Frances Cleveland

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Frances Cleveland
A portrait of Frances Cleveland
1886 portrait
First Lady of the United States
In role
March 4, 1893 – March 4, 1897
PresidentGrover Cleveland
Preceded byMary Harrison McKee (acting)
Succeeded byIda Saxton McKinley
In role
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
PresidentGrover Cleveland
Preceded byRose Cleveland (acting)
Succeeded byCaroline Harrison
Personal details
Frances Clara Folsom

(1864-07-21)July 21, 1864
Buffalo, New York, U.S.
DiedOctober 29, 1947(1947-10-29) (aged 83)
Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
Resting placePrinceton Cemetery
Political partyDemocratic
  • (m. 1886; died 1908)
  • (m. 1913)
EducationWells College (BA)

Frances Clara Cleveland Preston (née Folsom, christened Frank Clara; July 21, 1864 – October 29, 1947) was the First Lady of the United States from 1886 to 1889 and again from 1893 until 1897, as the wife of President Grover Cleveland. She is the only first lady in U.S. history to have served in the role during two non-consecutive terms.

Folsom met Grover Cleveland while she was an infant, as he was a friend of her father, Oscar Folsom. When her father died in 1875, Grover became the executor of her father's estate. He took care of Oscar's outstanding financial debts and provided for the well-being of Frances and her mother Emma. She was educated at Wells College, and after graduating she married Grover while he was the incumbent president. When her husband lost reelection in 1888, they went into private life for four years and began having children. They returned to the White House when her husband was elected again in 1892, but much of her time in the second term was dedicated to her children.

The Clevelands had five children, four of whom survived to adulthood. Cleveland became involved in education advocacy, serving on the Wells College board, supporting women's education, and organizing the construction of kindergartens. She was widowed in 1908, and she married Thomas J. Preston Jr. in 1913. Cleveland-Preston continued to work in education activism after leaving the White House, becoming involved with Princeton University. During World War I, she advocated military preparedness. She died in 1947 and was buried alongside her first husband in Princeton Cemetery.

Early life[edit]


A two story brick house
Frances Folsom's childhood home in Buffalo, New York

Born in Buffalo, New York, on July 21, 1864,[1]: 140  Frances Clara Folsom[2]: 13  was the first child of Emma (née Harmon) and Oscar Folsom. Her only sibling, Nellie Augusta, died in infancy in 1872.[3] Folsom's father Oscar was a lawyer, who had a law partnership with Grover Cleveland.[4]: 243  Folsom and Cleveland first met when she was still an infant;[5]: 268 [6]: 106  he was a regular presence in her childhood, and he bought her her first baby carriage.[2]: 15  Although the Folsoms were financially secure when she was born,[7]: 144  her father's gambling habits and his penchant for helping others with his money caused them financial trouble as she grew.[2]: 13 

Folsom attended school at Madame Brecker's French Kindergarten and Miss Bissell's School for Young Ladies,[4]: 245  both of which were among Buffalo's best-regarded schools and guaranteed her an education above that of most women in her time.[7]: 145 [8] When not in school, she regularly spent time with Cleveland,[9]: 230  known to her as "Uncle Cleve".[1]: 140  As a child, she went by the name Frank, and she was christened under this name as a teenager. The name sometimes caused her problems when she was assigned to boys' activities in school.[4]: 243 

Folsom's father died in a carriage accident on July 23, 1875.[2]: 13  Cleveland was given charge of his estate[3][2]: 15  and became Folsom's unofficial guardian.[1]: 140 [5]: 268  Folsom and her mother moved to live with relatives, first with Folsom's aunt in Saint Paul, Minnesota and then with her grandmother in Medina, New York. They eventually returned to Buffalo and lived in different boarding houses until they found a home.[2]: 16 

Wells College[edit]

When Folsom was 14, she joined the Presbyterian Church, to which she remained devoted throughout her life.[2]: 17  She attended Central High School in Buffalo,[2]: 16  where she was briefly engaged to a seminary student, but the engagement was broken when they decided to remain friends.[4]: 246  Folsom left Central High School in October 1881, before her schooling was finished.[2]: 17 

Although Folsom had not finished school, Cleveland used his authority as the mayor of Buffalo to obtain for her a certificate of completion and entry into Wells College in Aurora, New York as a sophomore.[2]: 17  Here she learned etiquette and manners from Helen Fairchild Smith, and she quickly became a prominent student at the school, taking her place at the center of its social life.[2]: 19  At Wells, she became interested in photography and political science, and she participated in the Phoenix Society, a campus debate club.[3][10] Folsom received two more marriage proposals at Wells, both on the same day. She accepted one of them, but this engagement was also ended by a decision to remain friends.[4]: 246 

Cleveland, who became governor of New York at this time, maintained correspondence with Folsom while she attended Wells.[1]: 140  He visited her, sent her flowers, and brought her on tours of New York when her schedule permitted.[2]: 21  Folsom was unable to attend Cleveland's presidential inauguration as it conflicted with her final exams, but she visited him at the White House during spring break some weeks later.[4]: 247  Washington, D.C., left a positive impression on her, and she accompanied the new president on his nightly walks in the East Room while she stayed at the White House.[2]: 23  Folsom was also permitted to ascend the Washington Monument before its opening, where she met former first lady Harriet Lane.[4]: 247 


Folsom graduated from Wells on June 20, 1885,[2]: 3  and she spent the summer at her grandfather's home in Wyoming County, New York.[11] Cleveland proposed marriage by letter in August 1885, while Folsom was visiting a friend in Scranton, Pennsylvania.[1]: 140 [4]: 248  After accepting, Folsom accompanied her mother and her cousin on a year-long tour of Europe.[4]: 248  Despite Folsom's eagerness to wed, her mother and her future groom both insisted that she take the opportunity to travel and contemplate her future before marriage.[4]: 248 [7]: 146  Everyone involved agreed to keep the planned wedding a secret,[5]: 269  and the president's sister Rose Cleveland served as White House hostess in the meantime.[5]: 266  Rumors of their engagement were initially dismissed as gossip, as speculation of the president's love life was common. Popular gossip considered Frances' mother to be a more likely partner.[7]: 146 [6]: 106 [12]: 167  Rumors grew after reporters caught up with the Folsoms and found them shopping for a wedding gown.[4]: 249 [5]: 269 

By the time of the Folsoms' return voyage, reporters were tracking their whereabouts, and they were forced to board their ship home in secret.[4]: 249  They were greeted by the press upon returning to the United States, and rumors of Cleveland's interest were seemingly confirmed when representatives of the president took the Folsoms away. It was only the next night that the White House officially announced that the president intended to marry Frances Folsom.[9]: 250  Cleveland visited Folsom in New York while he was in the city attending a Decoration Day parade on May 30, 1886,[4]: 250  and the Folsom women took a train to Washington, D.C., on June 1.[1]: 141  Media attention quickly turned Folsom into a celebrity.[9]: 253 

First Lady of the United States[edit]


A sketch of Grover Cleveland and Frances Folsom in wedding attire with a crowd of guests
"The President's Wedding" by Thure de Thulstrup

The wedding of Grover Cleveland and Frances Folsom took place in the Blue Room of the White House on June 2, 1886.[9]: 253  The president wished for a quiet wedding, so only 31 guests were invited,[1]: 141  and the press was explicitly denied entry.[9]: 253  Hundreds of well-wishers gathered outside of the White House to celebrate.[2]: 9  Frances Cleveland was the first presidential spouse to marry in the White House,[1]: 141  and she was the youngest presidential spouse in American history.[4]: 250  She was 21 years old, and her groom was 49.[5]: 269  After their wedding, the Clevelands went on honeymoon for a week in Deer Park, Maryland,[1]: 141  where they were closely followed by reporters who intruded on their privacy.[2]: 25  After returning to the White House, they held two wedding receptions, one of which was open to the public.[4]: 251 

First term[edit]

Cleveland in a formal gown (1886)

Frances Cleveland was immediately popular as first lady, attracting unprecedented publicity. They drew enough attention that the Clevelands chose not to use the living quarters of the White House. Instead, they moved to their private residence, the "Red Top", to escape from the public and the media.[1]: 142 [6]: 106  Each evening, the couple drove to their private home to oversee improvements.[4]: 251  Cleveland worked with socialite Flora Payne to better prepare for a role in high society.[2]: 29  She also became close friends with poet Richard Watson Gilder and his wife Helena, and Cleveland accompanied them in meeting prominent writers of the time.[2]: 40–44  She stayed involved with Wells College as well, taking a seat on its board of trustees in 1887.[1]: 143 

Cleveland maintained an openness with the public that was not shared by her husband or by her predecessor Rose Cleveland.[5]: 270 [2]: 31  To accommodate all who wished to visit the White House, she hosted many social events on Saturdays to ensure that they did not conflict with the schedules of working women.[6]: 107  Cleveland received countless letters from the American people, many of them asking her to influence the president's granting of patronage jobs. She read all of the mail that she received, but she sought assistance from the president's secretaries in replying,[2]: 39  eventually hiring her friend Minnie Alexander as a personal secretary.[1]: 142  Her openness extended to the White House staff as well, with whom she maintained close relationships.[13]

Cleveland was credited with an increase in the president's sociability after their marriage. The president set aside time in his busy schedule to be with his wife, attending the theater and going on carriage rides.[2]: 30  While Cleveland had considerable influence in their home life, she had little involvement in the political aspects of her husband's administration.[12]: 170  Her popularity nonetheless served her husband's administration well. Many of the president's political opponents acknowledged the difficulty of attacking the administration when the first lady had such support, and critics were careful not to attack her directly lest they provoke backlash. She was once even sent as the president's representative during the Great Tariff Debate of 1888 to quietly observe from the visitors' gallery.[9]: 262–263 

In 1887, the Clevelands toured the United States. Frances endured a severe insect bite and a black eye, and she spent so much time shaking hands that she needed to use an ice pack each night.[1]: 142  Crowds of people became a constant on their trip, often preventing their carriage from moving.[4]: 253  Their visit to Chicago was attended by about 100,000 people, with the crowd becoming so large that Cleveland had to be taken away by aides for her own safety while police and soldiers attempted to control the crowd.[4]: 252  Cleveland avoided such publicized appearances for the rest of her time as first lady.[4]: 253 

Toward the end of the president's first term, opponents began crafting rumors to diminish her reputation.[9]: 265  One rumor suggested that Grover was abusive toward Frances. In response, Frances praised her husband and harshly condemned the rumor as a political smear.[5]: 270  For the first lady to speak so openly about such a topic was unprecedented.[6]: 107  Another rumor suggested that she was unfaithful to her husband, having an affair with newspaper editor Henry Watterson.[3] She remained a prominent figure when her husband sought reelection in the 1888 presidential election. The 1888 Democratic National Convention was the first such convention in which a first lady was recognized during a speech.[9]: 267 

Private life[edit]

Grover Cleveland, Frances Cleveland, and Elisa Benedict stand on the deck of a boat
Cleveland with her husband and Elias Cornelius Benedict on the Oneida steam-yacht in 1890

Cleveland's tenure as first lady ended after her husband lost his reelection campaign, but she correctly predicted to the staff that they would return the following term. The Clevelands left the White House, sold the Red Top house, and moved to Madison Avenue in New York.[1]: 143  Cleveland struggled with the transition from public to private life, having never run a private household of her own.[2]: 62  She underwent a period of depression over the following months, and she retreated to the Gilders' cottage in Marion, Massachusetts.[2]: 66  The Clevelands found a cottage to rent in the area,[4]: 255  and they eventually purchased the Gray Gables summer home in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, where the couple developed their own private home life. Here they often hosted close friends, including the Gilders and actor Joseph Jefferson. Cleveland found comfort in this house, where she and her husband could lead a relatively normal life.[2]: 72 

Despite no longer being the first lady, Cleveland remained in the public spotlight.[9]: 273  In between her tenures as first lady, Cleveland took on charity work and grew more involved in New York social life through her charitable projects.[2]: 72  Although they occasionally worked together on these projects, Frances and Grover for the most part led separate social lives after leaving the White House.[2]: 66  Among her charitable endeavors was the promotion of kindergartens in New York, serving as the vice president of Gilder's New York Kindergarten Association.[2]: 70  Frances received further attention when she became a mother with the birth of Ruth Cleveland in 1891.[9]: 273  She dedicated herself to the child, taking on many of the roles that a woman of her status would have typically given to a nurse, such as bathing the child.[2]: 74 

Grover ran for president again in the 1892 presidential election. Although he never approved of it, Frances' image was often used prominently in campaign material.[1]: 144  Her social connections and press coverage were valuable for the Cleveland campaign in New York. Her charity work in the state and her friendship with the Gilders enabled the Clevelands to build connections with New York's Four Hundred society and helped win over disaffected Republicans. These factors contributed to Grover winning in his home state, which he had failed to do in 1888. Nonetheless, he disapproved of any involvement his wife had in the political aspects of his career.[2]: 77–78  After Grover was reelected president, the Clevelands left their home on Madison Avenue, spending the period before the inauguration living on 51st Street next door to their friend Elias Cornelius Benedict and then in Lakewood, New Jersey.[4]: 255 

Second term[edit]

A portrait of Frances Cleveland
Cleveland in February 1897

The Clevelands returned to the White House on March 4, 1893.[2]: 80  Just as her husband was the only man to ever hold the presidency for two non-consecutive terms, Frances became the only first lady to serve non-consecutively.[9]: 274  She was more apprehensive about taking the role for a second time, now being aware of all that it entailed.[2]: 83 [9]: 275  Her routine largely resembled that of her first tenure, including her evening drives with the president[2]: 82  and her Saturday receptions.[9]: 275  She received the familiar crowds that she had encountered during her previous time as first lady as well as heads of state, including one instance in which she disregarded precedent by meeting with Infanta Eulalia of Spain at her hotel.[1]: 144  She also continued her work in the establishment of kindergartens[2]: 82  and became involved with the Home for Friendless Colored Girls, visiting the Metropolitan African Methodist Episcopal Church with the group in 1896.[5]: 271 

Cleveland became increasingly protective of her husband during his second term—a reversal of their relationship in his first term. The president's work grew more difficult as the Panic of 1893 set in, and Cleveland found herself tending to her husband.[9]: 276  The president's health was in decline during his second term, and his wife became increasingly responsible for his well-being, encouraging him to exert himself less.[7]: 149  When it became apparent that the president had cancer, she took responsibility for keeping his condition a secret and tending to his health, despite her pregnancy with her second child, which at this time was in its seventh month. She provided excuses for his absences and wrote letters on his behalf, insisting that he was merely suffering from rheumatism.[9]: 276 

Cleveland had two more daughters as first lady: Esther Cleveland in 1893 and Marion Cleveland in 1895.[1]: 144  She gave birth to Esther in the White House, making her the only first lady to give birth in the presidential residence.[2]: 94  Much of her time was dedicated to raising her three children,[1]: 144  and she would even play on the floor with her children, to the shock of the servants who had never before seen a first lady act in such a manner.[9]: 277  Cleveland also took an interest in German culture during her husband's second term, learning to speak the language and hiring a German nurse so her children would learn it as well.[2]: 104  Cleveland's time was split between her responsibilities as first lady and those as a mother. Her second term was not as socially active as her first, and she hosted only one reception in the 1894 social season.[2]: 99 

The Clevelands were upset at the extent of press and public attention focused on their children, and they controversially had the White House closed to the public while they were present.[2]: 96  They purchased another private residence, Woodley, where they could live away from the White House.[1]: 144  Harassment from the public continued at their new residence, and Cleveland was particularly frightened by an incident in 1894 when three men were stalking their home. Fearing for her children's safety, she had the local police station post a guard at their home, choosing not to worry her husband with the news.[9]: 278 

Three thousand people attended the first lady's final Saturday reception to shake her hand.[9]: 281  Cleveland wept as she left the White House,[7]: 149  personally saying goodbye to each member of the staff.[2]: 107  This organized farewell would be replicated by future first ladies, becoming a tradition.[13] Despite her emotional departure, she later expressed relief that she was no longer first lady, remembering the rumors and falsehoods that had surrounded her.[9]: 300 

Widowhood and remarriage[edit]

Frances and her husband stand side by side
Frances with her second husband Thomas J. Preston Jr. in 1913

After leaving the White House for the second time, the Clevelands bought Westland, a house in Princeton, New Jersey. They had two more children over the following years: Richard F. Cleveland and Francis Cleveland. Their firstborn daughter, Ruth, died of diphtheria in 1904 at their Gray Gables vacation home. Wishing to avoid memories of their child's illness and death, they sold the home and purchased Intermont, a summer home in Tamworth, New Hampshire.[1]: 145 [4]: 257  The Clevelands involved themselves with Princeton University and provided financial support for many Princeton students.[2]: 110  Grover died in 1908, and Frances was left to raise their four remaining children alone.[6]: 108  She refused the pension to which she was legally entitled as a widowed first lady,[1]: 145  but she did accept the franking privilege that was offered to presidential widows in 1909.[9]: 336 

In March 1909, she held a memorial service for her husband at Carnegie Hall.[2]: 122–123  After her husband's death, Cleveland became involved in a legal battle against writer Broughton Brandenburg, who had been paid by The New York Times for an article supposedly written by Grover Cleveland before his death, but which was found to be a forgery created by Brandenburg. She was unable to prevent its publication after she discovered that it was fraudulent. She testified against Brandenburg in court, and he was found guilty of grand larceny. The ordeal made national headlines.[2]: 120–121  Still grieving for her husband, Cleveland spent time away on a vacation to Europe with her family from September 1909 to May 1910.[2]: 122–127 

On October 29, 1912, Wells College announced that Cleveland intended to remarry. She was engaged to Thomas J. Preston Jr., professor of archaeology and acting president at Wells College, where she served as a trustee.[2]: 128–129  She was invited to return to the White House for a dinner to celebrate her engagement in January 1913, much to the excitement of the staff who had known her previously.[2]: 130–131 [9]: 336–337  As with her previous engagement, she was secretive about the process to limit media attention. Both Wells College and Princeton University congratulated them with the expectation that the couple would be active at their respective campuses.[2]: 130  Frances Cleveland and Thomas Preston were wed on February 10, 1913.[4]: 258  She was the first presidential widow to remarry.[6]: 108  After their marriage, the Prestons went on honeymoon in Florida.[2]: 134  Her second husband went on to teach at Princeton University, where she continued to be a prominent figure in campus social life.[7]: 149 

Later life[edit]

Frances Cleveland stands holding a trowel
Cleveland with a trowel at a building foundation ceremony

The Prestons moved to London in April 1914.[3] Frances Cleveland-Preston was vacationing with her children and her mother in St. Moritz, Switzerland, when World War I began in August 1914. They returned to the United States via Genoa, arriving on October 1.[2]: 139–141  Cleveland-Preston and her husband worked with activists Solomon Stanwood Menken and Robert McNutt McElroy throughout the war to promote military preparedness.[2]: 142–143  She was appointed head of the speakers' bureau of the National Security League (NSL), where she was responsible for organizing rallies and other events to support the war effort.[4]: 258  She caused controversy by accusing some Americans of being unassimilated, and she resigned from her position on December 8, 1919, after backlash to what some in the NSL saw as overzealous views around patriotic education.[3]

Cleveland-Preston became more outspoken in her political beliefs as she grew older, taking a prominent position as an opponent of women's suffrage and serving as the vice president of the New Jersey Association Opposed to Woman's Suffrage from 1913 to 1920.[2]: 134  In the 1928 presidential election, she gave her only formal political endorsement to someone other than her first husband, endorsing Al Smith for president. She had met the Smiths and grew upset with the anti-Catholic attacks against them.[9]: 429  She was especially sympathetic to his wife Catherine, and Cleveland-Preston made a point of sitting with her at events as a show of support.[4]: 258 

Cleveland-Preston supported Franklin D. Roosevelt as president in 1932,[9]: 451  and she admired his wife Eleanor Roosevelt,[9]: 473  but she declined to vote for Roosevelt in 1940 due to her first husband's opposition to a third term.[9]: 506  She subsequently supported Harry S. Truman.[9]: 526  During the Truman presidency, she was invited to a luncheon at the White House where she met General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Eisenhower is quoted as not recognizing her and asking where in the city she used to live, prompting her to respond that she had lived in the White House.[1]: 145 [7]: 150 

Later in life, Cleveland-Preston was afflicted by cataracts, and she learned Braille to use a braille typewriter.[1]: 145  She continued to use it after her cataracts were removed, translating books into braille for blind children.[2]: 161  She was involved with the theater community in her old age, sometimes traveling with the theater troupe founded by her son.[9]: 527  Cleveland-Preston attended the Princeton University bicentennial celebration in June 1946, which proved to be her final public appearance.[3] While staying at her son Richard's home for his 50th birthday in Baltimore, she died in her sleep at the age of 83 on October 29, 1947.[14] She was buried in Princeton Cemetery next to President Cleveland.[15]


A painting of Frances Cleveland
Frances Cleveland by Anders Zorn, 1899

Cleveland was much-loved as first lady, drawing an unprecedented level of media and public attention.[1]: 142 [6]: 106  Her travels and activities were meticulously documented by reporters, to the president's ire.[2]: 33–34  The furor at times even became dangerous, with large crowds pushing to see her, threatening to topple into her and one another.[9]: 257  Her presence in the White House mitigated her husband's surly reputation and fostered an image of the president as a loving husband, and later as a loving father.[3]

Cleveland's reputation influenced the role of first lady for generations after her tenure.[6]: 106  The form letters used by Cleveland as first lady remained in use, eventually being redrafted by Eleanor Roosevelt.[9]: 459  In honor of Frances Cleveland, Cleveland Hall was constructed in 1911 on the Wells College campus.[16] Contemporaries ranked her among the greatest of first ladies.[2]: 59  In 1982, the Siena College Research Institute polled historians on the performances of first ladies; Cleveland was placed 13th out of 42, but the 2008 edition of the poll placed her 20th of 38.[17]

Fashion and image[edit]

Much of Cleveland's fame and media coverage focused on her appearance and her fashion,[4]: 258  and her fashion choices were widely imitated by women throughout the United States.[1]: 142 [6]: 106  These included her hairstyle, a low knot over a shaved nape, which became known as the á la Cleveland.[9]: 253  Her fashion choices and purchases influenced the behavior of consumers, and products she reportedly used enjoyed an increase in popularity. An article published by the Atlanta Constitution falsely stated that she no longer purchased bustles, causing a decline in their popularity.[12]: 173–174 [5]: 270  The Woman's Christian Temperance Union wrote to her requesting that she dress more modestly, fearing that she was setting a poor example. She declined to do so.[1]: 143 

Cleveland's immense popularity led to the extensive use of her image in advertising, and many products falsely claimed to have her endorsement. It became such a problem that a bill was introduced to Congress that would establish personality rights for women and criminalize the unauthorized use of a person's image, but the bill did not pass.[9]: 263–264  Cleveland updated her fashion choices during her husband's second term. Reflecting the trends of the Gay Nineties, she wore tight gowns, feather boas, and picture hats.[9]: 275  News articles on her activities continued to reference her sense of fashion in her old age.[2]: 162 


Although she was personally interested in politics, Cleveland did not publicly support political causes while serving as first lady.[6]: 107 [7]: 148  One exception to her avoidance of politics was her interest in the political situation of the Republic of Hawaii, where she endorsed the restoration of monarchy with Princess Ka'iulani's claim to the throne as the heir apparent.[3] She also supported the temperance movement, personally abstaining from alcohol and donating to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union,[1]: 142  but she was unwilling to impose these beliefs on others and continued to serve wine at White House receptions.[6]: 107 

She worked with charity groups, including the Needlework Guild, which made clothes for the poor,[1]: 142  and the Christmas Club and the Colored Christmas Club, which gave gifts to children during the holiday season.[5]: 271  Cleveland's activism focused heavily on the arts, and she was a supporter of international copyright protections, attending a convention on the subject while first lady in 1888.[2]: 50–51  She also provided charitable support, sponsoring many aspiring musicians.[9]: 259 

Cleveland supported women's education and believed it to be an important step in gender equality.[1]: 143 [9]: 260  She did not support women's suffrage, and she avoided commenting on the controversial issue during her tenure as first lady.[5]: 271 [9]: 260  Like many female anti-suffragists of her generation, she felt that politics was an unfortunate duty to be avoided and that it risked women's control of the domestic sphere.[2]: 134–135  Despite this, she chose to vote in elections after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.[2]: 135–136 


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Schneider, Dorothy; Schneider, Carl J. (2010). "Frances (Frank) Folsom Cleveland". First Ladies: A Biographical Dictionary (3rd ed.). Facts on File. pp. 139–146. ISBN 978-1-4381-0815-5.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd Dunlap, Annette (2009). Frank: The Story of Frances Folsom Cleveland, America's Youngest First Lady. Excelsior Editions. ISBN 978-1-4384-2817-8. Archived from the original on March 23, 2023. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "First Lady Biography: Frances Cleveland". National First Ladies' Library. Archived from the original on November 20, 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Severn, Sue (1996). "Frances (Clara) Folsom Cleveland". In Gould, Lewis L. (ed.). American First Ladies: Their Lives and Their Legacy. Garland Publishing. pp. 243–259. ISBN 978-0-8153-1479-0.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Scofield, Merry Ellen (2016). "Rose Cleveland, Frances Cleveland, Caroline Harrison, Mary McKee". In Sibley, Katherine A. S. (ed.). A Companion to First Ladies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 265–282. ISBN 978-1-118-73218-2. Archived from the original on March 23, 2023. Retrieved October 18, 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Caroli, Betty Boyd (2010). First Ladies: From Martha Washington to Michelle Obama. Oxford University Press. pp. 105–108. ISBN 978-0-19-539285-2.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Watson, Robert P. (2001). First Ladies of the United States: A Biographical Dictionary. Lynne Rienner Publishers. pp. 144–150. doi:10.1515/9781626373532. ISBN 978-1-62637-353-2. S2CID 249333854.
  8. ^ Longo, James McMurtry (2011). From Classroom to White House: The Presidents and First Ladies as Students and Teachers. McFarland. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-7864-8846-9.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Anthony, Carl Sferrazza (1990). First Ladies: The Saga of the Presidents' Wives and Their Power, 1789–1961. William Morrow and Company. ISBN 978-0-688-11272-1.
  10. ^ Robar, Stephen F. (2004). Frances Clara Folsom Cleveland. Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59454-150-6.
  11. ^ Williams, Francis Howard (1886). The Bride of the White House. Bradley & Company. pp. 7–9. LCCN 07017439.
  12. ^ a b c Boller, Paul F. Jr. (1988). Presidential Wives. Oxford University Press. pp. 166–175. ISBN 978-0-19-503763-0.
  13. ^ a b Feinberg, Barbara Silberdick (1998). America's First Ladies: Changing Expectations. Franklin Watts. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-531-11379-0.
  14. ^ "Cleveland's Widow Dies at Age of 83". Hartford Courant. Associated Press. October 30, 1947. p. 4. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved June 1, 2020 – via
  15. ^ Strauss, Robert (September 17, 2013). "Where Princeton Buries Its Departed VIPs". New Jersey Monthly. Archived from the original on December 2, 2022. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  16. ^ "Cleveland Hall of Languages". Wells College. March 7, 2003. Archived from the original on June 14, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  17. ^ "Ranking America's First Ladies" (PDF). Siena Research Institute. December 18, 2002. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 22, 2021. Retrieved November 16, 2022.

External links[edit]

Honorary titles
Preceded by First Lady of the United States
Succeeded by
Preceded by First Lady of the United States
Succeeded by