François-Xavier Garneau

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François-Xavier Garneau
Francois-Xavier Garneau.jpg
François-Xavier Garneau
Born(1809-06-15)June 15, 1809
DiedFebruary 2 or February 3, 1866(1866-02-03) (aged 56)
Quebec City, Canada East
Occupation(s)notary, civil servant, historian, poet
Monument of François-Xavier Garneau in Québec City

François-Xavier Garneau (June 15, 1809 – February 2 or February 3, 1866)[1] was a nineteenth-century French Canadian notary, poet, civil servant and liberal who wrote a three-volume history of the French Canadian nation entitled Histoire du Canada between 1845 and 1848.


Garneau was born in Quebec City and in 1821 he entered a school which had been opened in the basement of the chapel of the Congrégation des Hommes de la Haute Ville.[2] Then Garneau educated at Quebec seminary, studied law, and was admitted as a notary in 1830. Subsequently, he became clerk of the legislative assembly, member of the council of public instruction, and city clerk of Quebec, which office he held from 1845 until his death on February 2 or February 3, 1866. Garneau was an honorary member of literary and historical societies in the United States and Canada, and for several years president of the Institut Canadien of Quebec.[3]

Histoire du Canada[edit]

Garneau argued that the Conquest was a tragedy, the consequence of which was a perpetual struggle against the forces of English Canada for the French Canadian nation; this struggle would continue into the future as long as French Canadians were under the oppressive reign of the British. The book was originally written as a response to the Durham report, which claimed that French Canadian culture was stagnant and that it would be best served through Anglophone assimilation. It was first translated in 1866 and by then "the accepted national history" of French Canadians.[4]


François-Xavier Garneau Medal[edit]

The François-Xavier Garneau Medal is the highest award given by the Canadian Historical Association and is given once every five years for an outstanding Canadian contribution to historical research. Recipients were: Louise Dechêne (1980), Michael Bliss (1985), John M. Beattie (1990), Joy Parr (1995), Gérard Bouchard (2000), Timothy Brook (2005), John C. Weaver (2010) and Bettina Bradbury (2015).[5]

2010 Winter Olympics[edit]

Canadian actor Donald Sutherland narrated the following quote from one of his poems at the opening ceremonies of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.

In what other climate does the Queen of Silence
Show us more splendour?
I love, Oh Canada, night, the vast plain
Shining with whiteness!


  • Histoire du Canada depuis sa découverte jusqu'à nos jours, 1845–52, 1st ed. (BAnQ: vol. 1. 2, 3, 4), 1852, 2d ed., 1859, 3rd ed., 1882, 4th ed.(IA: vol. 1, 2, 3, 4)
  • Voyage en Angleterre et en France, dans les années 1831, 1832 et 1833, 1855. (BAnQ: online)
  • Abrégé de l'histoire du Canada, depuis sa découverte jusqu'à 1840 : à l'usage des maisons d'éducation, 1858 (IA: online)
  • History of Canada: From the Time of its Discovery Till the Union Year, 1860 (IA: vol. 1, 2, 3)
  • Additions à l'histoire du Canada, 1864 (BAnQ: online)



  1. ^ Savard, Pierre and Paul Wyczienski. "Garneau, François-Xavier", in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto and Université Laval, 2000, retrieved December 22, 2008
  2. ^ Pierre Savard and Paul Wyczynski. "GARNEAU, FRANÇOIS-XAVIER". Retrieved July 24, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1900). "Garneau, François Xavier" . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
  4. ^ Hopkins, J. Castell (1898). An historical sketch of Canadian literature and journalism. Toronto: Lincott. p. 119. ISBN 0665080484.
  5. ^ "CHA website: The François-Xavier Garneau Medal". Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2012-02-15.



  • Brunet, Berthelot. "Dossier François-Xavier Garneau", in L'Encyclopédie de l'Agora, updated May 25, 2006
  • Gallichan, Gilles, Kenneth Landry and Denis Saint-Jacques (1998). François-Xavier Garneau, une figure nationale, Québec: Éditions Nota bene, 39 p. (ISBN 2-921053-96-9)
  • Bergeron, Gérard (1994). Lire François-Xavier Garneau, 1809-1866 : historien national, Québec: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture, 244 p.
  • Garneau, François-Xavier (1968). Voyage en Angleterre et en France dans les années 1831, 1832 et 1833, Ottawa, Éditions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 379 p. Collection «Présence». (critical edition Paul Wyczynski)
  • Wyczynski, Paul (1966). François-Xavier Garneau : aspects littéraires de son oeuvre, Ottawa : Éditions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 207 p.
  • Lanctot, Gustave (1946). Garneau, historien national, Montréal: Fides, 1946, 205 p.
  • Robitaille, Georges (1966). Études sur Garneau : critique historique, Montréal: Librairie d'Action canadienne-française ltée, 1929, 253 p.
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1926). F.-X. Garneau et Francis Parkman, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 123 p.
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1924). De Gaspé et Garneau, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 123 p.
  • Lanctot, Gustave (1923). François Xavier Garneau, Toronto: Ryerson, 1923, 197 p.
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1912). F.X. Garneau et Francis Parkman, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 139 p.
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1866). Biographie de F.X. Garneau, Montréal: Beauchemin & Valois, libraires-imprimeurs, 115 p.
  • Chauveau, Pierre-Joseph-Olivier (1883). François-Xavier Garneau : sa vie et ses oeuvres, Montréal: Beauchemin & Valois, libraires-imprimeurs (online)
  • Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1866). F.X. Garneau, Québec: J.N. Duquet, éditeur, 135 p. (online)

External links[edit]