Frances Cress Welsing
|Frances Cress Welsing|
Welsing receives Community Award at National Black LUV Festival on September 21, 2008
|Born||Frances Luella Cress
March 18, 1935
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||January 2, 2016
Washington, D.C., U.S.
|Alma mater||Antioch College (B.S.),
Howard University (M.D.)
|Known for||The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors (1991)|
Frances Cress Welsing (born Frances Luella Cress; March 18, 1935 – January 2, 2016) was an American Afrocentrist psychiatrist. Her 1970 essay, The Cress Theory of Color-Confrontation and Racism (White Supremacy), offered her interpretation on the origins of what she described as white supremacy culture.
She was the author of The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors (1991). Welsing caused controversy after she said that homosexuality among African-Americans was a ploy by white males to decrease the black population.
Welsing was born Frances Luella Cress in Chicago on March 18, 1935. Her father, Henry N. Cress, was a physician, and her mother, Ida Mae Griffen, was a teacher. In 1957, she earned a B.S. degree at Antioch College and in 1962 received an M.D. at Howard University. In the 1960s, Welsing moved to Washington, D.C. and worked at many hospitals, especially children's hospitals.
In The Isis Papers, she described white people as the genetically defective descendants of albino mutants. She wrote that due to this "defective" mutation, they may have been forcibly expelled from Africa, among other possibilities. Racism, in the views of Welsing, is a conspiracy "to ensure white genetic survival". She attributed AIDS and addiction to crack cocaine and other substances to "chemical and biological warfare" by whites.
- Welsing appeared in the documentary 500 Years Later (2005), directed by Owen Alik Shahadah, and written by M. K. Asante.
- Welsing also appeared in Hidden Colors: The Untold History of People of Aboriginal, Moor, and African Descent, a 2011 documentary film by Tariq Nasheed.
- The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors, Chicago: Third World Press, c 1992 (3rd printing); ISBN 0-88378-103-4, ISBN 0-88378-104-2.
- Anne Pollock (2012). Medicating Race: Heart Disease and Durable Preoccupations with Difference. Duke University Press. p. 89.
- Welsing, Frances Cress (May 1, 1974). "The Cress Theory of Color-Confrontation". The Black Scholar. 5 (8): 32–40. doi:10.1080/00064246.1974.11431416. ISSN 0006-4246. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
- Jaynes, Gerald D. (2005). Encyclopedia of African American society, Volume 1. Sage. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-7619-2764-8.
- Lehr, Valerie (1999). Queer Family Values: Debunking the Myth of the Nuclear Family. Temple University Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-1566396844.
- "Welsing, Frances Cress". Contemporary Black Biography. Gale. 1994. encyclopedia.com. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Ortiz de Montellano, Bernard R. (1993). "Melanin, afrocentricity, and pseudoscience". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 36 (S17): 33–58. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330360604.
- "Educator Frances Cress Welsing Dies at 80". Rolling Out.com. Retrieved January 1, 2016.
- "Dr. Frances Cress Welsing Dead at 80". The Root.com. Archived from the original on January 4, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "500 Years Later" (PDF). African Holocaust.com. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- "'Hidden Colors' Filmmaker Tariq Nasheed: 'Eric Garner Was Lynched'". Huffington Post.com. Retrieved January 2, 2016.
- Ortiz de Montellano, B. (2001) Magic Melanin: Spreading Scientific Illiteracy to Minorities, csicop.org; accessed June 29, 2017.
- Frances Cress Welsing profile, findagrave.com