France Soir (English: France Evening) is a French online daily newspaper that prospered in physical format during the 1950s and 1960s, reaching a circulation of 1.5 million in the 1950s. It declined rapidly under various owners and was relaunched as a populist tabloid in 2006. However, the company went bankrupt on 23 July 2012, before re-emerging as an online-only paper in 2016.
France Soir was founded as the underground paper Défense de la France ("Defense of France") by young resistance leaders, Robert Salmon and Philippe Viannay, in 1941. The first editions were printed on a Rotaprint 3 offset printing machine hidden in the cellars of the Sorbonne. Distributed to Grenoble, Clermont-Ferrand, Lyon and to Britain by the resistance networks Combat and Témoignage chrétien, Défense de la France became the largest circulation newspaper in the underground press, with 450,000 copies per day by January 1944. In March 1944, after multiple relocations, it was housed on three levels of an industrial building on rue Jean-Dolent, behind the La Santé Prison, in Paris's XIVth arrondissement.
After the liberation, Paris-Soir, which with 1.7 million copies in 1936 was the leading French daily between the wars, forfeited its printing plant in Lyon due to its ambiguous behavior under occupation. Pierre Lazareff, its former editor, had returned from the US and joined Défense de la France in September 1944. The first issue of France-Soir - Défense de la France was printed using Paris-Soir's presses on November 7, 1944. The hyphenated name affiliated the old paper with that of the French resistance. The paper's name was truncated to France Soir after World War II.
The paper grew to be ranked among the country's (and the European continent's) most circulated, reaching 1.5 million in 1955 with Pierre Lazareff as chief editor. Its circulation was more than 1.4 million in the late 1950s.
In February 2006, Jacques Lefranc, managing director of the news, was dismissed by then owner Raymond Lakah for re-printing the cartoon depictions of Muhammad that were the subject of the "Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy". The 12 cartoons were printed with the addition of another depicting other religious figures sitting on a cloud with the caption reading, "Don't worry Muhammad, we've all been caricatured here".
Acquisition by Jean-Pierre Brunois and Olivier Rey
In April 2006, the Tribunal of Commerce in Lille announced that the paper would become the property of Jean-Pierre Brunois, a real-estate developer, and Olivier Rey, a former journalist for the paper. The tribunal had been overseeing the bankruptcy and bids for take over since October 2005, at which point the circulation had dropped to around 50,000. The decision lead to strike by the staff who were displeased with Brunois' plan to cut costs by firing many, and increase circulation by turning the paper into a tabloid. One of the opposing bids, favored by the staff, was from Arkadi Gaydamak, the owner of The Moscow News, who had promised not to fire the staff. Due to the turbulence, France Soir was not published for a month and a half.
In March 2010, France Soir was acquired by Alexander Pugachyov, son of Russian ex-billionaire Sergey Pugachyov. The paper was relaunched in 2010, but its last print issue appeared on 13 December 2011, with the online version ending in July 2012 with the court-ordered bankruptcy of the company. During the liquidation process, the name France-Soir was then bought by the group Mutualize Corporation SA. which relaunched the newspaper as a 100% online media with an innovative strategy. 
Mutualize Corporation A young french team
Mutualize Corporation SA. relaunched the newspaper as a 100% online media with an innovative strategy in 2016 reaching peak audience in 2018.
France-Soir had many contributors, journalists and writers, among them Joseph Kessel, Lucien Bodard, Jean-Paul Sartre, Henri de Turenne, Henri Amouroux, Jean Lacouture, Philippe Labro, Philippe Bouvard, Jacqueline Cartier, Max Gallo, Roger Grenier, Jean Dutourd, Gonzague Saint Bris, Jacques Sternberg and Jean-Pierre Thiollet.
- France Soir goes bankrupt. Roy Greenslade, The Guardian
- "France Soir" mis en liquidation. Xavier Ternisien, Le Monde
- Roy Greenslade (25 July 2012). "Au revoir to France Soir". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- France-Soir est issu d'un journal clandestin sous l'occupation. Archived 21 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Pierre Haski, France Soir ne sera plus imprimé, la fin d’un dinosaure de la presse », Rue89, publié le 11 octobre 2011, consulté le 23 juillet 2012
- Caroline Clarkson (14 December 2011). "France-Soir: death of a newspaper". France 24. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Pierre L. Horn (1 January 1991). Handbook of French Popular Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-313-26121-3. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- "France-Soir". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- "French editor fired over cartoons". BBC. 2 February 2006.
- Burke, Jason (16 April 2006). "Super soaraway Soir? Quelle horreur!". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- Thomas Crampton (14 April 2006). "Workers on strike over dealat France Soir". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- "Jason Fraser: A red-top in the land of les bleus". Independent. 12 June 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
- http://www.francesoir.fr/culture-medias/france-soir-et-pougatchev-quatre-annees-de-vie-commune-mouvementees France-Soir et Pougatchev: quatre années de vie commune mouvementées