Francisco de Holanda
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|Francisco de Holanda|
Self-portrait (ca. 1573), the artist presenting his book
|Born||6 September 1517
|Died||19 June 1585 (aged 67)
|Occupation||Humanist, architect, sculptor, painter and historian|
Francisco de Holanda (originally Francisco d'Olanda; 6 September 1517 – June 1585) was a court painter, architect, and sculptor for the Portuguese king, João III and later for Sebastian of Portugal. He is considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance. Francisco was also an essayist, architect, and historian. He represented the intelligible reality of the Holy Trinity through a "hypothetical" syntax of geometrical figures. He insisted on the contrast between the ideal plane, the incorporeal form and the "imperfect copy in the terrestrial zone". His visual language betrayed its genealogical indebtedness to the mixed sciences of Neoplatonism, Christian Kabbalah, and finally Lullism. As far as education was concerned, Francisco de Holanda places emphasis on mathematics and geometry, subsequently anticipating Clavius's reforms of the late 16th century. Sylvie Deswarte said that "Francisco de Holanda gives a privileged place to cosmography and astrology in the education of the painter. On par with geometry, mathematics and perspective, he recommended them [...] in order to reach the heavens in the hope of one day arriving to the Empyreum and realizing celestial works.
Francisco de Holanda was born in Lisbon, Portugal, and began his career as an illuminator at the age of 20. His father, António d'Holanda, was also a royal illuminator. Francisco studied in Italy between 1538 and 1547, where he frequented the circle of Vittoria Colonna, one of the renowned notables of the Italian Renaissance. Colonna provided him with access to some of the greatest artists of the period such as Parmigianino, Giambologna, and most importantly, Michelangelo, who introduced him to Classicism.
Returning to Portugal, he obtained various commissions from the King of Portugal, Cardinal-Archbishop of Évora, and of the Portuguese kings, John III (1521-1557) and Sebastian (1568-1578). Francisco died in Lisbon, Portugal on June 19, 1585, at the age of 68.
Francisco de Holanda embraced the aesthetic values of the Renaissance. His paintings strongly expressed the desire to stimulate personal originality and provide a link between nature (the pure mirror of the Creator) and the ancients—immortal masters of greatness, symmetry, perfection and decorum. Most of this objective can be seen in his three-part treatise on the nature of art, "On Ancient Painting" (Da Pintura Antiga), 1548. The second part of this treatise contains four dialogues, supposedly with Michelangelo. Here, his passion for classicalism was brought to the forefront, as he communicated the essence of the work of Michelangelo and of the contemporary artistic movement in Rome.
Francisco de Holanda distinguished himself through his series of drawings at the command of the Portuguese king, João III. These drawings were devoted to the Antiquities of Italy and were sketched between (1540–1547), through his studies on the revival of the archaeological heritage of Rome and on Italian art in the first half of the 16th century.
Francisco wrote the first essay on urbanism in the Iberian Peninsula "On the construction lacking to the city of Lisbon" (Da fábrica que falece à cidade de Lisboa ) — He also created structures like the De aetatibus mundi imagines and Antigualhas.
Francisco de Holanda was the author of
- De aetatibus mundi imagines (1543–1573)
- Da pintura antiga (Lisbon, 1548) (in which he attributes the Saint)
- Part II: Diálogos de Roma
- Do tirar polo natural (1549)
- Da fábrica que falece à cidade de Lisboa (Lisbon, 1571)
- De quanto serve a ciência do desenho e entendimento da arte da pintura, na república christâ assim na paz como na guerra (Lisbon, 1571).
- Castillo & Nelson 2012, p. 81.
- Deswarte p. 22
- Castillo & Nelson 2012, p. 88.
- Deswarte p. 24
- Ronald W. Sousa, "The View of the Artist in Francisco de Holanda's Dialogues",Luso-Brazilian Review 15 (1978), p. 44.
- Hillgarth J. N. (2000). The Mirror of Spain, 1500-1700: The Formation of a Myth. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. p242-243.
- Annemarie Jordan, Retrato de Corte em Portugal. O Legado de António Moro (1552-1572) (Lisbon: Quetzal Editiores, 1994), p. 50.
- Alves, José da Felicidade, Introdução ao estudo da obra de Francisco de Holanda (Lisbon, 1986)
- Deswarte, Sylvie, ed. As Imagens das Idades do Mundo de Francisco de Holanda. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa de Moeda, 1987.
- Castillo, David R.; Nelson, Bradley J. (2012). Spectacle and Topophilia: Reading Early Modern and Postmodern Hispanic Cultures. Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN 978-0-8265-1816-3. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- Santos, Mariana Amélia Machado,"'Á Estética de Francisco de Holanda, I Congresso do Mundo Português (Lisbon, 1940)
- Segurado, Jorge, Francisco d'Ollanda (Lisbon, 1970)
- Sousa, Ronald W., "The View of the Artist in Francisco de Holanda's Dialogues: A Clash of Feudal Models," Luso-Brazilian Review 15 (1978), 43-58.
- Vilela, José Stichini, Francisco de Holanda, Vida, Pensamento e Obra (Lisbon, 1982)i
- Works by Francisco de Hollanda at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Francisco de Holanda at Internet Archive
- "Dictionary.com - The world's favorite online English dictionary!". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2015-10-09.