François Louis, Prince of Conti

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François Louis de Bourbon
Undated oil on canvas portrait of François Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Conti by a member of the École Française.jpg
Prince of Conti
Reign 26 February 1666 - 9 February 1709
Predecessor Louis Armand I, Prince of Conti
Successor Louis Armand II, Prince of Conti
Born (1664-04-30)30 April 1664
Hôtel de Conti, Paris, France.
Died 9 February 1709(1709-02-09) (aged 44)
Hôtel de Conti, Paris, Fance.
Burial L'Isle-Adam, Île-de-France, France.
Spouse Marie Thérèse de Bourbon
Issue Marie Anne, Princess of Condé
Louis Armand II, Prince of Conti
Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon
Full name
François Louis de Bourbon
House Bourbon
Father Armand, Prince of Conti
Mother Anne Marie Martinozzi
Religion Roman Catholicism

François Louis de Bourbon, le Grand Conti (30 April 1664 – 9 February 1709), was Prince de Conti, succeeding his brother, Louis Armand de Bourbon, in 1685. Until this date, he used the title of Prince of La Roche-sur-Yon. He was son of Armand de Bourban, Prince of Conti and Anne Marie Martinozzi, daughter of Girolamo Martinozzi and niece of Cardinal Mazarin, through her mother. He is the most famous member of the Conti family, a cadet branch of the Princes of Condé. As a member of the reigning House of Bourbon, he was a prince du sang.

Biography[edit]

Born at the Hôtel de Conti in Paris, he was the last of his parents' children. He had one older brother, Louis Armand I, Prince of Conti (1661–1685), who married Marie Anne de Bourbon, the illegitimate daughter of King Louis XIV of France and his mistress, Louise de La Vallière.

In 1683, he assisted the Imperialists in Hungary, and while there, he wrote some letters in which he referred to King Louis XIV as le roi du théâtre; because of this, and because of an early engagement at the side of the Turks, in 1685, on his return to France, he was temporarily banished to Chantilly.

Conti was the protégé of his uncle, Louis de Bourbon, the Grand Condé, whose granddaughter, Marie Thérèse de Bourbon (1666–1732), he married at the Palace of Versailles on 22 January 1688, before the assembled court. Together, they had seven children.

The bride was passionately in love with her husband, but his attentions focused elsewhere. It was well known at court that he was in love with his wife's sister-in-law, Louise-Françoise de Bourbon, wife of Louis III, Prince of Condé, who was the eldest legitimated daughter of King Louis XIV and his mistress, Madame de Montespan.[citation needed] Marie Anne de Bourbon, the daughter of Louise-Françoise de Bourbon, was thought to have been the fruit of this affair.[citation needed] It was also noted, however, that he had homosexual tendencies[1] and did not pay his wife much attention. He lived as a libertine, engaging in numerous love affairs with members of both sexes. His scandalous philandering and debaucheries caused tension and distance within the family, and earned him the nickname of le Grand Conti.[citation needed]

He served in the French army, but he never managed to achieve a rank higher than lieutenant-general. In 1689, he accompanied his intimate friend, François Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg, to the Netherlands, and shared in the French victories at Fleurus, Steinkirk, and Neerwinden. On the death of his cousin, Jean Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville (1646–1694), and in accordance to his will, Conti claimed the principality of Neuchâtel against Marie d'Orleans-Longueville, Duchess de Nemours (1625–1707), a sister of the Duke.

He failed to obtain military assistance from the Swiss, and by the King's command, yielded the disputed territory to Marie d'Orleans, although the courts of law had decided in his favour. In 1697, King Louis XIV offered him the Polish crown, and by means of bribes, the Abbé de Polignac secured his election.[2] On 27 June 1697, he was formally proclaimed as the King of Poland by Cardinal Radziejowski.

Conti started rather unwillingly for his new kingdom, probably, as the Duke of Saint-Simon remarks, owing to his affection for Louise-Françoise de Bourbon. He departed on the Railleuse, under Captain Jean Bart, on 6 September 1697.[3]

When he reached Danzig, he found his rival Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, already in possession of the Polish crown. Conti returned to France, where he was graciously received by King Louis XIV, although Saint-Simon says the King was vexed to see him again.[2] But the misfortunes of the French armies, during the earlier years of the War of the Spanish Succession, compelled the King to appoint Conti, whose military renown stood very high, to command the troops in Italy.

On 4 February 1699, Conti purchased the Château d'Issy, a small French Baroque château on the outskirts of Paris, bought for the sum of 140,000 livres. The estate remained the property of the Princes of Conti until the Revolution of 1789, when it was confiscated as biens nationaux.

The Prince of Conti fell ill and died on 9 February 1709 at the Hôtel de Conti, his death calling forth exceptional signs of mourning from all classes.[2] He died from a combination of gout and syphilis. He was buried alongside his mother at his estate in L'Isle-Adam, Val-d'Oise, near Paris.

He was succeeded as Prince de Conti by his eldest son, Louis Armand II de Bourbon (1696–1727).

Issue[edit]

Conti married Marie Thérèse de Bourbon, aged 22, who was the daughter of Henri Jules, Prince of Condé and Princess Anne Henriette of the Palatinate. They had the following seven children together:

Arms of François Louis

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 30 April 1664 – 26 February 1666 His Serene Highness The Comte de La Marche
  • 26 February 1666 - 9 November 1685 His Serene Highness The Prince de La Roche-sur-Yon[4]
  • 9 November 1685 – 9 February 1709 His Serene Highness The Prince de Conti

Ancestry[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pevitt, Christine, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997, (English), p.100.
  2. ^ a b c  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Conti, Princes of". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  3. ^ Roche, Jean-Michel (2005). Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours. 1. Group Retozel-Maury Millau. p. 370. ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922. 
  4. ^ http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/frroyal.htm#sang Style of HSH and further information on Princes of the Blood - Other princes of the blood were only entitled to Most Serene Highness (Altesse Sérénissime) from 1651 to 1824, when they received the style of Royal Highness

External links[edit]

Media related to François Louis, Prince of Conti at Wikimedia Commons

François Louis, Prince of Conti
Born: 30 April 1664 Died: 9 February 1709
French nobility
Preceded by
Louis Armand de Bourbon
Prince of Conti
9 November 1685 – 9 February 1709
Succeeded by
Louis Armand de Bourbon