Foxwoods Resort Casino
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|Foxwoods Resort Casino|
|Location||Mashantucket Pequot Tribe Reservation|
|Address||350 Trolley Line Blvd
Ledyard, CT 06338-3830
|Opening date||July 5, 1986|
|No. of rooms||2,266|
|Total gaming space||344,000 sq ft (32,000 m2)|
|Owner||Mashantucket Pequot Tribe Nation|
|Previous names||Mashantucket Pequot Bingo Hall (1986-92)|
|Renovated in||1992, 1994-97, 2002-03, 2005-08|
Foxwoods Resort Casino is a hotel and casino located on the Mashantucket Pequot Indian Reservation, within Ledyard, Connecticut. A complex of six casinos, the resort covers an area of 9,000,000 sq ft (840,000 m2). The casinos have more than 380 gaming tables for blackjack, craps, roulette, and poker and have more than 4,700 slot machines. There are several restaurants within the casinos, among them a Hard Rock Cafe. Foxwoods has 2,266 hotel rooms and a two-story arcade for children and teens.
In 1992, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe, the casino's owner, added table games, followed by additional slot machines in 1993. G. Michael Brown became the chairman of the casino in 1993. The casino agreed to pay 25 percent of their slot revenue to the state of Connecticut, a sum that amounts to almost $200 million per year as of 2007[update]. In the fiscal year ending June 2008, Foxwoods' 6,300 slots handled more than $9.1 billion.
A poker room and a high-limit 30-table game area were added in 1995. Foxwoods is not a smoke-free casino, but due to recent complaints from patrons and employees has designated many common areas such as hallways, walkways, hotel lobbies, retail stores and most restaurants as non smoking areas and has assigned designated areas for smokers. The poker room is non smoking and there are also separate table gaming and slot areas designated as non smoking. The casino was completed in 1996. In 1997, the deluxe Grand Pequot Tower was opened for business.
For years after opening in 1992, Foxwoods had a monopoly on casino gambling in the region and made of billions of dollars in profits. Foxwoods borrowed heavily to finance a massive expansion. Starting in 2009, Foxwoods defaulted on debts totaling over two billion dollars Standard & Poor's lowered Foxwoods' credit rating. The tribe that owns Foxwoods has applied for and received millions of dollars in federal grants for poor people.
The full build-out of the resort was an effort by several design and construction entities. The majority of the work from 1992 to 2001 was completed by Construction Managers CR Klewin aka Klewin Building Co. and the Architect of Record was JCJ Architecture (formerly Jeter, Cook & Jepson) of Hartford, CT. Planning & concept designs were by New England Design Inc. and Nick606 Inc. Later phases were completed by Shawmut Design & Construction, Perini Building Co., AZ Corporation, and others. It revamped the whole Resort and Casino and have rebranded it "The Fox".
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Games available at Foxwoods include:
- traditional "big table" Baccarat (Punto Banco style) and "Mini-Baccarat", where a dealer handles the cards. In both variants the casino banks the game.
- bingo with a bingo hall able to accommodate up to 5000 players.
- Blackjack with 6 or 8-deck shoes. A variant of Blackjack called Spanish 21 is also played. The casino offers a rare "Dollar blackjack" table where the minimum bet is $1.
- Keno drawings
- A Money Wheel in the Grand Pequot Casino
- Pai gow is offered in the Asian gaming section of the Rainmaker Casino
- Sic Bo, an Asian game with three dice in a shaker is also played in the Asian gaming section.
- Table variants of poker (played against the house) include Caribbean Stud Poker, Casino war, Crazy 4 Poker, High Five Poker, Let It Ride (card game), Pai Gow Poker, Texas Hold'Em Bonus and Three card poker.
- Roulette, Almost all of the wheels are of the American variety (with two green spots, 0 and 00), though there are a few European style Roulette wheels with only one zero.
- Slot machines
- A sports betting facility with cafe is also located at Foxwoods. Bets may be made on Jai-Alai or on more than a combined total of more than 60 tracks of dog racing and horse racing. Races are projected on 50-foot (15 m) high digital screens.
Poker (Formerly WPT World Poker Room)
The Poker Room is located one floor below the Rainmaker Casino. This room runs poker games of varying stakes, including limit and no-limit Texas hold 'em, limit and pot-limit Omaha hold 'em (including hi/lo), and seven-card stud (high only and hi/lo).
The poker room underwent an expansion and relocation in March 2006, increasing the number of tables from 76 to 114, making it the largest poker room outside of California, and the third-largest poker room in the world, after the Commerce Casino and the Bicycle Casino.
As of 2012 Foxwoods no longer has any affiliation with the World Poker Tour and has renamed its poker room. 
Sporting events / entertainment
Since 2014, three major mixed martial arts events have been held at Foxwoods, including UFC Fight Night: Jacaré vs. Mousasi, World Series of Fighting 20: Branch vs. McElligott, and most recently World Series of Fighting 24: Fitch vs. Okami.
The Fox Tower
Construction started in November 2005 on a $700 million expansion at Foxwoods. On April 25, 2006, Foxwoods announced that they would lease the MGM Grand brand name for the new building, and that MGM Mirage would be a partner in the expansion project. The expansion, entitled The MGM Grand at Foxwoods, opened on May 17, 2008. It is a separate building from the main Foxwoods resort, but is connected by a moving walkway. In late 2013, MGM split up with Foxwoods. The new name for the building is The Fox Tower. Amenities at the MGM Grand at Foxwoods included:
- 53 table games
- 1,400 slot machines
- 825 hotel rooms/suites
- 4,000 seat performing arts theater
- Four restaurants and four retail outlets
Unionization of employees
Beginning with an employee-led website to gain support and sharing ideas of how to react to the changes employees had been going through, a small base of employees approached several union organizations to determine if unionizing would be the best fit for the dealers of Foxwoods Resort Casino. After deciding on the UAW in June 2007, the UAW helped start collecting signatures from dealers in support of a union, the United Auto Workers announced in September 2007 that it had collected the requisite number of signatures needed to hold an election to determine whether table games and poker dealers desired union representation or not. The Tribe challenged the jurisdiction of the National Labor Relations Board over on-reservation Native American enterprises. Following hearings, the National Labor Relations Board ruled in favor of the union and ordered a union election to be conducted. On November 24, 2007, employees voted to unionize with 60 percent in favor and 40 percent against. The Foxwood dealers cast 1,289 ballots for the union, 852 against representation, with challenges to 36 additional ballots. Approximately 2,700 dealers and dual-rate dealers were eligible to vote in the election.
After the workers won their right to unionize, Foxwoods Casino appealed the election results, reasserting its jurisdictional challenge and claiming that the National Labor Relations Board made mistakes in conducting the vote, that the NLRB only printed the ballot in English and only provided notices explaining the election in only one form of the Chinese language, disenfranchised workers, and that interactions by union officials and some voters were unlawful. An NLRB Administrative Law Judge ruled that the union and the board provided ample explanation of the election in a variety of languages. Foxwoods has appealed the decision.
The Foxwoods dealers union has also asked the state of Connecticut to improve the conditions of their workplace. Workers and union organizers pushed to have legislation that would ban smoking on the casino floors of Foxwoods and Mohegan Sun. The Mashantucket tribe has opposed a complete ban on smoking, however in May 2009, Connecticut Governor M. Jodi Rell signed an agreement with Foxwoods Casino to voluntarily limit smoking areas in the casino.
On January 26, 2010, dealers at Foxwoods reached a labor contract with the Indian tribe that owns the casino making them the largest group of union-represented dealers at any U.S. casino. On August 7, 2013, a new contract was announced giving dealers retroactive and future raises, set stricter limits on second-hand smoke, and gave dealers the right to decide how tips are distributed.
- List of casinos in Connecticut
- Indian gaming
- List of casinos
- Mashantucket Pequots
- Mohegan Sun - Connecticut's other casino.
- See Mashantucket Pequot Tribe v. McGuigan, 626 F. Supp. 245 (D. Conn. 1986).
- "Seneca Niagara Casino Is Cash Cow". The Buffalo News. May 21, 2004. Retrieved 2007-02-14.
- "Native American tribe to honor Goh Tong for his help". The Star. October 29, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
- Division of Special Revenue. "Division of Special Revenue" (PDF). Dosr.state.ct.us. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- Michael Sokolove (March 14, 2012). "Foxwoods Is Fighting for Its Life". The New York Times.
- Burnett, Andrew. "A New Type of Casino". Pokertube. Retrieved 29 February 2016.
- "The Top Five Poker Rooms in the United States - Best Live Poker Cardrooms in America". Cardschat.com. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- "Poker Room Review: Foxwoods Casino, Ledyard, Connecticut". PokerNews. 2007-07-08. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- "Foxwoods' poker room is going it alone". Retrieved 2012-07-11.
- Published: May 14, 2008 2:03 PM (2008-05-14). "The MGM Grand at Foxwoods opens". Newsday.com. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- unbossed.com "UAW Wins New Victories at Two Casinos" (December 04, 2007)
- "The Indypendent "Labor Unions Eye Gains in 2008" by Bennett Baumer". Indypendent.org. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- "Rell signs 2nd casino smoking deal". WTNH. May 7, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- "Foxwoods, UAW Agree On Contract For Table-Game Dealers".
- "Foxwoods, union reach tentative contract agreement".
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