Fraley syndrome is a condition where the superior infundibulum of the upper calyx of the kidney is obstructed by the crossing renal (upper or middle section) artery branch, causing distension and dilatation of the calyx and presenting clinically as haematuria and nephralgia (ipsilateral flank pain). The condition was first described by urologist Elwin E. Fraley in 1966 and can be treated surgically, which might be necessary in symptomatic disease. Another possible cause for similar hydronephrosis is megacalicosis, for which surgery is considered inappropriate.
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