Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935

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Map showing the Aozou strip, the main territorial agreement in the Mussolini-Laval accord

The Franco-Italian Agreements (often called Mussolini-Laval Accord) were signed in Rome by both French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval and Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini on 7 January 1935.

History[edit]

After its victory in World War I, it was agreed that Italy would not receive territories from the defeated German colonial empire. It was divided between France and the United Kingdom, but Italy would be rewarded some bordering areas from the British and French colonial empires. That was considered by Italians to be very little compensation for their sacrifices in the bloody war, which was one of the reasons of the rise to power in Italy of Mussolini's fascism.

The British ceded Oltre Giuba from Kenya to Italian Somalia in 1925, but the French delayed some years until 1935, under Laval's leadership, and gave only a small amount of territory in eastern Africa and a desert area in the French Sahara.

Laval had succeeded Louis Barthou as Foreign Minister after the latter's assassination in Marseilles on October 9, 1934, along with King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. Laval borrowed the idea of his predecessor of a system of collective security to contain the threat of Hitler in Europe. On January 4, 1935, Laval went to Rome, the capital of Italy, to meet Mussolini. It was the beginning of a diplomatic offensive intended to contain Hitler's Germany by a network of alliances.

He proposed a treaty to Mussolini to define disputed parts of French Somaliland (now Djibouti) as part of Eritrea, redefine the official status of Italians in French Tunisia and give Italy a mainly-free hand to occupy Ethiopia during the Abyssinia Crisis.

Italy was also to receive the Aouzou Strip, which was to be moved from French-ruled Chad to Italian-ruled Libya (that issue would have some implications in World War II and in Toyota War between Libya and Chad).

In exchange for thosr concessions, France hoped for Italian support against German aggression, which did not occur.

Map showing the new Italian Eritrea-French Somaliland border after the Laval-Mussolini Accord of January 1935. The coast of French Somalia was reduced south of the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait.

The agreements were confirmed by a law of the French parliament on March 26, 1935.[1] However, the Italian parliament failed to do the same, as they were judged as too "minimal" by not including French Tunisia, Corsica and Nice.[2]

Main agreements[edit]

The accord had the following main agreements:

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • G. Bruce Strang: Imperial Dreams: The Mussolini-Laval Accords of January 1935. In: The Historical Journal 44, September 2001, 3, ISSN 0018-246X, pp. 799–809.
  • R. Festorazzi Laval Mussolini. L'impossibile Asse, Milano: Mursia, ISBN 9788842530817
  • Langer, William L. ed., An Encyclopaedia of World History, (1948), Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Pg. 990.

See also[edit]