Frances Xavier Cabrini

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Frances Xavier Cabrini

BornMaria Francesca Cabrini
(1850-07-15)July 15, 1850
Sant'Angelo Lodigiano, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, Austrian Empire
DiedDecember 22, 1917(1917-12-22) (aged 67)
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Resting placeSt. Frances Xavier Cabrini Shrine, Upper Manhattan, New York, United States
Venerated inCatholic Church
BeatifiedNovember 13, 1938, by Pope Pius XI
CanonizedJuly 7, 1946 by Pope Pius XII
Major shrine
  • November 13 (US, 1961 to date)
  • December 22 (elsewhere)

Frances Xavier Cabrini MSC (Italian: Francesca Saverio Cabrini; July 15, 1850 – December 22, 1917), also known as Mother Cabrini, was an Italian-American Catholic religious sister. She founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, a religious institute that was a major support to her fellow Italian immigrants to the United States.[1]

Cabrini was the first U.S. citizen to be canonized a saint by the Catholic Church, on July 7, 1946.[a][2]

Early life[edit]

She was born Maria Francesca Cabrini on July 15, 1850, in Sant'Angelo Lodigiano, in the Lombard Province of Lodi, then part of the Austrian Empire. She was the youngest of the thirteen children of farmers Agostino Cabrini and Stella Oldini.[3] Only four of the thirteen survived beyond adolescence.

Born two months early, she was small and weak as a child and remained in delicate health throughout her life.[2] During her childhood, she visited an uncle, Don Luigi Oldini of Livagra, a priest who lived beside a swift canal. While there, she made little boats of paper, dropped violets in them, called the flowers "missionaries", and launched them to sail off to India and China. At thirteen, Francesca attended a school run by the Daughters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Five years later she graduated cum laude, with a teaching certificate.[4]

After her parents died in 1870, she applied for admission to the Daughters of the Sacred Heart at Arluno. These sisters were her former teachers, but reluctantly, they told her she was too frail for their life.[5] She became the headmistress of the House of Providence orphanage in Codogno, where she taught and drew a small community of women. Cabrini took religious vows in 1877 and added Xavier (Saverio) to her name to honor the Jesuit cofounder Francis Xavier, the patron saint of missionary service. She had planned, like Francis Xavier, to be a missionary in the Far East.[6]

Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus[edit]

In November 1880, Cabrini and seven other women who had taken religious vows with her founded the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (MSC).[7] She wrote the Rule and Constitutions of the religious institute, and she continued as its superior general until her death. The sisters took in orphans and foundlings, opened a day school to help pay expenses, started classes in needlework and sold their fine embroidery to earn a little more money.[4] The institute established seven homes and a free school and nursery in its first five years. Its good works brought Cabrini to the attention of Giovanni Scalabrini, Bishop of Piacenza, and of Pope Leo XIII.

Mission to United States[edit]

Stained glass window in Chesapeake, Virginia, depicting Cabrini

In September 1887, Cabrini went to seek the pope's approval to establish missions in China. Instead, he urged that she go to the United States to help the Italian immigrants who were flooding to that nation, mostly in great poverty. "Not to the East, but to the West" was his advice.[7]

Cabrini left for the United States, arriving in New York City on March 31, 1889, along with six other sisters.[8] In New York she encountered disappointment and difficulties.[7][2] Archbishop Michael Corrigan, who was not immediately supportive, found them housing at the convent of the Sisters of Charity. She obtained the archbishop's permission to found the Sacred Heart Orphan Asylum in rural West Park, New York, later renamed Saint Cabrini Home.

Cabrini organized catechism and education classes for the Italian immigrants and provided for many orphans' needs. She established schools and orphanages despite tremendous odds. She was as resourceful as she was prayerful, finding people who would donate what she needed in money, time, labor, and support.[9] In New York City, she founded Columbus Hospital, which merged with Italian Hospital to become Cabrini Medical Center from 1973 until its closure in 2008.[10][11]

In Chicago, Illinois, the sisters opened Columbus Hospital in Lincoln Park and Columbus Extension Hospital (later renamed Saint Cabrini Hospital) in the heart of the city's Italian neighborhood on the Near West Side. Both hospitals eventually closed.[12][2] Their foundress's name lives on in Chicago's Cabrini Street.

She founded 67 missionary institutions to serve the sick and poor, long before government agencies provided extensive social services – in New York; Chicago and Des Plaines, Illinois; Seattle; New Orleans; Denver and Golden, Colorado; Los Angeles; Philadelphia; and in countries throughout Latin America and Europe.[6] In 1926, nine years after her death, the Missionary Sisters achieved Cabrini's original goal of becoming missionaries to China.[13]

Cabrini was naturalized as a United States citizen in 1909.[6]


Mother Cabrini died from chronic endocarditis at age 67 in Columbus Hospital in Chicago on December 22, 1917,[3]

Her body was initially interred at what became Saint Cabrini Home, the orphanage she founded in West Park, Ulster County, New York.


In 1933, her body was exhumed and divided as part of the process toward sainthood. At that time, her head was removed and is preserved in the chapel of the congregation's international motherhouse in Rome. Her heart is preserved in Codogno, where she founded her missionary order. An arm bone is at her national shrine in Chicago. Most of the rest of her body is at her major shrine in New York.[14]

Cabrini was beatified on November 13, 1938, by Pope Pius XI, and canonized on July 7, 1946, by Pope Pius XII.[9][2] Her beatification miracle involved purportedly restoring the sight of a day-old baby who had been blinded by a 50% silver nitrate solution instead of the normal 1% solution in the child's eyes. The child, named Peter Smith (1921–2002), would later be present at her beatification and become a priest.[15] Her canonization miracle involved the purported healing of a terminally ill member of her congregation. When Cabrini was canonized, an estimated 120,000 people filled Chicago's Soldier Field for a Mass of thanksgiving.[16]

In the Roman Martyrology, her feast day is December 22, the anniversary of her death, the day ordinarily chosen as a saint's feast day.[17] Following the reforms in Pope John XXIII's Code of Rubrics, the United States since 1961 has celebrated Cabrini's feast on November 13, the anniversary of her beatification, to avoid conflicting with the greater ferias of Advent.

In 1950, Pope Pius XII named Frances Xavier Cabrini as the patron saint of immigrants, recognizing her efforts on their behalf across the Americas in schools, orphanages, hospitals, and prisons.[18][19]

Cabrini is also informally recognized as an effective intercessor for finding a parking space. As one priest explained: "She lived in New York City. She understands traffic."[20]


Chicago, Illinois (National Shrine)[edit]

National Shrine in Chicago

After Cabrini's death, her convent room at Columbus Hospital, in Chicago's Lincoln Park neighborhood, became a popular destination for the faithful seeking personal healing and spiritual comfort. Due to the overwhelming number of pilgrims after her canonization in 1946, the Archbishop of Chicago, Cardinal Samuel Stritch, commissioned a large National Shrine in her honor within the hospital complex. He dedicated the shrine in 1955.[21]

The hospital and shrine closed in 2002 to be replaced by a high-rise development on North Lakeview Avenue. Still, the shrine and Cabrini's room were preserved and refurbished during the long demolition and construction period. They were solemnly blessed and re-dedicated by Cardinal Francis George on September 30, 2012, and reopened to the public the next day. The shrine is an architectural gem of gold mosaics, Carrara marble, frescoes, and Florentine stained glass, functioning as a stand-alone center for prayer, worship, spiritual care, and pilgrimage.[21]

Golden, Colorado[edit]

Stone House in Golden, Colorado

In 1904, Cabrini established Denver's Queen of Heaven Orphanage for girls, including many orphans of local Italian miners. In 1910, she purchased a rural property from the town of Golden, on the east slope of Lookout Mountain, as a summer camp for the girls. A small farming operation was established and maintained by three of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart. The camp dormitory, built of native rock and named the Stone House, was completed in 1914 and later listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[22]

Where Cabrini had once located an underground spring on the mountainside, a replica of the Lourdes Grotto was built in 1929, later replaced by a simpler sandstone structure. After Cabrini's canonization, the campsite officially became a shrine. Extensive additions in 1954 included a long Stairway of Prayer for pilgrims following her footpath up the mountain, marked with the Stations of the Cross, leading to a 22-foot (7 m) Statue of Jesus at the highest point of the site.[23]

Queen of Heaven Orphanage closed in 1967, replaced by a system of foster care. The summer campsite became a year-round facility for retreats and small prayer gatherings. A new convent building, completed in 1970, includes housing for the resident Sisters, overnight accommodations for visitors, a chapel dedicated to the Sacred Heart, and an exhibit of artifacts and clothing once used by Cabrini.[22] The statues and stained-glass windows of the chapel came from Villa Cabrini Academy in Burbank, California, a former school founded by the Missionary Sisters.[23]

Upper Manhattan, New York[edit]

Cabrini Shrine in Manhattan

The St. Frances Xavier Cabrini Shrine in the Hudson Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan overlooks the Hudson River, the George Washington Bridge, and the New Jersey Palisades.

As Cabrini's cause for sainthood accelerated in 1933, the Missionary Sisters moved her remains from the Sacred Heart Orphanage she had founded in rural West Park, New York, to the chapel of Sacred Heart Villa, a Catholic school she had founded in Manhattan, freshly renamed Mother Cabrini High School. When it became a popular pilgrimage site with her beatification in 1938, the Sisters enshrined the major portion of her body in a glass-enclosed coffin under the altar of the school chapel. Her 1946 canonization brought a further sustained level of public interest, so in 1957–1960 a larger shrine was built adjoining the school.

When the new shrine was near completion in 1959, her remains were transferred to a large bronze-and-glass reliquary casket in the shrine's altar. She still rests in perpetual display for veneration, covered with her religious habit and a sculpted face mask and hands for more-lifelike viewing.[24]

In addition to accommodating the public, the new shrine also served Cabrini High School students as a place for their liturgies and prayer services until the school closed in 2014.[25] Today, the shrine continues as a center of welcome for new immigrants and pilgrims of many nationalities who come to pray and reflect.[26]

Other shrines[edit]

Shrine in St George's Cathedral, Southwark
  • Southwark, London, England: In St George's Cathedral, Southwark, where Cabrini regularly worshipped during her time in London, a shrine was dedicated to her in 2009, designed by brothers Theodore, James, and Gabriel Gillick. The bronze sculpture depicts the saint watching over a group of migrants standing on a pile of suitcases.[27]
  • Burbank, California, U.S.: Near the site of Villa Cabrini Academy (1937–1970), Burbank's Cabrini shrine consists of a chapel founded by Cabrini in 1916, relocated to St. Francis Xavier Church and renovated during 1973–1975, and joined by a library wing in 1993. The Italian Catholic Federation sponsors the shrine.[28]
  • Lewiston, New York, U.S.: Near Niagara Falls, the Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima includes a shrine to Cabrini along the Avenues of Saints.[29]
  • Lower Manhattan, New York, U.S.: Our Lady of Pompeii Church was founded in 1892 as a national parish to serve the Italian-American immigrants of Greenwich Village. Cabrini and her Missionary Sisters taught religious education there for a time, and the church now honors her with a shrine, a statue, and a stained-glass window.[30][31]
  • Peru, New York, U.S.: In 1947, one year after Cabrini's canonization, a shrine was dedicated to her in Peru, New York, near the state's northern border with Canada. The shrine is a stone grotto located on the grounds of St. Patrick's, a mission church built in 1841 for Irish immigrants.[32][33]
  • Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.: In 1899–1900, Cabrini helped to found St. Lucy parish and school for Scranton's Italian immigrants. A century later, the church dedicated a shrine in honor of St. Cabrini.[34]


Churches and parishes[edit]

St. Frances Cabrini Church, Omaha, Nebraska


  • St. Frances Cabrini Parish (parrocchia Santa Francesca Cabrini), Codogno[35]
  • St. Frances Cabrini Parish (parrocchia Santa Francesca Cabrini), Lodi
  • St. Frances Cabrini Parish (parrocchia Santa Francesca Cabrini), Rome
  • St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, 18-foot (5.5 m) statue of "S. Francisca Xaveria Cabrini", included among 39 saints who founded religious congregations[36]

United States[edit]





  • Centro de Formação e Espiritualidade Cabriniana, Tijuca, Brazil
  • Obra Social Santa Cabrini, Tijuca, Brazil
  • Obra Social Santa Cabrini, Vila do João, Brazil


  • Centro da Juventude Santa Cabrini, Teresina, Brazil
  • Casa Nossa Senhora das Graças, Cajazeiras, Brazil


Other countries[edit]


Cabrini Medical Center, New York City
  • Cabrini Health, a network of Catholic hospitals in Melbourne, Australia[51]
  • Santa Cabrini Hospital, founded in 1958 in Montreal, Canada, honoring her popularity among the Italian community
  • St. Frances Cabrini Medical Center and Cancer Institute in Santo Tomas City, Batangas, Philippines[52]
  • The former St. Cabrini Hospital (c.1946–c.2002) in Chicago, Illinois, which she founded in 1905 as Columbus Hospital, now the site of her National Shrine
  • Christus St. Frances Cabrini Hospital in Alexandria, Louisiana, founded shortly after her canonization, and named because Bishop Charles Greco had met her in his childhood[53]
  • The former Cabrini Medical Center (1973–2008) in Manhattan, New York, whose predecessor Columbus Hospital was co-founded by Cabrini in 1892



Other tributes[edit]

Cabrini Boulevard and Cabrini Woods, New York City
  • St. Cabrini Home, West Park, New York, was Cabrini's early orphanage, headquarters, and burial place.
  • The Cabrini Museum and Spirituality Center occupies her original convent in Codogno, Italy.[54]
  • Cabrini University was named after her.[55]
  • RSA Santa Francesca Cabrini is an assisted living facility in Codogno.[56]
  • The Cabrini Mission Foundation, founded in 1998, is a non-profit organization that raises funds to support worldwide Cabrini programs and institutions focused on health care, education, and social services.[57]
  • The Cabrini Sisters operate Cabrini Eldercare, a pair of non-profit residential facilities in Manhattan and Dobbs Ferry, New York.[58]
  • Cabrini was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1996.[59]
  • Cabrini was inducted into the Colorado Women's Hall of Fame in 2022.[60]
  • Colorado replaced its Columbus Day state holiday with Cabrini Day starting in 2020.[61]
  • Milan Central railway station was dedicated to Cabrini in 2010.[62]
  • Chicago's Cabrini–Green housing project, built 1942–1962, was named in honor of her work with Italian immigrants in the location. It has since been mostly torn down.[63]
  • Cabrini Boulevard and "Cabrini Woods Nature Sanctuary" are adjacent to the Cabrini shrine in Manhattan, New York.[64]
  • In a 2019 New York City survey, Cabrini was "the leading vote-getter by far" among more than 300 nominees for the "She Built NYC" municipal statue program. Mayor Bill de Blasio and First Lady Chirlane McCray nevertheless declined a Cabrini statue and were widely criticized, until Governor Andrew Cuomo stepped in to commission one with state funds. On Columbus Day 2020, Cabrini's public memorial was unveiled in Manhattan's Battery Park City, looking out at the immigration landmarks of Ellis Island and the Statue of Liberty.[65]
  • Mother Cabrini Park in Newark, New Jersey, includes a 1958 statue of the saint on the former site of one of her schools.[66]
  • Mother Cabrini Park was created in Brooklyn, New York, in 1992, one hundred years after she established a school on the site.[67]
  • A 2012 mural on the side of Arriana Condominium in Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn, honors Cabrini and the local Italian community.[68]
  • Pope Francis's religious vocation was partly inspired by Cabrini's ministry to his family's Italian immigrant community in Argentina.[14]

See also[edit]



  • Maynard, Theodore. Too Small a World: The Life of Mother Frances Cabrini. Foreword by Timothy Cardinal Dolan. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2024 [original: 1945].
  • De Donato, Pietro. Immigrant Saint: The Life of Mother Cabrini. New York: McGraw Hill, 1960.
  • De Maria, Mother Saverio. Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini. Translated by Rose Basile Green. Chicago: Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, 1984.
  • Travels of Mother Frances Xavier Cabrini: Foundress of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Edited by Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Chicago: Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, 1984.


  • Gregory, Nicole. God's Messenger: The Astounding Achievements of Mother Frances X. Cabrini: A Novel. Washington, D.C.: Barbera Foundation, 2018.

Children and Young Adults[edit]

  • Keyes, Frances Parkinson. Mother Cabrini: Missionary to the World. Vision Books. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1997.
  • Andes, Mary Lou and Victoria Dority. Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini: Cecchina's Dream. Illustrated by Barbara Kiwak. Boston: Pauline Books, 2005.


  1. ^ Elizabeth Ann Seton was the first-canonized saint born in what is now the United States. She was born in 1774 in New York, which was then a British colony, and canonized in 1975.


  1. ^ Maynard, Theodore (1945). Too Small a World: The Life of Mother Frances Cabrini. San Francisco: Ignatius Press (published 2024). ISBN 978-1-62164-704-1.
  2. ^ a b c d e Ripatrazone, Nick (Spring 2023). "Mother Cabrini, the First American Saint of the Catholic Church". Humanities: The Magazine of the National Endowment for the Humanities. Vol. 44, no. 2. Retrieved December 27, 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Our Patron Saint", St. Frances Cabrini Parish, San Jose, California.
  4. ^ a b "Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini", Lives of Saints, John J. Crawley & Co.
  5. ^ "Frances Xavier Cabrini 1850–1917", Catholic Home Study Service.
  6. ^ a b c "St. Frances Xavier Cabrini – Missionary to the Immigrants", Florida State Council, Knights of Columbus.
  7. ^ a b c Foley O.F.M., Leonard. "Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini" Archived October 22, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, revised by Pat McCloskey O.F.M., Franciscan Media.
  8. ^ Rothman, Lily (July 6, 2016). "How Mother Cabrini Became the First American Saint". Faith. Time. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  9. ^ a b "Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini", Cabrini College, Radnor, Pennsylvania.
  10. ^ Schapiro, Rich (March 15, 2008). "Cabrini Medical Center closing doors". Daily News. Retrieved December 12, 2019.
  11. ^ "About Us", Italian Hospital Society.
  12. ^ "Mother Cabrini – Chicago Missions" Archived January 1, 2020, at the Wayback Machine. The National Shrine of Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini.
  13. ^ Tiedemann, R.G. (2016). Reference Guide to Christian Missionary Societies in China. Routledge. p. 204. ISBN 978-1315497310. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
  14. ^ a b Luongo, Michael (February 6, 2015). "In Upper Manhattan, Restoring the Golden Halo of Mother Cabrini". The New York Times.
  15. ^ Connolly, Seán (November 12, 2019). "The age of miracles has not passed". Catholic World Report.
  16. ^ Martin, Michelle (February 26, 2012). "Cabrini shrine seeing improvements, new mission" Archived August 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine Catholic New World, Archdiocese of Chicago.
  17. ^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001). ISBN 88-209-7210-7.
  18. ^ Mann, Tania (January 6, 2008). "Relic reawakens spirit of Mother Cabrini's mission" Archived August 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Catholic New World, Archdiocese of Chicago.
  19. ^ Pope Pius XII (September 7, 1950). "Sancta Francisca Xaveria Cabrini, V. Omnium Emigrantium Patrona Apud Deum Constituitur" (in Latin).
  20. ^ Martin S.J., James (November 1, 2006). "Saint Finder of Keys".
  21. ^ a b "History of the Shrine". The National Shrine of Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini. Retrieved October 20, 2022.
  22. ^ a b Tancredo, Thomas G. (2000). "Cabrini Shrine, Golden, Colorado", The American Folklife Center, Library of Congress.
  23. ^ a b "History of Mother Cabrini Shrine" Archived September 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Mother Cabrini Shrine, Golden, Colorado.
  24. ^ "About the Shrine". St. Frances X. Cabrini Shrine NYC. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  25. ^ "Mother Cabrini High School", New York. Archived December 17, 2014.
  26. ^ "St. Frances Xavier Cabrini Shrine, New York". Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
  27. ^ "New shrine to patron saint of migrants at St George's Cathedral". London SE1. Bankside Press. November 29, 2009.
  28. ^ "Mother Cabrini Shrine (Burbank, California)". Italian Catholic Federation.
  29. ^ "Self Guided Tour pg. 2" Archived September 5, 2019, at the Wayback Machine. Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima.
  30. ^ "History of Pompeii Church". Our Lady of Pompeii Church, New York, NY.
  31. ^ Pronechen, Joseph (October 6, 2013). "New York's Marian Marvel". National Catholic Register.
  32. ^ Ryan, John T. (July 14, 2012). "Renewed life and spirit at Mother Cabrini Shrine". Peru Gazette.
  33. ^ Langlois, Michael (December 9, 2015). "The Mother Cabrini Shrine". Lake Champlain Weekly. Archived from the original on January 2, 2020. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  34. ^ "History". Saint Lucy's Church: The Mother Italian Church of The Diocese of Scranton.
  35. ^ "Codogno – S. Francesca Cabrini" Archived October 12, 2022, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  36. ^ "Founder Saint Statues", Retrieved January 10, 2021.
  37. ^ "St. Frances X Cabrini Parish – Los Angeles, CA". St. Frances X Cabrini Catholic Church. Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  38. ^ "St. Frances Cabrini Parish". Retrieved March 11, 2024.
  39. ^ "Saint Frances Cabrini Catholic Church". Retrieved March 11, 2024.
  40. ^ "Welcome to St Frances Xavier Cabrini Catholic Church, Spring Hill, Florida". Retrieved March 11, 2024.
  41. ^ "Welcome to Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini Catholic Church! – Lake Nona, FL". Retrieved March 11, 2024.
  42. ^ "St. Francis Cabrini Church – Know Louisiana Cultural". 64 Parishes. Retrieved March 11, 2024.
  43. ^ "St. Frances Cabrini | Catholic Church". Retrieved March 11, 2024.
  44. ^ "St. Frances Cabrini Catholic Church". Omaha Landmarks Heritage Preservation Commission. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  45. ^ "St. Frances Cabrini Church – Saint Damien Parish". May 23, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2024.
  46. ^ "St. Frances Cabrini R.C. Church".
  47. ^ "Cabrini Rochester". Retrieved March 17, 2024.
  48. ^ "Saint Frances Xavier Cabrini". New York City: East River Catholics.
  49. ^ "Colegio Santa Francisca Javier Cabrini Madrid". Retrieved August 7, 2017.
  50. ^ "St Francesca Cabrini Catholic Primary School". Retrieved October 18, 2022.
  51. ^ "Cabrini locations". Cabrini Health (Australia). Retrieved October 18, 2022.
  52. ^ "St. Frances Cabrini Medical Center – Hospital Sto. Tomas, Batangas – Where Patient Experience Matters". Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  53. ^ "History". Christus St. Frances Cabrini Hospital. Archived from the original on September 17, 2021.
  54. ^ "Museo Cabriniano di Codogno". Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  55. ^ "Cabrini University to close permanently in 2024". Black Catholic Messenger. June 27, 2023.
  56. ^ "Residenza Sanitaria per Anziani Santa Francesca Cabrini – Codogno". Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  57. ^ "Cabrini Mission Foundation". Retrieved February 22, 2022.
  58. ^ "Cabrini Eldercare". Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  59. ^ "St. Frances Xavier Cabrini", National Women's Hall of Fame.
  60. ^ "Class of 2022" Colorado Women's Hall of Fame.
  61. ^ Hindi, Saja (March 20, 2020). "Columbus Day no longer a state holiday in Colorado". The Denver Post. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
  62. ^ Galeazzi, Giacomo (November 13, 2010). "Bertone: Noi ex migrantii" (in Italian). Archived from the original on April 4, 2012.
  63. ^ "The Cabrini–Green Issue" Archived September 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, The Paw Print, February 2009. Walter Payton College Preparatory High School, Chicago, Ill. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  64. ^ "Cabrini Woods", Fort Tryon Park Trust.
  65. ^ "Governor Cuomo Unveils Mother Cabrini Memorial in Battery Park City" (Press release). New York State. October 12, 2020. Archived from the original on October 13, 2020.
  66. ^ Turner, Jean-Rae; Koles, Richard T. (2001). Newark, New Jersey. Arcadia Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-7385-2352-1.
  67. ^ "Mother Cabrini Park", New York City Department of Parks & Recreation.
  68. ^ "The Legacy of Mother Cabrini: Story of Immigration". Groundswell. Retrieved February 22, 2022.

Further reading[edit]

  • Lorit, Sergio C. Frances Cabrini. New City Press (1975, Second Printing).

External links[edit]