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Franco Nero

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Franco Nero
Nero in 2018
Francesco Clemente Giuseppe Sparanero

(1941-11-23) 23 November 1941 (age 82)
Occupation(s)Actor, producer, director
Years active1962–present
(m. 2006)
Children2, including Carlo

Francesco Clemente Giuseppe Sparanero (born 23 November 1941), known professionally as Franco Nero, is an Italian actor, producer, and director. His breakthrough role was as the title character in the Spaghetti Western film Django (1966), which made him a pop culture icon and launched an international career that includes over 200 leading and supporting roles in a wide variety of films and television productions.[1]

During the 1960s and 1970s, Nero was actively involved in many popular Italian "genre trends", including polizieschi, gialli, and Spaghetti Westerns. His best-known films include The Bible: In the Beginning... (1966), Camelot (1967), The Day of the Owl (1968), The Mercenary (1968), Battle of Neretva (1969), Tristana (1970), Compañeros (1970), Confessions of a Police Captain (1971), The Fifth Cord (1971), High Crime (1973), Street Law (1974), Keoma (1976), Hitch-Hike (1977), Force 10 from Navarone (1978), Enter the Ninja (1981), Die Hard 2 (1990), Letters to Juliet (2010), Cars 2 (2011), John Wick: Chapter 2 (2017), and The Pope's Exorcist (2023).

Nero has had a long relationship with Vanessa Redgrave, which began during the filming of Camelot. They were married in 2006, and are the parents of the actor Carlo Gabriel Nero (b.1969).

Early life[edit]

Francesco Clemente Giuseppe Sparanero[2][3][4][5][6] was born in San Prospero Parmense (Parma, Emilia-Romagna), the son of a commissioned officer in the Carabinieri.[7] His parents were originally from San Severo (Foggia, Apulia).[8][9] He grew up in Bedonia and in Milan. He studied briefly at the Economy and Trade faculty of the local university, before leaving to study at the Piccolo Teatro di Milano.[10]

Acting career[edit]

Nero as the title character in Django (1966)
Nero with Charlotte Rampling in Sardinia Kidnapped (1968)

Nero's first film role was a small part in Pelle viva (1962),[11] and he had his first lead role in Sergio Corbucci's Django (1966) a Spaghetti Western and one of his best-known films.[12] In 1966 from Django he went on to appear in eight more films released that year including Texas, Adios (1966) and Massacre Time.

In 1967, he appeared in Camelot as Lancelot, where Nero met his longtime romantic partner, and later his wife, Vanessa Redgrave.[13][14] Following this he appeared in the mafia film Il giorno della civetta opposite Claudia Cardinale released in 1968.[15]

A lack of proficiency in English tended to limit these roles, although Nero also appeared in other English-language films including The Virgin and the Gypsy (1970), Force 10 from Navarone (1978), Enter the Ninja (1981) and Die Hard 2 (1990).[16]

Although often typecast in films like Los amigos (1973) or Keoma (1976) he has attempted an impressive range of characters, such as Abel in John Huston's epic The Bible: In The Beginning (1966), the humiliated engineer out for revenge in Street Law, the gay lieutenant in Querelle (1982) and Serbian mediaeval hero in The Falcon (1983). Nero has appeared in over 150 films, and has written, produced and starred in one: Jonathan degli orsi (1993).[17]

More recently, Nero starred in Hungarian director Koltay Gábor [hu]'s Honfoglalás (Conquest) in 1996, in Li chiamarono... briganti! (1999) by Pasquale Squitieri and subsequently in Koltay's Sacra Corona (Holy Crown) in 2001.[citation needed]

In 2009 Nero played an eccentric author called "Mario Puzzo" in Mord ist mein Geschäft, Liebling ("Murder is my trade, darling", Italian title "Tesoro, sono un killer"). German critics found his performance was the best part of the film: "Having Franco Nero playing in this film is really a great joy – it is only regrettable that after his appearances there is still so much film left."[18]

In 2010, Nero appeared in the film Letters to Juliet with Redgrave.[19][20] In 2011 he appeared as a guest star on the season 13 premiere episode of Law and Order: SVU. His character, although Italian, was based on Dominique Strauss-Kahn.[21] In the same year, he received a star on the Italian Walk of Fame in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.[22]

In 2012, Nero made a cameo appearance in the film Django Unchained in one scene alongside Jamie Foxx, who stars as Django Freeman in the film. Nero, playing the original Django, questions Foxx's Django about how his name is spelled, and asks him to spell it, referencing a scene from Nero's role as Django in the original Django film. Upon learning that their names are spelled the same way, Nero's Django says "I know" to Foxx's Django.[23]

In 2016 and 2017 he interpreted Gabriele Tinti's poetry, giving voice to the masterpieces in the National Roman Museum.[24][25]

Nero appears in the dark comedy feature film The Immortalist in 2020, along with Sherilyn Fenn, Paul Rodriguez, Aries Spears and Jeff DuJardin, directed by Vlad Kozlov.[26]

Personal life[edit]

His romantic involvement with English actress Vanessa Redgrave began in 1966 when they met on the set of Camelot. In 1969, they had a son, Carlo Gabriel Redgrave Sparanero (known professionally as Carlo Gabriel Nero), a screenwriter and director. After separating for many years, during which they both had relationships with other people, they reunited and married on 31 December 2006.[27] Carlo Nero directed Redgrave in the cinematic adaptation of Wallace Shawn's play The Fever.[28]

Nero dated actresses Catherine Deneuve, Goldie Hawn, and Ursula Andress in the 1970s.[29][30][31]

In 1983 he had a second son, Frank Sparanero (also known as Frankie Nero or Frank Nero Jr). Born in Rome, Nero began his acting career with Pupi Avati in 1996 at a film festival and then 1999 with the film Buck and the Magic Bracelet by Tonino Ricci. In addition to being an actor, he is also an artist, architect and photographer.

In December 1987, a paternity suit was filed against him in court in Colombia where he was filming a movie. Mauricia Mena claimed that Nero had fathered her son Franquito after a brief romantic affair.[32]

In 1994, Nero walked his future stepdaughter Natasha Richardson (1963–2009) down the aisle when she married actor Liam Neeson.[33] Her father, Tony Richardson, had died in 1991.[34]



Year Title Role Director Notes
1965 I Knew Her Well Italo Antonio Pietrangeli
The Tramplers Charley Garvey Albert Band
Wild, Wild Planet Lt. Jake Jacowitz Antonio Margheriti
1966 War of the Planets Antonio Margheriti
Hired Killer Tony Lo Bello Franco Prosperi
Django Django Sergio Corbucci
Massacre Time Tom Corbett Lucio Fulci
The Third Eye Mino Alberti Mino Guerrini
Texas, Adios Sheriff Burt Sullivan Ferdinando Baldi
The Bible: In the Beginning... Abel John Huston First American film
1967 Man, Pride and Vengeance Don José Luigi Bazzoni
Camelot Lancelot du Lac Joshua Logan Singing voice by Gene Merlino
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer – Male
1968 The Day of the Owl Capt. Claudio Bellodi Damiano Damiani David di Donatello Award for Best Actor
Sardinia Kidnapped Gavino Gianfranco Mingozzi
The Mercenary Sergei "Polack" Kowalski Sergio Corbucci
A Quiet Place in the Country Leonardo Ferri Elio Petri
1969 The Fifth Day of Peace Ensign Bruno Grauber Giuliano Montaldo
Detective Belli Detective Stefano Belli Romolo Guerrieri
Battle of Neretva Capt. Michele Riva Veljko Bulajić
1970 Tristana Horacio Luis Buñuel
The Virgin and the Gypsy The Gypsy Christopher Miles Nominated—Golden Laurel Award for Star of Tomorrow, Male
Dropout Bruno Grazza Tinto Brass
Compañeros Yodlaf Peterson Sergio Corbucci
1971 The Case Is Closed, Forget It Vanzi Damiano Damiani
Confessions of a Police Captain Deputy D.A. Traini Damiano Damiani Italian Golden Globe Award for Best Actor
The Fifth Cord Andrea Bild Luigi Bazzoni
La vacanza Osiride Tinto Brass
Long Live Your Death Dmitri Vassilovich Orlowsky Duccio Tessari
1972 Pope Joan Louis II of Italy Michael Anderson
The Monk Ambrosio Ado Kyrou
1973 Redneck Mosquito Silvio Narizzano
Deaf Smith & Johnny Ears Johnny Ears Paolo Cavara
The Assassination of Matteotti Giacomo Matteotti Florestano Vancini
High Crime Vice Commissioner Alessandro Nelli Enzo G. Castellari
White Fang Jason Scott Lucio Fulci
I guappi Nicola Bellizzi Pasquale Squitieri
1974 Last Days of Mussolini Walter "Valerio" Audisio Carlo Lizzani
Street Law Carlo Antonelli Enzo G. Castellari
Challenge to White Fang Jason Scott Lucio Fulci
1975 Smiling Maniacs Judge Roberto Dani Marcello Aliprandi
How to Kill a Judge Giacomo Solaris Damiano Damiani
Cry, Onion! Onion Stark Enzo G. Castellari
The Flower in His Mouth Professor Michele Belcore Luigi Zampa
1976 Victory March Capt. Asciutto Marco Bellocchio
Death Rite Sadry Claude Chabrol
Submission Armand Salvatore Samperi
Keoma Keoma Shannon Enzo G. Castellari
1977 Sahara Cross Jean Bellard Tonino Valerii
Hitch-Hike Walter Mancini Pasquale Festa Campanile
1978 Force 10 from Navarone Captain Nicolai Lescovar \ Colonel von Ingorslebon Guy Hamilton
1979 The Visitor Jesus Christ Giulio Paradisi Uncredited
Mimi Guido Florestano Vancini
The Shark Hunter Mike DiDonato Enzo G. Castellari
1980 The Man with Bogart's Face Hakim Robert Day
The Blue-Eyed Bandit Renzo Dominici Alfredo Giannetti
Day of the Cobra Larry Stanzani Enzo G. Castellari
1981 The Salamander Carabinieri Colonel Dante Matucci Peter Zinner
The Falcon Strahinja Banović Vatroslav Mimica
Enter the Ninja Cole Menahem Golan
1982 Red Bells John Reed Sergei Bondarchuk
Kamikaze 1989 Weiss Wolf Gremm
Querelle Lieutenant Seblon Rainer Werner Fassbinder
Grog Nicola Fanelli Francesco Laudadio
1983 Red Bells II John Reed Sergei Bondarchuk
1985 Andre Handles Them All André Peter Fratzscher
The Repenter Judge Falco Pasquale Squitieri
1987 Sweet Country Paul Michael Cacoyannis
The Girl Johan Berg Arne Mattsson
Django Strikes Again Django Nello Rossati
Grosso guaio a Cartagena Francis Tommaso Dazzi
1988 Top Line Ted Angelo Nello Rossati
Pigmalione 88 Lorenzo Flavio Mogherini
Young Toscanini Claudio Toscanini Franco Zeffirelli
Magdalene Janza Monica Teuber [de]
Run for Your Life Comissare Terence Young
1990 Die Hard 2 General Ramon Esperanza Renny Harlin
Breath of Life Gesulado Beppe Cino
1991 Amelia Lópes O'Neill Fernando Valeria Sarmiento
1992 Brothers and Sisters Franco Pupi Avati
Crimson Dawn Paul Herzog Marcello Aliprandi
Zoloto Gabriele da Poppi Fabio Bonzi
The Player Himself Robert Altman Scene deleted
1993 The Lucona Affair Enzo Lombardo Jack Gold
Jonathan of the Bears Jonathan Kowalski Enzo G. Castellari
1995 Io e il re Major Ferri Lucio Gaudino
1996 The Italians Are Coming Luigi Eyal Halfon
The Innocent Sleep Adolfo Cavani Scott Michell
The Conquest Árpád Gábor Koltay
1997 Il tocco – La sfida Jesus Barro Enrico Coletti
La medaglia Ferrero Sergio Rossi
1998 The Versace Murder Gianni Versace Menahem Golan
Talk of Angels Dr. Vicente Areavaga Nick Hamm
1999 Brigands Nerza Pasquale Squitieri
Uninvited Ralph Barolo Carlo Gabriel Nero
2000 Mirka Giancarlo Rachid Benhadj
Winds of Passion Michele Giangrande Sandro Cecca
2001 Chimera The Businessman Pappi Corsicato
Sacra Corona Bishop Gellért Gábor Koltay
The Sleeping Wife Marco Silvano Agosti
Megiddo: The Omega Code 2 General Michelangelo Francini Brian Trenchard-Smith
2002 Fumata blanca Cardinal Tura Miquel García Borda
Ultimo stadio Antonio Ivano De Matteo
2004 Post Coitum Bakchus Juraj Jakubisko
Guardians of the Clouds Il Padre Luciano Odorisio
2005 Forever Blues Luca Franco Nero Also directorial debut
2006 Hans The Magistrate Louis Nero
Amore e libertà – Masaniello Vicerè D'Arcos Angelo Antonucci
2007 Mineurs Michele Acucella Fulvio Wetzl
2008 Márió, a varázsló Mario Tamás Almási
Bastardi Rene Iuvara Federico Del Zoppo, Andres Alce Meldonado
The Rage Mentore Louis Nero
Bathory: Countess of Blood King Mathias II of Hungary Juraj Jakubisko
Ti stramo - Ho voglia di un'ultima notte da manuale prima di tre baci sopra il cielo Vagrant Pino Insegno, Gianluca Sodaro Cameo
2009 Mord ist mein Geschäft, Liebling Enrico Puzzo Sebastian Niemann
Palestrina - Prince of Music Domenico Ferrabosco Georg Brintrup
2010 Angelus Hiroshimae The Hunter Giancarlo Planta
Letters to Juliet Lorenzo Bartolini Gary Winick
Prigioniero di un segreto Vagrant Carlo Fusco
2011 Rasputin Narrator Louis Nero
New Order Dr. Cornelius Van Morgen Marco Rosson
Father Enrico Pasquale Squitieri
Cars 2 Uncle Topolino John Lasseter Voice
2012 Canepazzo Alvaro Genta David Petrucci
A Memória que me Contam Paolo Lúcia Murat
Django Unchained Amerigo Vessepi Quentin Tarantino Cameo
The Woods Enzo Philipo Michael Mandell
2013 Cadences obstinées Carmine Fanny Ardant
Dante's Inferno: An Animated Epic Circles Introduction Mike Disa
Shukō Murase
Yasuomi Umetsu
Victor Cook
Jong-Sik Nam
Kim Sang-jin
Lee Seung-Gyu
Italian version only
2014 Nymph Niko Milan Todorović
Love Island Marquis Polesini Jasmila Žbanić
Figli di Maam Herod Paolo Consorti
2016 Il Ragazzo della Giudecca Salvatore Alfonso Bergamo
The Lost City of Z Baron de Gondoriz James Gray
2017 The Neighborhood Guglielmo Frank D'Angelo
John Wick: Chapter 2 Julius Chad Stahelski
Il crimine non va in pensione Primario Fabio Fulco
Iceman Ditob Felix Randau
The Time of Their Lives Alberto Roger Goldby
2018 The Broken Key Hiram Abif Louis Nero
Red Land (Rosso Istria) Professor Ambrosin Maximiliano Hernando Bruno
A Rose in Winter Rainer Praeger Joshua Sinclair
2019 Ed è subito sera Rosario De Martino Claudio Insegno
The Collini Case Fabrizio Collini Marco Kreuzpaintner
2020 Recon Angelo Robert David Port
2021 The Match Branko Jakov Sedlar, Dominik Sedlar
Off the Rails Giovanni Jules Williamson
Immortalist Paolo Vladislav Kozlov
2022 The Man Who Drew God Emanuele Franco Nero Also director
2023 The Pope's Exorcist The Pope Julius Avery Nominated - Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actor
TBA In the Hand of Dante Julian Schnabel Filming


Year Title Role Director Notes
1975 The Legend of Valentino Rudolph Valentino Melville Shavelson Television film
1976 21 Hours at Munich Luttif Afif William A. Graham Television film
1978 The Pirate Sheikh Baydr Al-Fay the Pirate Ken Annakin Television miniseries
1979 Le rose di Danzica General Konrad van Der Berg Alberto Bevilacqua Television miniseries
1983 Wagner Crespi Tony Palmer Television miniseries
Die Försterbuben Andreas Boehme Peter Patzak Television film
1984 The Last Days of Pompeii Arbaces Peter R. Hunt Television miniseries
1985 Un marinaio e mezzo Nick Tommaso Dazzi Television film
The Hitchhiker Dr. Peter Milne Mai Zetterling Television series
Episode: "Murderous Feelings"
1986 Un altare per la madre Edith Bruck Television film
1987 Il generale Giuseppe Garibaldi Luigi Magni Television miniseries
1988 Windmills of the Gods Ionescu Lee Philips Television miniseries
1989 The Magistrate Paolo Pizzi Kathy Mueller Television miniseries
The Betrothed Friar Cristoforo Salvatore Nocita Television miniseries
1990 Blaues Blut Sandro Castellani Sidney Hayers Television series
Episode: "Gegen die Uhr"
Oggi ho vinto anch'io Saverio Palluca Lodovico Gasparini Television film
1991 Young Catherine Count Mikhail Vorontsov Michael Anderson Television miniseries
Julianus barát Domenico Gábor Koltay Television miniseries
1992 Touch and Die Aquani Piernico Solinas Television film
1993 Das Babylon Komplott Chris Lang Peter Patzak Television film
Azzurro profondo Luca Morinari Filippo De Luigi Television film
1994 Nemici intimi Lorenzo Stradella Piernico Solinas Television film
The Dragon Ring The Dragon King Lamberto Bava Television miniseries
1996 The Return of Sandokan Yogi Azim Enzo G. Castellari Television miniseries
1997 David Nathan Robert Markowitz Television film
Desert of Fire Marcel Duvivier Enzo G. Castellari Television miniseries
Painted Lady Robert Tassi Julian Jarrold Television miniseries
Nessuno escluso Alfonso Martinez Massimo Spano Television film
Bella Mafia Mario Domino David Greene Television film
1998 Il tesoro di Damasco Andrea José María Sánchez Television film
2000 St. Paul Gamaliel Roger Young Television miniseries
2001 La voce del sangue Antonio Castaldi Alessandro Di Robilant Television film
The Crusaders Ibn-Azul Dominique Othenin-Girard Television miniseries
2002 Die achte Todsünde: Toskana-Karussell Giuseppe Mantaldo Peter Patzak Television film
2003 The Uncrowned Heart Bear's Trainer Peter Patzak Television film
Liebe, Lügen, Leidenschaften Pietro Bellini Marco Serafini Television miniseries
Cattive inclinazioni Vagrant Pierfrancesco Campanella Television film
2005 Summer Solstice Lorenzo Giles Foster Television film
2006 The Holy Family Zechariah Raffaele Mertes Television film
2007 Der Fürst und das Mädchen Count Massimo di Romano Karsten Wichniarz, Axel de Roche Television series
8 episodes
Two Families Morandi Romano Scavolini Television film
2008 Il sangue e la rosa Umberto Mancini Salvatore Samperi, Luciano Odorisio, Luigi Parisi Television series
Episode: "Prima puntata"
Mein Herz in Chile Carlos Sanchez Jörg Grünler Television film
A Night at the Grand Hotel Ferran Moreno Thorsten Näter Television film
Rosamunde Pilcher's Four Seasons Max Freeman Giles Foster Television miniseries
2010 Restless Heart: The Confessions of Saint Augustine Augustine of Hippo Christian Duguay Television miniseries
2011 Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Roberto Distasio Michael Slovis Television series
Episode: "Scorched Earth"
2017–18 Delicious Joe Benelli John Hardwick, Clare Kilner Television series
4 episodes
2019 Christmas in Rome Luigi Forlinghetti Ernie Barbarash Hallmark Channel movie
2022 Django Reverend Francesca Comencini Television series

Video games[edit]

Year Title Role Notes
2011 Cars 2: The Video Game Uncle Topolino Voice


  • 1985 – Will Change The World/Cambierà (Lovers, LVNP 802, 7" – with his son Carlo)


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  2. ^ (in Italian) Franco Nero in MyMovies
  3. ^ "Movies". The New York Times.
  4. ^ (in Italian) Franco Nero in CinemaItaliano.info
  5. ^ (in Italian) Franco Nero Archived 21 July 2012 at archive.today in Cinemastore Italy
  6. ^ (in Italian) Francoo Nero Biography in Hollywood.com
  7. ^ Ann Pearce. "He Lost His Guenevere, Vanessa Redgrave, but Franco Nero Found His Camelot Back in Italy". People.
  8. ^ "San Severo, cittadinanza a Franco Nero". Corriere del Mezzogiorno. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  9. ^ Fusco, Maria Pia (22 January 2012). "Franco Nero straniero in patria". la Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  10. ^ O'Neill, Phelim (26 May 2011). "Franco Nero: No escaping Django". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  11. ^ Russo, Paolo (16 November 2014). ""Io, Django e Fassbinder" Franco Nero, che grande attore". La Repubblica. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  12. ^ Lyman, Eric J. (1 January 2013). "Original 'Django' Franco Nero on His Iconic Character and the Film's Legacy (Q&A)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  13. ^ Roberts, Laura (11 June 2010). "Vanessa Redgrave speaks about marriage to second 'husband' for the first time". The Telegraph. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  14. ^ Lambert, Victoria (9 March 2017). "Franco Nero: 'As you get older, you want a quiet woman – not one who yells'". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  15. ^ La Magna, Franco (19 November 2019). "Dalla mafia arcaica de "Il giorno della civetta" all'apocalittico "Cadaveri eccellenti"". La Sicilia (in Italian). Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  16. ^ Pulici, Davide (26 November 2015). "Intervista a Franco Nero: buon compleanno!". Nocturno (in Italian). Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  17. ^ Franco Nero Interview from 1Kult.com Archived 30 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine (English subtitled)
  18. ^ "Dass Franco Nero in diesem Film mitspielt, macht wirklich großen Spaß – schade nur, dass nach seinen Auftritten noch so viel Film übrig ist." Baumgarten, Oliver. "Mord ist mein Geschäft, liebling". Filmzentrale. Retrieved 25 November 2011.
  19. ^ Alexander, Bryan (13 May 2010). "Letters to Juliet's Vanessa Redgrave". Time. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  20. ^ King, Susan (14 May 2010). "Vanessa Redgrave knows love delayed". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  21. ^ Stanhope, Kate (11 August 2011). "Exclusive: International Film Star Takes on Dominique Strauss-Kahn for Law & Order: SVU". TV Guide. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  22. ^ Yuen, Jenny (5 September 2011). "Italian Walk of Fame honours stars".
  23. ^ Corliss, Richard (12 December 2012). "Django Unchained: Tarantino Frees the Slaves". Time. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  24. ^ "Franco Nero legge 'Il Pugile' di Gabriele Tinti". www.beniculturali.it.
  25. ^ "Franco Nero Reads 'Songs of Stone' By Gabriele Tinti".
  26. ^ N'Duka, Amanda (20 December 2019). "Rachel True, Sean Gunn Join 'Agnes'; Sherilyn Fenn, Franco Nero Topline 'Immortalist'; Cameron Douglas, Elisabeth Röhm In 'The Runner'". Deadline. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
  27. ^ "Vanessa Redgrave speaks about marriage to second 'husband' for the first time". The Telegraph. 11 June 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  28. ^ Rorke, Robert (10 June 2007). "MAGICAL REDGRAVE". New York Post. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  29. ^ "Jack O'Brian's Mainland". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. 11 February 1970. p. 49.
  30. ^ Jack O'Brian (8 September 1975). Goldie and Vanessa's Oldie. Lebanon Daily News
  31. ^ Page Six (9 January 1986). Kiss & Tell. New Straits Times.
  32. ^ "Guión". 1987.
  33. ^ Lambert, Victoria (23 June 2017). "Original Django Franco Nero talks Vanessa Redgrave and playing the romantic lead at age 74". Stuff. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  34. ^ Middlekauff, Tracey (2009). "Fighting AIDS in Memory of Her Father". People. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2009.

External links[edit]