Frances Harper

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Frances Harper
Women of distinction - remarkable in works and invincible in character (1893) (14598047448).jpg
BornFrances Ellen Watkins
September 24, 1825
Baltimore, Maryland
DiedFebruary 22, 1911(1911-02-22) (aged 85)
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
GenrePoetry, short story, essays
Notable worksIola Leroy (1892)
SpouseFenton Harper (m. 1860)
ChildrenMary Frances Harper (1862–1908)

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (September 24, 1825 – February 22, 1911) was an abolitionist, suffragist, poet, teacher, public speaker, and writer, one of the first African American women to be published in the United States.

Born free in Baltimore, Maryland, she had a long and prolific career, publishing her first book of poetry at the age of 20. At 67, she published her novel Iola Leroy (1892), which was widely praised.

As a young woman in 1850, she taught sewing at Union Seminary in Columbus, Ohio, a school affiliated with the AME Church.[1] In 1851, alongside William Still, chairman of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, she helped refugee slaves make their way along the Underground Railroad on their way to Canada. In 1853 she began her career as a public speaker and political activist after joining the American Anti-Slavery Society.

Her collection Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (1854) became her biggest commercial success. Her short story "Two Offers" was published in the Anglo-African in 1859, making literary history as the first short story published by a black woman.

Harper founded, supported, and held high office in several national progressive organizations. In 1883 she became superintendent of the Colored Section of the Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Women's Christian Temperance Union. In 1894 she helped found the National Association of Colored Women and served as its vice president. Harper died aged 85 on February 22, 1911, nine years before women gained the right to vote.

Life and works[edit]

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper

Early life and education[edit]

Frances Ellen Watkins was born free in 1825 in Baltimore, Maryland, (then a slave state), the only child of free parents.[2] Her parents, whose names are not known, both died in 1828, making Watkins an orphan at the age of three years. She was raised by her maternal aunt and uncle, Henrietta and Rev. William Watkins, who gave her their last name.[3]

Frances Watkins' uncle was the minister at the Sharp Street African Methodist Episcopal Church. She was educated at the Watkins Academy for Negro Youth, which he had established in 1820.[4] As a civil rights activist and abolitionist, Rev. Watkins was a major influence on his niece's life and work.[5][6]

Working life[edit]

At 13, Watkins found work as a seamstress. She also worked as a nursemaid for a white family who owned a bookshop. She was able to use her spare time to read from the books in the shop and work on her own writing.[4] By the age of 21, she published Forest Leaves, a book of her collected poetry. This work was considered lost[4] but was rediscovered in a Baltimore collection in the early 21st century.

When she was 26, Harper moved from Baltimore to teach domestic science at Union Seminary, an AME-affiliated school for black students near Columbus, Ohio. The following year she took a position at a school in York, Pennsylvania.[1]

Writing career[edit]

Her writing career started in 1839 when she published pieces in antislavery journals.[7] Her politics and writing informed each other, including in her writing. Her writing career started long before she was married, 20 years to be exact, so several of her works were published under her maiden name of Watkins.

She published her first volume of verse, Forest Leaves, or Autumn Leaves, in 1845 when she was 20 years old. A single copy of this volume, long lost, was rediscovered in the early 21st century by scholar Johanna Ortner in Baltimore, of the Maryland Historical Society.[8] Her second book, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects (1854), was extremely popular. Over the next few years, it was reprinted numerous times.

In 1859, her story "The Two Offers" was published in Anglo-African Magazine; she was the first Black woman to publish a short story.[9] That same year Anglo-African Magazine published her essay "Our Greatest Want," in which she linked the common religious trope of oppression of African Americans to the oppression of the Hebrew people while enslaved in Egypt.[10] Anglo-African Magazine and the weekly Anglo-African newspaper were both Civil War-era periodicals that served as a forum for debate among abolitionists and scholars.[11]

Harper published 80 poems. In her poem "The Slave Mother", she writes: "He is not hers, although she bore / For him a mother's pains; / He is not hers, although her blood / Is coursing through his veins! / He is not hers, for cruel hands / May rudely tear apart / The only wreath of household love / That binds her breaking heart." Throughout the two stanzas, Harper demonstrates the restricted relationship between an enslaved mother and her child, while including themes of family, motherhood, humanity and slavery.[12]

She published Sketches of Southern Life in 1872. It detailed her experience touring the South and meeting newly freed Black people. In these poems she described the harsh living conditions faced by a black woman during both slavery and the Reconstruction era. After the Civil War, she continued to fight for the rights of women and African Americans, and was involved in many other social causes. She uses the figure of an ex-slave, called Aunt Chloe, as a narrator in several of these sketches.[13]

From 1868 to 1888, Harper had three novels serialized in a Christian magazine. But she was better known for what was long considered her first novel, Iola Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted (1892), published as a book when she was 67. While using the conventions of the time, she dealt with serious social issues, including education for women, the social passing as white of mixed-race people, miscegenation, abolition, reconstruction, temperance, and social responsibility. The novel follows a woman in the antebellum era whose racial appearance is ambiguous; before his death, her white father tells her that she was born to an enslaved woman. Revealed as born into slavery because of this, Iola s bound into slavery again.[7]

Teaching and public activism[edit]

In 1850, Watkins moved to Ohio, where she worked as the first female teacher at Union Seminary, established by the Ohio Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME Church). Union closed in 1863 when the AME Church diverted its funds to purchase Wilberforce University, the first black-owned and operated college. The school in Wilberforce was run by the Rev. John Mifflin Brown, later a bishop in the AME Church.[14] After teaching for two years, she left to take a teaching position in Little York, Pennsylvania.[15][failed verification]

In 1853, Watkins joined the American Anti-Slavery Society and became a traveling lecturer for the group. In 1854, Watkins delivered her first anti-slavery speech on "Education and the Elevation of Colored Race." The success of this speech resulted in a two-year lecture tour in Maine for the Anti-Slavery Society. She continued to travel, lecturing throughout the East and Midwest from 1856 to 1860. She settled in New Bedford, Maine, about which Harper wrote: "Dear old New England! It was there kindness encompassed my path; it was there kind voices made their music in my ear. The home of my childhood, the burial-place of my kindred, is not as dear to me as New England."

After the Civil War ended in 1865 she moved south to teach newly freed black people during the Reconstruction. During this time she also gave many large public speeches.

Progressive causes[edit]

Mrs. Francis E. Watkins-Harper, 1902.

Frances Watkins Harper was a strong supporter of abolitionism, prohibition and woman's suffrage, progressive causes that were connected before and after the American Civil War.[13] She was also active in the Unitarian Church, which supported abolitionism. Harper wrote to John Brown after he had been arrested and before his execution: "I thank you that you have been brave enough to reach out your hands to the crushed and blighted of my race; I hope from your sad fate great good may arise to the cause of freedom."[16]

In 1858 she refused to give up her seat or ride in the "colored" section of a segregated trolley car in Philadelphia[17] (100 years before Rosa Parks). She published her poem, "Bury Me in a Free Land," in The Anti-Slavery Bugle and it became one of her best known works.[18] She traveled on a lecture tour and often read her poetry at these public meetings.

In 1866, Harper gave a moving speech before the National Women's Rights Convention, demanding equal rights for all, including Black women. She stated:

"We are all bound up together in one great bundle of humanity, and society cannot trample on the weakest and feeblest of its members without receiving the curse in its own soul. You tried that in the case of the Negro...You white women speak here of rights. I speak of wrongs. I, as a colored woman, have had in this country an education which has made me feel as if I were in the situation of Ishmael, my hand against every man, and every man's hand against me...While there exists this brutal element in society which tramples upon the feeble and treads down the weak, I tell you that if there is any class of people who need to be lifted out of their airy nothings and selfishness, it is the white women of America."[14]

This speech had repercussions throughout the woman's suffrage movement and displayed black suffragists desire for equality not just with white men, but also white women. Harper's commitment to equal rights also led her to help found the American Woman Suffrage Association and reject the racist comments of fellow suffragists Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony who did not support the Fifteenth Amendment's aim of enfranchising black men without extending the right of suffrage to women.[19]

During the Reconstruction Era, in 1870 she worked with the Freedmen's Bureau encouraging many freedmen[13] in Mobile Alabama, to "get land, everyone that can" so they could vote and act independently once Congress passed the Fifteenth amendment.[15][failed verification] This experience inspired her poems published in Sketches Of Southern Life (1872). She uses the figure of an ex-slave, called Aunt Chloe, as a narrator in several of these.[13]

Harper was active in the growing number of Black organizations and came to believe that Black reformers had to be able to set their own priorities. From 1883 to 1890, she helped organize events and programs for the National Woman's Christian Temperance Union. She had worked with members of the original WCTU, because "it was the most important women's organization to push for expanding federal power."[20] In her role as superintendent of the Colored Section of the Philadelphia and Pennsylvania WCTU, Harper facilitated both access and independent organizing for black women, promoting the collective action of all women as a matter of both justice and morality.[19] "Activists like Harper and Frances Willard campaigned not only for racial and sexual equality but also for a new understanding of the federal government's responsibility to protect rights, regulate morality, and promote social welfare".[20] Harper was a friend and mentor to many other African American writers and journalists, including Mary Shadd Cary, Ida B. Wells, Victoria Earle Matthews, and Kate D. Chapman.[21]

Harper was disappointed when Willard gave priority to white women's concerns, rather than support Black women's goals of gaining federal support for an anti-lynching law, defense of black rights, or abolition of the convict lease system.[20] Together with Mary Church Terrell, Harper helped organize the National Association of Colored Women in 1894, and was elected vice president in 1897.

Personal life[edit]

Frances Harper's home at 1006 Bainbridge St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was built ca. 1870. She lived here through her old age until her death in 1911.

In 1860, Frances Watkins married a widower named Fenton Harper. They had a daughter together, named Mary Frances Harper, and he had three children from a previous marriage. When he died four years later, the widow Harper was left with all four children to care for and support. She continued to live in Philadelphia for the rest of her life.

Frances Harper died of heart failure on February 22, 1911, at the age of 86.[9] Her funeral service was held at the Unitarian Church on Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. She was buried in Eden Cemetery in Collingdale, Pennsylvania, next to her daughter, Mary, who had died two years before.

Selected works[edit]

  • Forest Leaves, verse, 1845
  • Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects, 1854
  • The Two Offers, 1859
  • Moses: A Story of the Nile, 1869
  • Sketches of Southern Life, 1872
  • Light Beyond the Darkness, 1890
  • The Martyr of Alabama and Other Poems, 1894
  • Iola Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted, novel, 1892
  • Idylls of the Bible, 1901
  • In Memoriam, Wm. McKinley, 1901
  • Free Labor

In addition, the following three novels were originally published in serial form in the Christian Recorder between 1868 and 1888:[22]

  • Minnie's Sacrifice
  • Sowing and Reaping
  • Trial and Triumph

Legacy and honors[edit]

  • Numerous African-American women's service clubs are named in her honor. Across the nation, in cities such as St. Louis, St. Paul, and Pittsburgh, F. E. W. Harper Leagues and Frances E. Harper Women's Christian Temperance Unions thrived well into the twentieth century.[23]
  • A historical marker was installed to commemorate her by her home at 1006 Bainbridge Street, Philadelphia. (See marker at left side of photo above.)
  • A women's honors dormitory was named for her and Harriet Tubman at Morgan State University in Baltimore, Maryland; it is commonly referred to as Harper-Tubman, or simply Harper.
  • An excerpt from her poem "Bury Me in a Free Land" is inscribed on a wall of the Contemplative Court, a space for reflection in the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture. The excerpt reads: "I ask no monument, proud and high to arrest the gaze of the passers-by; all that my yearning spirit craves is bury me not in a land of slaves."[24]
  • Her poem "Bury Me in a Free Land" was recited in Ava DuVernay's film August 28: A Day in the Life of a People, which debuted at the 2016 opening of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African American History and Culture.[25]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bacon, Margaret Hope (1989). ""One Great Bundle of Humanity": Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825–1911)". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 113 (1): 23–24.
  2. ^ Busby, Margaret, "Frances Ellen Watkins Harper", in Daughters of Africa, 1992, p. 81.
  3. ^ Jackson, Tricia Williams (2016). Women in Black History: Stories of Courage, Faith, and Resilience. Revell. pp. 58–65.
  4. ^ a b c Bacon, Margaret Hope (1989). ""One Great Bundle of Humanity": Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825–1911)". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 113 (1): 23.
  5. ^ Robbins, Hollis (ed.), "Introduction," Iola Leroy, or, Shadows Uplifted, Penguin Classics, 2010.
  6. ^ "Frances Ellen Watkins". University of Minnesota. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Showalter, Elaine (2011). The Vintage Book of American Women Writers. Vintage Books. pp. 176–183.
  8. ^ Robbins, Hollis, and Henry Louis Gates, Jr (eds), The Portable Nineteenth-Century African American Women Writers, Penguin, 2017, p. 283.
  9. ^ a b Biography.com Editors. "Frances E.W. Harper Biography". The Biography.com website. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved February 12, 2016.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  10. ^ Riggs, Marcia Y. (1997). Can I Get A Witness? Prophetic Religious Voices of African American Women: An Anthology. Orbis Books.
  11. ^ Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. "Anglo-African, The". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  12. ^ Constantakis, Sara, ed. (2013). Poetry for students. Volume 44 : presenting analysis, context and criticism on commonly studied poetry. Detroit, Mich.: Gale. ISBN 9781414492780. OCLC 842240078.
  13. ^ a b c d Hine, C. D., C. W. Hine, & S. Harrold (2011). The African American Odyssey. Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
  14. ^ a b "Editorial: The Late Bishop John M. Brown". African Methodist Episcopal Church Review. 10 (1). July 1893. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  15. ^ a b Hubbard, LaRese C. (2008-03-31). "When and Where I Enter". Journal of Black Studies. 40 (2): 283–295. doi:10.1177/0021934707311939. ISSN 0021-9347.
  16. ^ DuBois, Ellen Carol; Dumenil, Lynn (2012). Through Women's Eyes: An American History with Documents (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Bedford/St.Martin's. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-312-67603-2.
  17. ^ "Extracts from a letter of Frances Ellen Watkins" (PDF). The Liberator. April 23, 1858. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  18. ^ Rumens, Carol (February 27, 2017). "Poem of the week: Bury Me in a Free Land by Frances EW Harper | Books". The Guardian.
  19. ^ a b Black women in America. Hine, Darlene Clark. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2005. ISBN 9780195156775. OCLC 57506600.CS1 maint: others (link)
  20. ^ a b c When Harper and her daughter settled in Philadelphia in 1870, she joined the First Unitarian Church. Corinne T. Field, "'Articulating Rights: Nineteenth-Century American Women on Race, Reform, and the State' (review)", The Journal of the Civil War Era, Volume 2, Number 3, September 2012, pp. 465-467 | 10.1353/cwe.2012.0065, accessed 29 September 2014.
  21. ^ Foster, Frances Smith, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911) in Cognard-Black, Jennifer, and Elizabeth MacLeod Walls, eds. Kindred Hands: Letters on Writing by British and American Women Authors, 1865-1935. University of Iowa Press, 2006. p43
  22. ^ Frances Smith Foster, ed., Minnie's Sacrifice, Sowing and Reaping, Trial and Triumph: Three Rediscovered Novels by Frances E. W. Harper, 1994
  23. ^ Gates, Henry Louis; Nellie Y. McKay, eds. (1996). The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 491. ISBN 978-0-393-04001-2.
  24. ^ Keyes, Allison (2017). ""In This Quiet Space for Contemplation, a Fountain Rains Down Calming Waters"". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  25. ^ Gooden, Tai (August 28, 2018). "Ava Du Vernay's 'August 28' Delves Into Just How Monumental That Date Is To Black History In America". Bustle.com. Retrieved August 30, 2018.

Further reading[edit]

  • Parker, Alison M. (2010). Articulating Rights: Nineteenth-Century American Women on Race, Reform, and the State, Northern Illinois University Press, 97–138.
  • Parker, Alison M. (2012). Susan B. Anthony and the Struggle for Equal Rights, University of Rochester Press, 145–171.
  • Cutter, Martha J., "The Politics of Hybridity in Frances Harper's Iola Leroy", Unruly Tongue: Identity and Voice in American Women's Writing 1850 – 1930, University Press of Mississippi/Jackson, 1999, 141–160.
  • "Unsolved Mysteries and Emerging Histories: Frances E. Harper's Iola Leroy", John Ernest, Resistance and Reformation in Nineteenth-century African-American Literature, University Press of Mississippi/Jackson, 1995, 180–207.
  • Shockley, Ann Allen, Afro-American Women Writers 1746–1933: An Anthology and Critical Guide, New Haven, Connecticut: Meridian Books, 1989.
  • Boyd, Melba Joyce, Discarded Legacy: Politics and Poetics in the Life of Frances E. W. Harper, 1825–1911. Wayne State University Press, 1995.
  • Smith Foster, Frances, ed., A Brighter Coming Day: A Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Reader, 1990.
  • Field, Corinne T., "Frances E. W. Harper and the Politics of Intellectual Maturity", in Mia Bay, Farah J. Griffin, Martha S. Jones, and Barbara D. Savage (eds), Toward An Intellectual History of Black Women, The University of North Carolina Press Chapel Hill, 2015, 110–126.
  • Carby, Hazel, "Introduction" to Iola Leroy. Beacon Press, 1987.
  • Graham, Maryemma, ed., The Complete Poems of Frances E. W. Harper, 1988.
  • Ernest, John, Resistance and Reformation in Nineteenth-Century African-American Literature, 1995.

External links[edit]