fox such as:
- 1679 - Pu Songling, Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio, about encounters between humans and Huli jing (fox spirits).
- 1880-1905 - Joel Chandler Harris, Uncle Remus: Oral tradition including Brer Fox, from the American South.
- 1881-1883 - The Fox and the Cat (Italian: Il Gatto e la Volpe) are a pair of fictional characters who appear in Carlo Collodi's book The Adventures of Pinocchio. Both are con-men who lead Pinocchio astray and unsuccessfully attempt to murder him. They pretend to have disabilities - the Fox to lameness and the Cat to blindness. The Fox is the more articulate, the Cat usually limiting itself to repeating the Fox's words.
- 1894 - "Scrapefoot". A tale with a fox as antagonist that bears striking similarities to Robert Southey's "The Story of the Three Bears" was uncovered by the folklorist Joseph Jacobs and may predate Southey's version in the oral tradition. Some sources state that it was illustrator John D. Batten who in 1894 reported a variant of the tale at least 40 years old. In this version, the three bears live in a castle in the woods and are visited by a fox called Scrapefoot who drinks their milk, sits in their chairs, and rests in their beds.
- 1905? - Ernest Thompson Seton, The Biography of a Silver-Fox, Or, Domino Reynard of Goldur Town: Realistic story with author's drawing, later made into a feature film.
- 1909 - L. Frank Baum, The Road to Oz: Fox king Dox of Foxville changes a boy's head into fox's.
- 1920 - Rudolf Těsnohlídek, Liška Bystrouška (Vixen Sharpears or The Cunning Little Vixen).
- 1922 - David Garnett, Lady into Fox is about transformation into animal, first physical then mental.
- 1924 - Hugh Lofting, Doctor Dolittle's Circus - Doctor Dolittle, the animals' friend, hides the vixen Nightshade and her cubs in his jacket, to save them from fox hunters.
- 1932 - Niimi Nankichi, Gon, the Little Fox: The fox was misunderstood, and it was shot. The moral of result of revenge.
- 1938 - B.B., Wild Lone: The Story of a Pytchley Fox: A novel about a fox's life in Northamptonshire, the home of the Pytchley Hunt.
- 1943 - Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, The Little Prince: A fox indicates the true value of friendship.
- 1957 - Ted Hughes, The Thought-Fox: A poem featured in Hughes's The Hawk in the Rain.
- 1960 - Vercors, Sylva, inspired by David Garnett where a fox changes into a lady.
- 1965 - István Fekete Vuk, about life of abandoned fox and his revenge on a hunter. Also made into an animated film.
- 1967 - Daniel P. Mannix, The Fox and the Hound stars a fox named Tod as one of the two protagonists. Made into an animated film by Disney.
- 1976 - John Crowley, Beasts features a genetically-engineered half-human-half-fox named Reynard as one of the main characters.
- 1977 - Richard Adams, The Plague Dogs has a protagonist named "The Tod" who helps out Snitter and Rowf along in their adventures.
- 1986–2011 - Brian Jacques, Redwall series: Fox characters include Fortunata, Sela, Chickenhound/Slagar, Urgan Nagru, Silvamord, Nightshade, Vizka Longtooth, and Rasconza. An animated television series based on three of the books was also produced.
- 1989 - Garry Kilworth, Hunter's Moon: The life and tragedies of a fox family which describes foxes' own mythology.
- 1989 - William Wharton, Franky Furbo: A magical fox rescues an American soldier and then journeys in search for proof of the unusual story.
- 1994 - Gillian Rubinstein, Foxspell, in which a fox's god propose that a young boy become a fox in favor to proper burial of dead fox's body.
- 1995 – Lajos Parti Nagy, Fox Affair at Sunset (lit. "Fox Object at Sunset"), a postmodern death poem with nostalgic irony.
- 1998 - Elizabeth Hand, Last Summer at Mars Hills: An Indian boy has magical amulet which allows him change into a fox.
- 1999 - Kij Johnson, The Fox Woman, in which one of the protagonists is a fox woman named Kitsune.
- 2001 and 2003 - Mordicai Gerstein, Fox Eyes and Old Country, in which anyone can switch bodies with fox if he looks into their eyes long enough.
- 2002 - N. M. Browne, Hunted: A comatose girl wakes up in a fox's body in a fantasy world.
- 2005 - Victor Pelevin, The Sacred Book of Werewolf: The kitsune A-huli searches for a path to Nirvana for were-creatures.
- 1908 and 1912 - Beatrix Potter included foxes in her anthropomorphic children's tales—as pursuer in The Tale of Jemima Puddle-Duck and as title character in The Tale of Mr. Tod.
- 1913 - Thornton W. Burgess's The Green Forest: Reddy Fox.
- 1924 - Aquilino Ribeiro, Romance da Raposa: Portuguese adaptation of the medieval story of Reynard.
- 1961 - Peter Spier, The Fox Went Out on a Chilly Night: an adaptation of the folk song of the same name.
- 1970s - Richard Scarry, series of books, Fixit Fox, a mechanic; also animated
- 1970 - Roald Dahl, Fantastic Mr. Fox: Mr. and Mrs. Fox and their four pups.
- 1972 - Nonny Hogrogian's children's book "One Fine Day": a story of a fox that has its tail chopped off
- 1982 - William Steig's children's book Dr. Desoto contains an unnamed vulpine patient.
- 1998 - Michel Gagné, A Search for Meaning—The Story of Rex : Continues in comics magazine Flight (comic)
- 2006 - Ali Sparkes, Finding the Fox: the first of a series of novels about a boy who has the ability to change into a fox.
- 1965 - Dr. Seuss, "Fox in Socks". Dr. Seuss' story about tongue-twisters.
- 1966-76 - David Thomson, "Danny Fox" book series
- 2013 - Ylvis and Svein Nyhus, "What does the Fox Say?", picture book based on the YouTube hit the Fox (What Does the Fox Say?)
- 2016 - Jonathan Schork, "The Love of Simon Fox", in which a talking fox living in an enchanted forest befriends a little girl
Film and television
- 1937 - Ladislas Starevich's puppet-animated feature film, Le Roman de Renard ("The Tale of the Fox").
- 1940 - Disney's Pinocchio: J. Worthington Foulfellow (also known as Honest John, and ironically is extremely dishonest).
- 1941–1950 – Screen Gems The Fox and the Crow: Fauntleroy Fox, one of the principal characters of the animated film series.
- 1946 - Disney's Song of the South: Brer Fox.
- 1960 - Hanna Barbera's Yogi Bear series had short cartoons, Yakky Doodle, in which the duckling is pursued by Fibber Fox.
- 1964 - The Irish-accented fox from the animated interlude in Disney's Mary Poppins
- 1972 - Ralph Bakshi's 1972 film Fritz the Cat: Winston Schwartz, the on-and-off-again girlfriend of Fritz.
- 1973 - Disney's Robin Hood: Robin Hood and Maid Marian
- 1973 - Zuiyo Eizo episodes Fables of the Green Forest based on a book The Green Forest.
- 1980s - The World of David the Gnome, animated show
- 1980s - Lis Leon, Polish animated show
- 1981 - Disney's The Fox and the Hound: Tod and Vixey;
- 1981 - Attila Dargay's Vuk, a young fox who is one of the most famous Hungarian cartoon characters.
- 1982 - The Plague Dogs, based on the book.
- 1985 - A French animated series, Moi Renart [fr].
- 1986 – Hospital Radio's The Space Gypsy Adventures: D.C. Bones, D.C. Fusky, Gemma and Damien Mildury (animated).
- 1986 - Dutch TV series The Bluffers: Sharpy, one of the main protagonists.
- 1987 – Sunbow Productions' serial Visionaries: Knights of the Magical Light: Ectar of the Spectral Knights possessed the totem of the fox.
- 1987 – Sylvanian Families: The members of the Slydale Family are Slick, Velvette, Buster, Scarlett, Skitter and Lindy from the animated TV series.
- 1987 – Maple Town: The members of the Fox Family are Fanny, Freddy, Mr. and Mrs Fox from the animated series.
- 1990 – Disney's Talespin: several fox characters appear in the series.
- 1990-91 - Kyatto Ninden Teyandee (Samurai Pizza Cats) : whose main antagonist Kitsunezuka Ko'on-no-Kami a prime minister in Edoropolis (in the Saban English version he's known as Seymour "The Big" Cheese, and is a rat instead).
- 1991 – Don Bluth's Rockadoodle, based on Chantecler by Edmond Rostand, a tale about a rooster; one of antagonists of the story is a fat fox named Pinky.
- 1991 – TV series Bucky O'Hare: Vixen Captain Mimi LaFloo; based on 1970s comics.
- 1992/2006 – Operation Lifesaver Video Sly Fox and Birdie teaches kids about railroad safety
- 1993–1996 – The Animals of Farthing Wood TV series and movie: Fox and his mate Vixen.
- 1993, 1996 and 2007 – Flemming Quist Møller's Danish animated films Jungledyret Hugo: Rita, an urban fox.
- 1993 – Tezuka's Akuemon: Anime based on Japanese folk tale about fox-wife.
- 1993 - Adventures Of Sonic The Hedgehog: A TV series based on the characters Sonic the Hedgehog, Miles "Tails" Prower, and Doctor Robotnik.
- 1997 – Tezuka's In the Beginning: The Bible Stories: Vixy, a vixen narrator.
- 1999 – Cosgrove Hall's The Foxbusters: Cartoon series based on Dick King Smith's novel about a group of chickens defending their farm against a gang of foxes.
- 1999–2001 - Pablo the Little Red Fox: A BBC series that revolves around the adventures of three child foxes and the misadventures they have.
- 1999-2001 – Nelvana's Redwall series, based on the book.
- 2000–2019 – Nickelodeon's Dora the Explorer - Swiper the Fox, mischievous thief fox.
- 2002 - Balto II: Wolf Quest, sequel to 1995's Balto, featuring a cunning fox fooling Balto while the latter searches for his daughter.
- 2003-2006 - Sonic X is a TV series which focused on Sonic the Hedgehog, Miles "Tails" Prower, and all of their friends being teleported to the real world.
- 2005 – A Thierry Schiel CGI film Le Roman de Renart ("Renard the Fox").
- 2005 - Foxy Loxy from Disney's 2005 film Chicken Little.
- 2006 - The Fox and the Hound 2, followup to the animated film The Fox and the Hound
- 2007 – Lee Sung-gang's South Korean animated film Yobi, the Five Tailed Fox: Yobi, a young kumiho girl.
- 2007 – TV series Skunk Fu!: Fox, on whom Rabbit has a big crush.
- 2007 - The Fox and the Child: a young girl who befriends a fox.
- 2009 - Fantastic Mr. Fox, Wes Anderson's stop-motion animation adaptation of Roald Dahl's children's book.
- 2010 - My Girlfriend is a Nine-Tailed Fox is a South Korean romantic comedy where a young girl plays a nine-tailed fox in the form of a human.
- 2010 - Popy from CGI animation series Oscar's Oasis.
- 2011 - Angelique from the CGI film Rango.
- 2015 - Ge Shuiying's CGI film Agent F.O.X.: Agent F.O.X., a super spy fox
- 2015 - Yoyotoki HappyEars from the animated series Yoyotoki HappyEars
- 2016 - Disney's animated film Zootopia (also known as Zootropolis in some countries) features the fox character Nick Wilde, one of the main protagonists.
- 2016 - Vix from the CGI film Spark: A Space Tail.
- 2016 - Darma from the animated film Rock Dog.
- 2018-present - 101 Dalmatian Street features Fergus Fox who is recurring character in the show.
- 2018-2020 - Unikitty! features Dr. Fox, who is the castle's resident scientist whose experiments and inventions can both create and resolve problems.
- 2019-present - Mao Mao: Heroes of Pure Heart features Rufus, a sly and cunning fox who swindles the Sweetypies of Pure Heart Valley.
- 2019 - Swifty and Jade from the animated film Arctic Dogs.
- Aggretsuko - Fenneko and Ookami
- BNA: Brand New Animal - Nazuna Hiwatashi
- Dragon Ball - Donbe
- Dog Days - Yukikaze Panettone
- Gingitsune Messenger Fox Of The Gods Shinto Anime
- Digimon - Renamon, Kudamon, Kyuubimon, Pokomon, Taomon, Sakuyamon and Youkomon
- Gugure! Kokkuri-san - Kokkuri-san
- Hiiro no Kakera - O-Chan, Yuuichi Komura
- Hyper Police - Sakura Bokuseiinmonzeninari
- Inu x Boku - Soushi Miketsukami
- Inukami! - Yoko and Dai Yoko
- Inuyasha - Shippo
- Jewelpet - Larimar and Gumimin
- Kaiketsu Zorori - Zorori
- Kamisama Kiss - Tomoe
- Kanokon - Chizuru and Tayura Minamoto, and Tamamo-no-Mae
- Kanon - Makoto Sawatari
- Kekkaishi - Hime
- Kemono Friends - The females Ezo Red Fox and Silver Fox appear as a couple in the show.
- Kyatto Ninden Teyandee - Kitsunezuka Ko'on-no-Kami
- Naruto - Naruto Uzumaki, host to the fox-like Tailed Beast Kurama
- Natsume's Book of Friends - Natsume, the main protagonist, meets with a young kitsune on day on a walk.
- One Piece - Foxy, and Suu the cloud fox
- Pokémon - Vulpix, Ninetales, Zorua, Zoroark, Fennekin, Braixen and Delphox; Nickit and Thievul
- Rise of the Nura Clan - Hagoromo Gitsune
- Rosario + Vampire - Kuyou
- Shaman King - Conchi
- Sherlock Hound - Sherlock
- Slayers - Jillas Jillos Jillas
- Sonic the Hedgehog - Miles "Tails" Prower
- Star Driver ~Kagayaki no Takuto~ - Fukubuchou/VP
- Strike Witches - Eila Ilmatar Juutilainen
- Tactics - Yoko
- Tales of Symphonia - Corrine and Venus
- Tayutama: Kiss on my Deity - Mashiro Mito
- The Helpful Fox Senko-san - Senko-san
- Urusei Yatsura - The little fox, whose name is a "little fox" too.
- Urara Meirochou - The protagonist love interest, Kon, is possessed frequently by the fox spirit Kokkuri-san.
- Wagaya no Oinari-sama - Kugen Tenko, Gyokuyou Tenko, Ogami and Daigorou
- xxxHolic - Mugetsu
- Yu Yu Hakusho - Kurama
- Zoids - The Shadow Fox
- 1973 - Ukrainian movie director Igor Negrescul's Domino: A Life of a Silver Fox.
- 1990 - Akira Kurosawa's Dreams: A boy goes to the forest to see where the foxes have their weddings.
- 1994 - Russian director Ury Klimov's Once Lives a Fox: Story of a fox escaped from the zoo.
- 2005 - Andrew Adamson's The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe: Mr. Fox, voiced by Rupert Everett, which is turned to stone by the White Witch.
- 2006 - Helen the Baby Fox Seven-year-old Taichi found a baby fox named "Helen."
- 2007 - "The Fox and the Child," directed by Luc Jacquet, is about a young girl who befriends a fox.
- 2009 - Antichrist directed by Lars von Trier has a possibly supernatural fox appearing throughout the film.
- 1966 - The Hollies & Peter Sellers' "After the Fox"; popular theme song from the movie of the same name
- 1967 - The Jimi Hendrix Experience's "Foxy Lady"
- 1968 - Manfred Mann's Earth Band's "Fox on the Run"
- 1972 – Genesis' Foxtrot
- 1975 - Sweet's "Fox on the Run"
- 1981 - Elton John's 1981 album The Fox, and the title track therefrom.
- 1986 - Kate Bush's titular single release from her 1985 Album Hounds of Love references a fox in the lyrics.
- 1996 - Belle & Sebastian's album If You're Feeling Sinister features a song called The Fox in the Snow.
- 2000 - Nickel Creek's "The Fox" is a variation of a folk song about a fox stealing food for his family.
- 2001 - Millencolin's album Pennybridge Pioneers includes a song simply titled "Fox".
- 2004 - mewithoutYou's sophomore studio album is titled Catch for Us the Foxes. The band's subsequent albums feature the songs "The Fox, the Crow, and the Cookie" (It's All Crazy! It's All False! It's All a Dream! It's Alright, 2009) and "Fox's Dream of the Log Flume" (Ten Stories 2012).
- 2004 - Rilo Kiley's album More Adventurous features a song titled "Portions For Foxes"
- 2005 - Sleater-Kinney's album The Woods features a song called "The Fox".
- 2008 - Rapper Nas recorded the song "Sly Fox" on his untitled 2008 album. In the song he disses Fox News, considering it to be sly and deceitful.
- 2008 - Born Ruffians' song "Foxes Mate For Life" appears on their debut album Red, Yellow & Blue.
- 2008 - Fleet Foxes, a five-piece band from Seattle.
- 2010 - The kawaii metal group Babymetal claims to perform in accordance to revelations from the Fox God and have a recurring fox motif, including their 2013 single "Megitsune".
- 2012 - Louisa Rose Allen or known as her stage name Foxes
- 2013 - Ylvis's "The Fox (What Does the Fox Say?)"
- 2014 - Taylor Swift's song "I Know Places" from 1989 references foxes.
- 2015 - The music video for The Prodigy's "Nasty".
- 2016 - Baby Shark Dance is a popular kids’ song made by the childrens' education brand Pinkfong. The mascot of the brand, a pink fox, appears in the video.
- - "The Fox" - 15th century folk song about the animal that has been adapted and recorded by many performers
- - Mr Fox 1970s folk rock band.
- - June Tabor - Reynard The Fox
- Miles "Tails" Prower, a two-tailed fox that can spin his tails like a helicopter to fly, from the Sonic the Hedgehog series.
- Fox McCloud, James McCloud, and Krystal from the Nintendo Star Fox series
- Keaton of the Legend of Zelda series
- Vulpix, Ninetales, Zorua, Zoroark, Fennekin, Braixen, Delphox, Nickit, and Thievul from the Pokémon series
- Inspector Carmelita Montoya Fox, a police officer in the Sly Cooper series of video games.
- Rif and Rhene of the Fox Tribe from the video game Inherit the Earth: Quest for the Orb.
- Spy Fox, a James Bond parody computer game series.
- Crazy Redd, the black market salesman from the Animal Crossing games.
- In Trickster Online, Fox is the female sense type character.
- In the video game series Metal Gear Solid, the special forces group is known as "FOXHOUND". Additionally the title of Grey Fox was given to Frank Jaeger.
- Ninetails, a major boss character from the game Ōkami.
- Titus the Fox: To Marrakech and Back, fox mascot in the 1990s platform game
- In the video game Drawn To Life for the Nintendo DS, the charters of the village are "Raposas" which is Portuguese for fox
- Persona 4 features a fox living at a shrine as one of its Social Links.
- Yusuke Kitagawa from Persona 5 adopts the codename Fox after his Inari-like mask.
- Jade Empire, the RPG by BioWare, contains fox spirits as well as a non-playable character who uses the alias Silk Fox.
- Psycho Fox, the main character in a Sega Master System game of the same name.
- The 2009 video game League of Legends includes a kumiho character named Ahri, the Nine-Tailed Fox.
- The horror game Five Nights at Freddy's features the animatronic character Foxy the Pirate.
- In the video game Little Misfortune, the titular character is protected from the demon Morgo by a fox named Benjamin Juhanelius Redfox.
- Pepper and Pip from Paladins video game
- The Vulpera, are a race of nomadic fox people that inhabit the deserts of Vol'dun on Zandalar from the game World of Warcraft.
Comics and visual novels
- Slylock Fox, in the Sherlock Holmes parody comic strips from Slylock Fox & Comics for Kids
- Raposão/McFox, a character from the Brazilian comic series Lionel's Kingdom.
- Fix and Foxi, a German comic series where the title characters are two fox brothers.
- In Kiss, in Psycho Circus #14 and #15, the members of Kiss are portrayed as supernatural beings who train a Feudal Japanese samurai to outsmart supernatural foxes.
- Ninjara, a character who appeared in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles franchise.
- The main female protagonist in Neil Gaiman's The Sandman: The Dream Hunters illustrated novella, and comic is a legendary Kitsune
- The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles comic series from IDW Publishing features the character of Alopex, an Arctic fox ninja.
- Ozy and Millie - foxes starring in a webcomic of the same name
- Kevin and Kell - Fiona Fennec and George Fennec, her father, are both fennec foxes.
- Gunnerkrigg Court - The comic's main character Antimony has a fox companion whose spirit is trapped in a doll of a white wolf, a symbol for Antimony in Alchemy.
- In the trading card game Magic: The Gathering, Eight-and-a-Half-Tails is a legendary fox monk of great power and purity.
Performance arts and opera
- c.1036 Wild fox koan, an influential kōan story in the Zen tradition
- 1963, 1968, 2002, 2006 Peter Firmin's Basil Brush, British television sock-puppet
- Flora Fox, The Get Along Gang
- Mozilla Firefox's logo is a fox on a globe
- The Catholic Church used images of foxes dressed as monks or priests preaching to geese in church art as propaganda against the Lollards. These images were based on the story of the preaching fox found in The History of Reynard the Fox and its sequel, The Shifts of Reynardine (the son of Reynard).
- The canting coat of arms of Châteaurenard in France displays a fox, as do the coats of arms of Poligny in France and Tuliszków in Poland.
- The reynard (male fox) as dexter supporter and vixen (female fox) as sinister supporter of the arms of La Boussac in Brittany.
- The English association football team Leicester City are nicknamed 'the Foxes'.
- The Brazilian football team Cruzeiro have one their nicknames called 'Raposa', meaning Fox in Portuguese.
- The athletic teams of Marist College in Poughkeepsie, New York are known as the Red Foxes.
- "Pale Fox - Mysterious Fox of the African Desert - pictures and facts". Thewebsiteofeverything.com.
- "OGO - the Dogon God of Chaos (African mythology)". Godchecker.com.
- "Dogon restudied: A field evaluation of the work of Marcel Griaule". Openaccess.leidenuniv.nl. 18 October 1991.
- Benton, Janetta Rebold (1 April 1997). Holy Terrors: Gargoyles on Medieval Buildings. Abbeville Press. pp. 82. ISBN 978-0-7892-0182-9.
- Stanton, Kristen M. (6 July 2020). "Fox Symbolism and Meaning". UniGuide.
- "הוה זנב לאריות, ואל תהי ראש לשועלים". Lib.cet.ac.il.
- Katherine Berrin & Larco Museum (1997). The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson.
- "Shenanigan dictionary definition | shenanigan defined". Yourdictionary.com.
- Garnett, David; Garnett, R. A. (Rachel Alice) (1 November 2003). "Lady into Fox" – via Project Gutenberg.
- "Babel Web Anthology :: Parti Nagy Lajos: Fox affair at sunset (Rókatárgy alkonyatkor in English)". Babelmatrix.org.
- Tyner, Adam (5 May 2008). "The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (Blu-ray)". DVD Talk. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- "Ylvis - The Fox (What Does The Fox Say?) [Official music video HD]". YouTube.
- "Vulpix (Pokémon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia". Bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net.
- "Ninetales (Pokémon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia". Bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net.
- "Zorua (Pokémon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia". Bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net.
- "Zoroark (Pokémon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia". Bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net.
- "Fennekin (Pokémon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia". Bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net.
- "Nickit (Pokémon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia". Bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net.
- "Thievul (Pokémon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia". Bulbapedia.bulbagarden.net.
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