Francis Peyton Rous

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Francis Peyton Rous
Peyton Rous nobel.jpg
Francis Peyton Rous
Born October 5, 1879
Baltimore, Maryland
Died February 16, 1970(1970-02-16) (aged 90)
New York City
Nationality American
Fields Virology
Alma mater Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Known for Oncoviruses
Notable awards

Francis Peyton Rous ForMemRS[1] (/rs/) (October 5, 1879 – February 16, 1970) was an American Nobel Prize-winning virologist.

Education and early life[edit]

Rous was born in Woodlawn, Maryland in 1879 and received his B.A. and M.D. from Johns Hopkins University.[2]

Career and research[edit]

Rous was involved in the discovery of the role of viruses in the transmission of certain types of cancer. In 1966 he was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work.

In 1911, as a pathologist he made his seminal observation, that a malignant tumor (specifically, a sarcoma) growing on a domestic chicken could be transferred to another fowl simply by exposing the healthy bird to a cell-free filtrate.[3][4] This finding, that cancer could be transmitted by a virus (now known as the Rous sarcoma virus, a retrovirus), was widely discredited by most of the field's experts at that time. Since he was a relative newcomer, it was several years before anyone even tried to replicate his prescient results. Although clearly some influential researchers were impressed enough to nominate him to the Nobel Committee as early as 1926 (and in many subsequent years, until he finally received the award, 40 years later).

Awards and honors[edit]

In addition to the Nobel Prize, Peyton Rous was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1940,[1] he won the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 1958 and the National Medal of Science in 1965.

Personal life[edit]

In his later life he wrote biographies of Simon Flexner[5] and Karl Landsteiner.[6]

His wife Marion died in 1985. His daughter Marni Hodgkin was a children's book editor, and the wife of another Nobel Prize winner, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Andrewes, C. H. (1971). "Francis Peyton Rous. 1879-1970". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 17 (0): 643–662. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1971.0025. ISSN 0080-4606. 
  2. ^ "Peyton Rous – Biography". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  3. ^ Rous, Peyton (1910). "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of the Common Fowl)". Journal of Experimental Medicine 12 (5): 696–705. doi:10.1084/jem.12.5.696. PMC 2124810. PMID 19867354. 
  4. ^ Rous, Peyton (1911). "A Sarcoma of the Fowl Transmissible by an Agent Separable from the Tumor Cells". Journal of Experimental Medicine 13 (4): 397–411. doi:10.1084/jem.13.4.397. PMC 2124874. PMID 19867421. 
  5. ^ Rous, P. (1949). "Simon Flexner. 1863-1946". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 6 (18): 408–426. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1949.0006. 
  6. ^ Rous, P. (1947). "Karl Landsteiner. 1868-1943". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 5 (15): 294–226. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1947.0002. 
  7. ^ Ann Thwaite. "Marni Hodgkin obituary | Books". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-03-11. 

Further reading[edit]