Frances M. Beal

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Frances M. Beal
Born ( 1940-01-13) January 13, 1940 (age 76)
Binghamton, New York, U.S.
Residence Oakland, California, U.S.
Occupation activist

Frances M. Beal (born January 13, 1940 Binghamton, New York) is a Black feminist and a peace and justice political activist.[1]

Life and career[edit]

Beal was born in Binghamton, NY to Charlotte Berman Yates and Ernest Yates.[2] Her mother's Russian Jewish immigrant background and father's African American and Native American ancestry, along with their experiences with antisemitism and racism, inspired her later work as an activist.[2][3]

After her father's death, she moved to St. Albans, an integrated neighborhood in Queens.

In 1958, she began work in political activism with the NAACP.[3] She married James Beal; they had two children. They lived in France, from 1959 to 1966, as she attended the Sorbonne.

In 1968, she co-founded the Black Women's Liberation Committee of SNCC.

She wrote "Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female" in 1969.[4] That pamphlet was later revised and then published in The Black Woman, an anthology edited by Toni Cade Bambara in 1970. A revised version of "Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female" also appears in the 1970 anthology Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writings From The Women's Liberation Movement, edited by Robin Morgan.[5][6] Beal later moved to California, and she was an associate editor of The Black Scholar and wrote for the San Francisco Bay View.

Beal now lives in Oakland.[1][7]



  1. ^ a b "Cengage Learning". Retrieved 2015-10-16. 
  2. ^ a b Beal, Frances (March 18, 2005). Voices of Feminism Oral History Project (PDF). Interview with Loretta J. Ross. Sophia Smith Collection, Smith College. Oakland, CA. 
  3. ^ a b "Women's History Month 2012: Frances M. Beal". Social Justice For All. Retrieved 2016-02-24. 
  4. ^ [1] Archived February 26, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ "Frances M. Beal, Black Women's Manifesto; Double Jeopardy: To Be Black and Female". Retrieved 2015-10-16. 
  6. ^ "Sisterhood is powerful : an anthology of writings from the women's liberation movement (Book, 1970)". []. Retrieved 2015-05-08. 
  7. ^ "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement &#151 Frances M. Beal". Retrieved 2015-10-16. 

External links[edit]