Francis Spellman

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Francis Joseph Spellman
Archbishop of New York
Spellman in 1946
ArchdioceseNew York
AppointedApril 15, 1939
InstalledMay 23, 1939
Term endedDecember 2, 1967
PredecessorPatrick Joseph Hayes
SuccessorTerence Cooke
Other post(s)
OrdinationMay 14, 1916
by Giuseppe Ceppetelli
ConsecrationSeptember 8, 1932
by Eugenio Pacelli
Created cardinalFebruary 18, 1946
by Pius XII
RankCardinal Priest
Personal details
Francis Joseph Spellman

(1889-05-04)May 4, 1889
DiedDecember 2, 1967(1967-12-02) (aged 78)
Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
BuriedSt. Patrick's Cathedral, New York
Previous post(s)Auxiliary Bishop of Boston (1932–1939)
MottoSequere Deum
(Follow God)
Coat of armsFrancis Joseph Spellman's coat of arms
Ordination history of
Francis Spellman
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated byEugenio Pacelli
DateSeptember 8, 1932
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Francis Spellman as principal consecrator
John Francis O'Hara, C.S.C.January 15, 1940
James Francis McIntyreJanuary 8, 1941
William Tibertus McCarty, C.Ss.R.January 25, 1943
Joseph Patrick DonahueMarch 19, 1945
William Richard ArnoldOctober 11, 1945
Thomas John McDonnellSeptember 15, 1947
Patrick O'BoyleJanuary 14, 1948
Joseph Francis FlannellyDecember 16, 1948
James Henry Ambrose GriffithsJanuary 18, 1950
Christopher Joseph WeldonMarch 24, 1950
David Frederick CunninghamJune 8, 1950
Joseph Oliver Bowers, S.V.D.January 8, 1953
Lawrence B. CaseyMay 5, 1953
Joseph Maria PerniconeMay 5, 1954
Philip Joseph FurlongJanuary 25, 1956
Charles Arthur Brown, M.M.February 27, 1957
Vincent Ignatius Kennally, S.J.March 25, 1957
John Michael FearnsDecember 10, 1957
John William Comber, M.M.April 9, 1959
John Joseph MaguireJune 29, 1959
Tomás Roberto Manning, O.F.M.July 14, 1959
Luis Aponte MartínezOctober 12, 1960
Alfredo Méndez-Gonzalez, C.S.C.October 28, 1960
Francis Frederick RehJune 29, 1962
Thomas Andrew DonnellanApril 9, 1964
George Theodore Boileau, S.J.July 31, 1964
George Henry GuilfoyleNovember 30, 1964
Juan Fremiot Torres OliverDecember 21, 1964
Terence CookeDecember 13, 1965
William Joseph MoranDecember 13, 1965
John Joseph Thomas RyanMarch 25, 1966
Edwin BroderickMarch 8, 1967

Francis Joseph Spellman (May 4, 1889 – December 2, 1967) was an American prelate of the Catholic Church. From 1939 to his death, he served as the sixth Archbishop of New York; he had served as an auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of Boston from 1932 to 1939. He was created a cardinal in 1946.

Early life and education[edit]

Stained glass window donated to St. Mary's Church, Clonmel by Cardinal Spellman in memory of his grandfather Patrick Spellman.

Francis Spellman was born in Whitman, Massachusetts, to William Spellman (1858–1957) and Ellen (née Conway) Spellman. His father was a grocer, whose own parents had emigrated to the United States from Clonmel and Leighlinbridge, Ireland.[1] The eldest of five children, Spellman had two brothers, Martin and John, and two sisters, Marian and Helene. As a child, he served as an altar boy at Holy Ghost Church.[2][full citation needed]

Spellman attended Whitman High School (now Whitman-Hanson Regional High School) because there was no local Catholic school. He enjoyed photography and baseball, was a first baseman during his first year of high school until a hand injury forced him to stop playing, and later managed the team. After his high school graduation, Spellman entered Fordham University in New York City in 1907. He graduated in 1911 and decided to study for the priesthood. He was then sent by Archbishop William Henry O'Connell to study at the Pontifical North American College in Rome.[3][full citation needed]

During his years in Rome, Spellman befriended such figures as Gaetano Bisleti, Francesco Borgongini Duca, and Domenico Tardini. He suffered from pneumonia, however, leaving his state of health so poor that the seminary administration wanted to send him home. He nevertheless remained and managed to complete his theological studies.[3]


Spellman was ordained a priest by Patriarch Giuseppe Ceppetelli on May 14, 1916. Upon his return to the United States, he did pastoral work in the Archdiocese of Boston.[4] Cardinal William Henry O'Connell, who had earlier sent Spellman to Rome, took an apparent dislike to the young priest, referred to him as a "little popinjay," and later said, "Francis epitomizes what happens to a bookkeeper when you teach him how to read."[5] Spellman served a series of relatively insignificant assignments.[vague][6]

After the United States entered World War I in 1917, Spellman applied to become a military chaplain in the Army but did not meet the height requirement. Spellman's comparable application to the Navy was personally rejected, twice, by the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt. Finally, O'Connell assigned him to promote subscriptions for the archdiocesan newspaper, The Pilot,[7] instead. He was named assistant chancellor in 1918 and in 1924 archivist of the Archdiocese.[8] After translating into English two books written by his friend Borgongini Duca, Spellman was made the first American attaché of the Vatican Secretariat of State in 1925.[4] He also worked with the Knights of Columbus in running children's playgrounds in Rome, and was raised to the rank of Privy Chamberlain on October 4, 1926, by Pope Pius XI.[4]

During a trip to Germany in 1927, Spellman established a lifelong friendship with Archbishop Eugenio Pacelli, who was serving as Apostolic Nuncio.[3] He translated Pius XI's first broadcast over Vatican Radio in 1931.[9] Later that year, Spellman was charged with smuggling Non abbiamo bisogno, the papal encyclical condemning Benito Mussolini, out of Rome to Paris, where he then delivered it to the press;[3][9] he was subsequently attacked by Italian newspapers. He also served as secretary to Cardinal Lorenzo Lauri at the 1932 International Eucharistic Congress in Dublin, and helped reform the Vatican's press office, introducing mimeograph machines and issuing press releases.[10]

Episcopal career[edit]

Auxiliary Bishop of Boston[edit]

On July 30, 1932, Spellman was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Boston and Titular Bishop of Sila by Pope Pius XI.[4] Spellman had originally been considered for the Dioceses of Portland, Maine, and Manchester, New Hampshire.[10] He received his consecration on the following September 8 from Pacelli (wearing the vestments Pacelli wore when he was consecrated by Benedict XV),[3] with Archbishops Giuseppe Pizzardo and Francesco Borgongini Duca serving as co-consecrators, at St. Peter's Basilica. His was the first consecration of an American bishop ever held at St. Peter's.[11] Borgongini-Duca designed for him a coat of arms incorporating Columbus's ship the Santa Maria. Pope Pius XI gave him the motto Sequere Deum ("follow God").[1]

After his return to the United States, Spellman resided at St. John's Seminary in Brighton, Massachusetts. He was later made pastor of Sacred Heart Church in Newton Centre; there he erased the church's $43,000 debt through different fundraising activities. When his mother died in 1935, her funeral was attended by Governor James Curley, Lieutenant Governor Joseph Hurley, and many members of the clergy, with the exception of O'Connell.[10]

In the autumn of 1936, Cardinal Pacelli came to the United States and visited New York City, Washington, D.C., Boston, Saint Paul, and Chicago.[12] The ostensible purpose of the trip was personal; he was to be the guest of Genevieve Brady, the wealthy widow of Nicholas Brady. However, during the trip Pacelli met with Roosevelt to discuss diplomatic recognition of the sovereignty of Vatican City.[1] Spellman was present at the meeting, which he arranged to take place at the president's boyhood home at Hyde Park, New York, on November 5, 1936, two days after his reelection to a second term.

Pacelli also looked into the "Radio Priest", Father Charles Coughlin of Detroit. Though an early supporter of Roosevelt, Coughlin became increasingly disenchanted with him and made increasingly sharp national radio attacks on Roosevelt and the New Deal. He also expressed sympathy for the governments of Hitler and Mussolini as opponents of communism. The Catholic hierarchy, for its part, did not like Coughlin. The Vatican and the Apostolic Legation in Washington wanted him silenced.[13] Spellman worked with Joseph P. Kennedy and Pacelli to stop Coughlin. However, only Coughlin's superior, Bishop Michael Gallagher of Detroit, had the canonical authority to curb him, and Gallagher supported Coughlin. Coughlin was in Boston at the same time as Pacelli, but they did not meet.[14] In 1939, Coughlin was finally forced off the air under rules adopted by the Code Committee of the National Association of Broadcasters.

Archbishop of New York[edit]

Archbishop Spellman giving communion during a visit to the Fifth Army in Italy 1944

After the death of Pope Pius XI, Pacelli was elected as Pope Pius XII, and one of his first acts was to appoint Spellman the sixth Archbishop of New York on April 15, 1939. Spellman succeeded the late Cardinal Patrick Joseph Hayes and was formally installed as Archbishop on the following May 23. He was painted twice in 1940 and again in 1941 by the prominent Swiss-born American Catholic artist Adolfo Müller-Ury. The first regularly-scheduled Masses in Spanish in New York began when Spellman gave authorization to the Redemptorists at St. Cecilia's Parish in East Harlem.[15]

In addition to his duties as diocesan bishop, he was named Apostolic Vicar for the U.S. Armed Forces on December 11, 1939. He spent many Christmases with American troops in Japan, Korea, and Europe in that capacity.[16]

During his tenure in New York, Spellman's considerable national influence[17][18] in religious and political matters earned his residence the nickname of "the Powerhouse."[19] He hosted such prominent figures as Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., Bernard Baruch, David I. Walsh, John William McCormack, and numerous other politicians, entertainers, and clergymen.[10] In 1945, he instituted the Al Smith Dinner, an annual white tie fundraiser for Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese that is attended by prominent national figures, including presidential nominees.

After his promotion to New York, Spellman also became a close confidant of Roosevelt.[16][20] During World War II, he was chosen by Roosevelt to act as the latter's agent and visited Europe, Africa, and the Middle East in 1943 for a total of 16 countries in four months.[21] As archbishop and a military vicar, he would have greater freedom than official diplomats.[10] Spellman also acted as a liaison between Pope Pius XII and Roosevelt in the Pope's attempts to have Rome declared an open city to save it from the relentless bombing that other European capitals had suffered and from potentially destroying Rome's historical sites and ruins, including Vatican City.[22] In 1946, Spellman received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York".


Styles of
Francis Spellman
Reference styleHis Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal styleCardinal
SeeNew York

Pope Pius XII created Spellman Cardinal-Priest of Santi Giovanni e Paolo in the consistory of February 18, 1946. Spellman's titular church was the same one that had been held by Pius before his election to the papacy.

According to the historian William V. Shannon, "Spellman was deeply reactionary in his theology and secular politics."[16] Vehemently anti-Communist, Spellman once said that "a true American can neither be a Communist nor a Communist condoner"[23] and that "the first loyalty of every American is vigilantly to weed out and counteract Communism and convert American Communists to Americanism".[23] Spellman defended Senator Joseph McCarthy's 1953 investigations of Communist subversives in the federal government, stating at an April 1954 breakfast attended by the Senator that McCarthy had "told us about the Communists and about Communist methods" and that he was "not only against communism—but ... against the methods of the Communists".[24] In 1949, when gravediggers at Calvary Cemetery in Queens went on strike for a pay raise, the Cardinal accused them of being Communists and recruited seminarians of the Archdiocese from St. Joseph's Seminary as strikebreakers.[25] He described the actions of the gravediggers, who belonged to the Food, Tobacco, Agricultural, and Allied Workers Union of America, as "an unjustified and immoral strike against the innocent dead and their bereaved families, against their religion and human decency."[25] The strike was supported by such figures as the religious activist (now Servant of God) Dorothy Day and Ernest Hemingway, who wrote a scathing letter to Spellman.[10]

Spellman denounced the efforts of US Representative Graham Arthur Barden to provide federal funding only to public schools as "a craven crusade of religious prejudice against Catholic children"[26] and even called Barden himself an "apostle of bigotry."[27] The cardinal engaged later in a heated public dispute with former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt in 1949 when she expressed her opposition to providing federal funding to parochial schools in her column, My Day.[27] In response, Spellman accused her of anti-Catholicism and called her column a "[document] of discrimination unworthy of an American mother".[27] He eventually met with her at her Hyde Park home to quell the dispute.

Spellman frequently criticized films that he perceived to be immoral or indecent. He described Two-Faced Woman as "an occasion of sin ... dangerous to public morals",.[28] Spellman condemned Garbo because her Lesbian and Bisexual Morality.[29] The Miracle (which led to Joseph Burstyn, Inc v. Wilson) as a "vile and harmful picture ... a despicable affront to every Christian",[30] and Baby Doll as "revolting" and "morally repellent."[31] His condemnation of Forever Amber caused the producer William Perlberg to refuse publicly to "bowdlerize the film to placate the Roman Catholic Church."[10]

Spellman was instrumental in getting William Brennan appointed to the Supreme Court in 1956 but would later regret the decision. Justice William O. Douglas once said, "I came to know several Americans who I felt had greatly dishonored our American ideal. One was Cardinal Spellman."[10]

Spellman participated in the 1958 papal conclave, which elected Pope John XXIII. He was considered dismissive of Pope John and is reported to have said, "He's no Pope. He should be selling bananas."[10] In 1959, he served as papal delegate to the Eucharistic Congress in Guatemala; during his journey, he stopped in Nicaragua and, contrary to the Pope's orders, publicly appeared with Anastasio Somoza Debayle, head of the National Guard and later the country's dictatorial president.[10]

According to the Catholic journalist Raymond Arroyo's foreword written for a 2008 edition of Fulton Sheen's autobiography, Treasure in Clay: The Autobiography of Fulton J. Sheen, "It is widely believed that Cardinal Spellman drove Sheen off the air." Besides being pressured to leave television, Sheen also "found himself unwelcome in the churches of New York City. Spellman cancelled Sheen's annual Good Friday sermons at St. Patrick's Cathedral and discouraged clergy from befriending the Bishop."

Spellman and Madame Hope Somoza at a reception in New York City.

Although John F. Kennedy was a Catholic, Spellman supported Richard Nixon in the 1960 presidential election because Kennedy opposed federal aid for parochial schools and the appointment of a U.S. Ambassador to the Holy See.[10] His support for Nixon ended a long partnership with Kennedy's father, Joseph P. Kennedy Sr.[10] The Kennedy aide David Powers recalled that in 1960, Kennedy asked him, "Why is Spellman against me?" Powers replied, "Spellman is the most powerful Catholic in the country. When you become president, you will be."[20] Spellman had presided over the weddings of Robert, Jean, Eunice, and Edward Kennedy.

The historian Pat McNamara views Spellman's outreach to the city's growing Puerto Rican community as years ahead of its time. He sent priests overseas to study Spanish, and by 1960, a quarter of the archdiocese's parishes had an outreach to Spanish-speaking Catholics.[6] In his years as a cardinal Spellman built 15 churches, 94 schools, 22 rectories, 60 convents, and 34 other institutions.[16] He also visited Ecuador, where he founded three schools: Cardinal Spellman High School and Cardinal Spellman Girls' School, both in Quito; and Cardinal Spellman High School in Guayaquil. All of those schools are still open.

Second Vatican Council[edit]

Spellman attended the Second Vatican Council from 1962 to 1965 and sat on its Board of Presidency.[4] The cardinal believed that predominantly liberal clergymen were being appointed to the council's commissions and opposed the introduction of vernacular into the Mass by saying, "The Latin language, which is truly the Catholic language, is unchangeable, is not vulgar, and has for many centuries been the guardian of the unity of the Western Church."[10] A theological conservative, he supported ecumenism on pragmatic grounds.[22] However, in April 1963, Spellman brought to the Second Vatican Council John Courtney Murray as a peritus (expert), despite the well-known animosity toward him by Cardinal Alfredo Ottaviani, the secretary of the Holy Office. With Apostolic Delegate to the U.S. Archbishop Egidio Vagnozzi attempting to silence Murray, Spellman, along with Murray's Jesuit superiors, continued to shield him from most attempts at curial interference. Murray's work helped shape the council's declaration on religious freedom.[6]

Growing revolution[edit]

Spellman, after the death of John XXIII, participated in the conclave of 1963, which resulted in the election of Pope Paul VI. When The Deputy, a controversial play about Pius XII's actions during the Holocaust, opened on Broadway in 1964, Spellman condemned the play as "an outrageous desecration of the honor of a great and good man."[32] The play's producer, Herman Shumlin, responded by calling Spellman's words a "calculated threat to really drive a wedge between Christians and Jews."[10]

Although he had once expressed his personal opposition to demonstrations during the Civil Rights Movement,[10] Spellman declined J. Edgar Hoover's requests to condemn Martin Luther King Jr. and funded the trip of a group of New York priests and Religious Sisters to the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches. He opposed racial discrimination in public housing[23] but also the social activism of such priests as Daniel Berrigan and his brother, Philip Berrigan, as well as a young Melkite priest, David Kirk.[10]

Lyndon Johnson and Vietnam[edit]

During the 1964 presidential election, Spellman supported Lyndon B. Johnson, whose Higher Education Facilities Act and Economic Opportunity Act had greatly benefited the Church.[10] The Cardinal later agreed to Johnson's requests to send priests to the Dominican Republic to defuse anti-American sentiments after the invasion of 1965.[10]

Spellman was an outspoken supporter of the Vietnam War to the extent that the conflict became known as "Spelly's War" and the Cardinal as the "Bob Hope of the clergy."[10] He had met Ngô Đình Diệm in 1950 and, favorably impressed by his strongly Catholic and anti-Communist views, promoted his career but disassociated from Diệm, who was overthrown and assassinated in 1963.[10] Fearful of Communist gains in Vietnam, Spellman had urged American intervention since late 1954,[10] but by the 1960s his views were strongly criticized by antiwar activists and even his fellow religious leaders.[33]

When Pope Paul VI visited the United States in October 1965, he indirectly rebuked Spellman's hawkish stance by pleading for peace before the United Nations. A group of college students protested outside Spellman's residence in December 1965 for suppressing antiwar priests, and he later spent that year's Christmas with troops in South Vietnam.[10] While in Vietnam, Spellman quoted Stephen Decatur in declaring, "My country, may it always be right, but right or wrong, my country."[6] He also described Vietnam as a "war for civilization" and "Christ's war against the Vietcong and the people of North Vietnam."[10] One priest accused Spellman of "[blessing] the guns which the pope is begging us to put down".[23] In January 1967, antiwar protestors disrupted a Mass at St. Patrick's Cathedral.[6] His support for the Vietnam War, along with his opposition to church reform, greatly undermined Spellman's clout within the church and country.[10]

Spellman was awarded the Sylvanus Thayer Award by the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1967. The illustrator Edward Sorel designed a poster in 1967, Pass the Lord and Praise the Ammunition, showing Spellman carrying a rifle with bayonet, but the poster was never distributed because Spellman died right after it had been printed.[34]

Later life and death[edit]

In 1966, Spellman offered his resignation to Pope Paul VI after the latter instituted a policy requiring bishops to retire at age 75, but the Pope asked him to remain in his post.[35] Spellman led his archdiocese through an extensive period of building the Catholic infrastructure, particularly the construction of numerous churches, schools, and hospitals. He consolidated all parish building programs into his own hands and thereby got better interest rates from bankers, and he convinced Pius XII of the need to internationalize the Vatican's Italy-centered investments after World War II; for his financial skill, he was sometimes called "Cardinal Moneybags."[36]

Spellman died in New York City on December 2, 1967, at age 78, and was interred in the crypt under the main altar at St. Patrick's Cathedral. His funeral Mass was attended by President Johnson, Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Robert F. Kennedy, Jacob Javits, Nelson Rockefeller, John Lindsay, Arthur Goldberg, and Greek Orthodox Archbishop Iakovos.[37] To date, Spellman's twenty-eight year tenure as archbishop is the longest in the history of the Archdiocese of New York.

Homosexuality and Anti-Homosexuality[edit]

John Cooney published a 1984 biography of Spellman, The American Pope. Before publication, he circulated galley proofs of the book, which included several pages arguing that Spellman had been a homosexual, based on multiple anonymous sources.[16] The draft of the book was covered in the press. However, the final published version removed this material and replaced it with two sentences: "For years rumors abounded about Cardinal Spellman being a homosexual. As a result, many felt – and continue to feel – that Spellman the public moralist may well have been a contradiction of the man of the flesh."[16]

The journalist Michelangelo Signorile describes Spellman as "one of the most notorious, powerful and sexually voracious homosexuals in the American Catholic Church's history."[38] Signorile reported that Cooney's manuscript initially contained interviews with several people with personal knowledge of Spellman's homosexuality, including the researcher C. A. Tripp. According to Signorile, the Catholic Church pressured Cooney's publisher, Times Books, to reduce the four pages discussing Spellman's sexuality to a single paragraph.[38] Both Signorile and John Loughery cite a story suggesting that Spellman was sexually active and carrying on a relationship with a male member of the chorus in the Broadway revue One Touch of Venus.[38][39]

Additionally, Curt Gentry, a biographer of J. Edgar Hoover, says that Hoover's files also had "numerous allegations that Spellman was a very active homosexual."[40]


Russell Shaw states that Spellman "embodied the fusion of Americanism and Catholicism" in the mid-20th century.[22] Spellman's support of John Courtney Murray contributed to Murray's significant influence on the drafting of Dignitatis humanae, the Second Vatican Council's Declaration on Religious Freedom.[6] "Spellman's enduring accomplishments were his personal acts of kindness toward individuals and the religious and charitable institutions he founded or strengthened."[16]

Henry Morton Robinson's novel The Cardinal (1950) was based in part on Spellman's career that was made in 1963 into a film of the same name with Tom Tryon as the eventual Cardinal.[22]

In July 1947, a Jesuit residential building opened on the campus of Fordham University, Spellman's alma mater, named in his honor.[41]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Fogarty, Gerald P. (2000). "Spellman, Francis Joseph (1889–1967), Roman Catholic prelate". American National Biography. doi:10.1093/anb/9780198606697.article.0801438. ISBN 978-0-19-860669-7. Archived from the original on May 25, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  2. ^ Time 1959
  3. ^ a b c d e Thornton
  4. ^ a b c d e "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church – February 18, 1946". Archived from the original on November 26, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  5. ^ Time 1967
  6. ^ a b c d e f McNamara, Pat (December 17, 2012). "The Powerhouse: Cardinal Francis Spellman". Catholic. Patheos. Archived from the original on July 10, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  7. ^ "Catholic News from The Pilot: America's oldest Catholic newspaper". Archived from the original on May 25, 2019. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  8. ^ "Francis Joseph Cardinal Spellman (1889–1967)". Archived from the original on October 8, 2018. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  9. ^ a b Time August 15, 1932
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Cooney
  11. ^ Time September 19, 1932
  12. ^ Cortesi, Arnoldo. "Papal Secretary of State Coming Here; Rome Speculates on Subject of Mission". The New York Times. October 1, 1936, p. 1
  13. ^ Boyea, Earl. "The Reverend Charles Coughlin and the Church: the Gallagher Years, 1930–1937". Catholic Historical Review 81 (2) (1995): 211–225
  14. ^ Ware, Leonard. "Coughlin Imperils Curley's Chances". The New York Times, October 18, 1938, p. E6
  15. ^ Ricourt, Milagros; Danta, Ruby (June 17, 2003). Hispanas de Queens: Latino Panethnicity in a New York City Neighborhood. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801487951 – via Google Books.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g William V. Shannon (October 28, 1984). "Guileless and Machiavellian: Review of John Cooney, The American Pope". The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  17. ^ Video: Christmas Brings Joy To Everyone, 1945/12/10 (1945). Universal Newsreel. 1945. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
  18. ^ Coal Strike Ended, 1946/05/29 (1946). Universal Newsreel. 1953. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
  19. ^ Quinn 2006
  20. ^ a b Hampson, Rick (September 28, 1984). "Comment: The American Pope: the Life and Times of Francis Cardinal Spellman" (PDF). CIA. Associated Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 23, 2017. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  21. ^ Time June 7, 1943
  22. ^ a b c d Shaw, Russell (August 27, 2014). "The hard-fought rise of Cardinal Francis Spellman". OSV Weekly. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  23. ^ a b c d O'Donnell 2009
  24. ^ NYT November 8, 1954
  25. ^ a b Time March 14, 1949
  26. ^ Truman Library
  27. ^ a b c "My Day in the Lion's Mouth". Time. August 1, 1949. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007.
  28. ^ "To See Is to Sin". Time. December 8, 1941. Archived from the original on June 9, 2008.
  29. ^ NYT November 27, 1941{{cite web |url=
  30. ^ "The Miracle". Time. February 19, 1951. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010.
  31. ^ "The Trouble with Baby Doll". Time. January 14, 1956. Archived from the original on November 1, 2011.
  32. ^ DeMarco 1998
  33. ^ GPB (March 29, 2006). "Cardinal Francis Spellman: "The American Pope"". Ex-Catholics For Christ. Archived from the original on May 25, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2019.
  34. ^ "Unauthorized Portraits: The Drawings of Edward Sorel | Joseph Francis Spellman". National Portrait Gallery. Archived from the original on February 11, 2021. Retrieved June 17, 2023.
  35. ^ "People: Oct. 21, 1966". Time. October 21, 1966. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  36. ^ "The Pastor-Executive". Time. May 15, 1964. Archived from the original on December 13, 2011.
  37. ^ "Requiem for a Cardinal". Time. December 15, 1967. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008.
  38. ^ a b c Michelangelo Signorile (May 7, 2002). "Cardinal Spellman's Dark Legacy". New York Press. Archived from the original on July 31, 2019.
  39. ^ John Loughery (1998). The Other Side of Silence: Men's Lives & Gay Identities – A Twentieth-Century History. New York: Henry Holt & Co. p. 152. ISBN 9780805038965.
  40. ^ Curt Gentry (1991). J. Edgar Hoover, The Man and the Secrets. New York: W. W. Norton. p. 347. ISBN 9780393024043.
  41. ^ Gosier, Chris (July 16, 2012). "This Month in Fordham History: Spellman Hall Opens, Named for Fordham Alumnus". Fordham News. Retrieved June 27, 2017.

Works cited[edit]

External links[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
See Created
Titular Bishop of Sila
Succeeded by
Preceded by Archbishop of New York
Succeeded by
Apostolic Vicar for the Military Services
Preceded by Cardinal-Priest of Santi Giovanni e Paolo