Francisco de Toledo (Jesuit)
Francisco de Toledo
|Created Cardinal||September 17, 1593|
|Rank||Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Traspontina|
|Coat of arms|
Francisco de Toledo (4 October 1532 in Cordoba (Spain) - 14 September 1596 in Rome) was a Spanish Jesuit priest and theologian, Biblical exegete and professor at the Roman College. He is the first Jesuit to have been made a cardinal (in 1593).
He was ordained priest at Salamanca in 1556 and two years later, in 1558, entered the Jesuit order. After a brief period of spiritual formation he was called to Rome by the Superior General, Diego Laynez, where the budding Roman College was in great need of professors. Toledo successively (and successfully) taught Philosophy (1559-1562), Scholastic and Moral Theology (1562-1569), and was prefect of studies of the fast-growing university.
His works may be divided into three classes:
- (1) Philosophical: "Introductio in dialecticam Aristotelis" (Rome, 1561), thirteen editions, apparently the first work of a Jesuit to be printed in Mexico; "Commentaria una cum quæstionibus in universam Aristotelis logicam" (Rome, 1572), seventeen editions; "Commentaria de physica auscultatione" (Venice, 1573), fifteen editions; "De generatione et corruptione" (Venice, 1575), seven editions; "De anima" (Venice, 1574), twenty editions; "Opera omnia. Opera philosophica" (Lyons, 1586–92), only one volume issued.
- (2) Theological: "In Summam theologiæ S. Thomæ Aquinatis enarratio" (4 vols., Rome, 1869), published by Father José Paría, S.J.; "Summa casuum sive instructio sacerdotum" (Lyons, 1599), forty-six editions (Spanish tr., Juan de Salas; Italian, Andreo Verna; French, Goffar; summaries in Latin, Spanish, French, and Italian).
- (3) Exegetical: "In sacrosanctum Joannis Evangelium commentarium" (Rome, 1592), nine editions; "In prima XII capita Sacrosancti Jesu Christi D. N. Evangelium secundum Lucam" (Rome, 1600), printing supervised by Father Miguel Vázquez, S.J.; "In Epistolam B. Pauli Apostoli ad Romanos" (Rome, 1602), Aramaic tr., Father Luis de Azevedo. Manuscripts: "Emmendationes in Sacra Biblia vulgata", corrected by direction of Clement VIII; "Regulæ hebraicæ pro lingua sancta intelligenda". Sermons: "Motivós y advertencias de casas dignas de refomación cerca del Breviario".
- Roger Ariew, René Descartes and the Jesuits, p. 164, in Mordechai Feingold (editor), Jesuit Science and the Republic of Letters (2002)
- Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Francisco Toledo". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.