Francesco Ingoli

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Francesco Ingoli
Born 1578
Died 1649
Occupation priest, lawyer and professor of law

Francesco Ingoli (1578-1649) was an Italian priest, lawyer and professor of civil and canon law.


Born in Ravenna Italy, Ingoli graduated from the University of Padua in civil and canon law in 1601, he entered the order of clerics Theatines. and studied astronomy, writing an essay on Stars in 1604 and on Comets in 1607. Since 1606 he was in the service of Cardinal Caetani Boniface (1567-1617) who was the papal legate in Romagna and followed the Cardinal to Rome when he was appointed member of the Congregation of the Index. In Rome he attended the Accademia dei Lincei founded by Federico Cesi.[citation needed]

His name is particularly linked to the controversy over the Copernican system. He used a combination of theological and scientific arguments to support the astronomical theory of Tycho Brahe (see Tychonic System) over that of Copernicus. Galileo Galilei was one of those who disagreed with him on this matter. Ingoli sent Galileo a letter in January 1616 that listed eighteen scientific and four theological objections to Copernicanism, but suggested Galileo answer mainly the scientific ones. According to Maurice Finocchiaro, Ingoli had probably been commissioned by the Inquisition to write an expert opinion on the controversy, and this letter provided the "chief direct basis" for the Inquisition's actions against the Copernican system in February and March of 1616. Galileo's reply, in 1624, listed, among other evidence, the results of experiments such as dropping a rock from the mast of a moving ship.[1][2]

  1. ^ Graney, Christopher M. 2015, Setting Aside All Authority: Giovanni Battista Riccioli and the Science against Copernicus in the Age of Galileo (University of Notre Dame Press)
  2. ^ Graney, Christopher M. "Francesco Ingoli's essay to Galileo: Tycho Brahe and science in the Inquisition's condemnation of the Copernican theory,"