Frances M. Beal
|Frances M. Beal|
January 13, 1940 |
Binghamton, New York, U.S.
|Residence||Oakland, California, U.S.|
Life and career
Beal was born in Binghamton, NY to Charlotte Berman Yates and Ernest Yates. Her mother's Russian Jewish immigrant background and father's African American and Native American ancestry, along with their experiences with antisemitism and racism, inspired her later work as an activist.
In 1968, she co-founded the Black Women's Liberation Committee of SNCC.
She wrote "Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female" in 1969. That pamphlet was later revised and then published in The Black Woman, an anthology edited by Toni Cade Bambara in 1970. A revised version of "Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female" also appears in the 1970 anthology Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From The Women's Liberation Movement, edited by Robin Morgan. Beal later moved to California, and she was an associate editor of The Black Scholar and wrote for the San Francisco Bay View.
- "Black Women's Manifesto; Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female"
- "Frederick Douglass’ Legacy for Our Times"
- "Cengage Learning". Accessmylibrary.com. Retrieved 2015-10-16.
- Beal, Frances (March 18, 2005). Voices of Feminism Oral History Project (PDF). Interview with Loretta J. Ross. Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College. Oakland, CA.
- "Women's History Month 2012: Frances M. Beal". Social Justice For All. Retrieved 2016-02-24.
-  Archived February 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Frances M. Beal, Black Women's Manifesto; Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female". Hartford-hwp.com. Retrieved 2015-10-16.
- "Sisterhood is powerful : an anthology of writings from the women's liberation movement (Book, 1970)". [WorldCat.org]. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement — Frances M. Beal". Crmvet.org. Retrieved 2015-10-16.