|Minister for Foreign Affairs|
17 December 2013
|Preceded by||Guido Westerwelle|
22 November 2005 – 27 October 2009
|Preceded by||Joschka Fischer|
|Succeeded by||Guido Westerwelle|
|Leader of the Social Democratic Party in the Bundestag|
27 October 2009 – 16 December 2013
|Preceded by||Peter Struck|
|Succeeded by||Thomas Oppermann|
|Vice Chancellor of Germany|
21 November 2007 – 27 October 2009
|Preceded by||Franz Müntefering|
|Succeeded by||Guido Westerwelle|
|Chief of the Chancellery|
31 July 1999 – 22 November 2005
|Preceded by||Bodo Hombach|
|Succeeded by||Thomas de Maizière|
5 January 1956 |
Detmold, West Germany
|Political party||Social Democratic Party|
|Alma mater||University of Giessen|
Frank-Walter Steinmeier [ˈfʁaŋkˌvaltɐ ˈʃtaɪ̯nˌmaɪ̯.ɐ] (born 5 January 1956) is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) who has served as Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2013. Steinmeier was a close aide of Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, serving as Chief of Staff in the German Chancellery from 1999 to 2005. He subsequently served as Foreign Minister (2005–2009) and Vice Chancellor (2007–2009) in the grand coalition government of Angela Merkel. In 2008, he briefly served as acting chairman of his party, and he was the SPD's candidate for Chancellor in the 2009 federal election.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Political career
- 3 Political positions
- 4 Controversies
- 5 Other activities
- 6 Recognition (selection)
- 7 Personal life
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Early life and education
Steinmeier was born in Detmold as the son of a carpenter. Following his Abitur, he served his military service from 1974 until 1976. He then studied law and political science at the Justus-Liebig-Universität of Gießen, where his fellow students included Brigitte Zypries. In 1982 he passed his first and 1986 his second state examination in law. He worked as scientific assistant to the professor of public law and political science at the Gießen university, until he obtained his doctorate of law in 1991. His dissertation explored the role of the state in the prevention of homelessness.
Steinmeier became an adviser in 1991 for law of communication media and media guidelines in the state Chancellery of Lower Saxony in Hanover. In 1993, he became director of the personal office for the then Prime Minister of Lower Saxony, Gerhard Schröder. In 1996, he became the Undersecretary of State and Director of the State Chancellery of Lower Saxony.
Head of the Federal Chancellery, 1999-2005
Steinmeier was appointed in November 1998 as undersecretary of state at the office of the chancellor following Schröder's election victory. He replaced Bodo Hombach as the head of the office of the chancellor in 1999. During this period Steinmeier was also one of the advisors to Schröder. He was crucial in securing a red-green majority in parliament for Schröder's contentious 'Agenda 2010' of economic reforms. Because of his effective management beyond the spotlight of politics, he was nicknamed Die Graue Effizienz (The Grey Efficiency) - a pun on Graue Eminenz, the German for éminence grise.
Under Schröder, Steinmeier was responsible for co-ordinating Germany's intelligence services. In 2003, he supported Schröder in his controversial decision to forge a coalition with Russia and France against the U.S.-led war against Iraq. Meanwhile, he approved the decision to install a German intelligence officer in the Qatar-based office of General Tommy Franks, the American commander of the U.S. invasion in Iraq, who passed on to the United States information being gathered in Baghdad by two German intelligence officers operating there.
A major controversy during Steinmeier's term as chief of staff was the imprisonment of a German-born Turk, Murat Kurnaz, in Guantánamo Bay from 2002 until August 2006. Steinmeier denied during a parliamentary inquiry in March 2007 that he had blocked Kurnaz's release. Instead, he claimed that Berlin had feared Kurnaz was a threat and should go to Turkey, not Germany, if released. Only after Merkel's election was Kurnaz released and brought back to Germany.
Federal Foreign Minister, 2005-2009
On 22 November 2005, after the 2005 federal elections, Steinmeier became Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Grand coalition cabinet led by Angela Merkel. He was the first SPD Foreign Minister since Willy Brandt (1966–1969).
Upon taking office, Steinmeier led the preparations for Germany taking over the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union in the first half of 2007.
During his time in office, Steinmeier was widely regarded a having good working relations with Angela Merkel but often taking a different stance on foreign affairs. By and large, he allowed Merkel to set the pace in foreign policy., working harmoniously with her on a range of foreign policy issues, from confronting Iran over its nuclear program to negotiating binding goals to combat climate change. In one significant foreign-policy disagreement, Steinmeier held in 2009 that Germany should by 2013 lay the groundwork for withdrawing its troops from Afghanistan, a deployment that around two-thirds of Germans opposed by then. Unlike Merkel, he also favored Turkish entry into the European Union.
Also, Steinmeier became known for his rather Russia-friendly stance, arguing strenuously for engagement with the increasingly assertive power to the east, rather than its isolation. He formulated a policy toward Russia deliberately reminiscent of “Ostpolitik”, the eastward-facing policy pioneered by Chancellor Willy Brandt in the early 1970s. Together with Gernot Erler, the SPD’s leading Russia expert and the deputy foreign minister, Steinmeier initiated Germany’s so-called Partnership for Modernization with Russia (announced in 2008), which became an official EU policy in 2010. Pressed by lawmakers to say more on his attitude toward Russia in the wake of the high-profile murders of opposition figures Anna Politkovskaya and Alexander Litvinenko at a 2007 hearing at the European Parliament, Steinmeier stated that "[t]here is a certain trend toward [media] hysterics and one needs to get a sense of reason back into the debate."
In 2006, Foreign Affairs published an analysis of the state of US and Russian nuclear forces, concluding that post-Cold War US nuclear forces seemed designed to carry out a preemptive strike against Russia or China and that the planned missile defense would be valuable primarily in an offensive context as an adjunct to a US first-strike capability. The article elicited a semi-official Russian response from ex-PM Yegor Gaidar in the Financial Times a few days later. In 2007, the U.S government reportedly was reportedly deeply irritated, although publicly silent, about Steinmeier, who had sounded supportive of Russian accusations that a planned US missile defense complex in Poland would upset the strategic balance in Europe – and who then left without challenge Russian General Nikolai Solovtsov’s threat of retaliation against Poland and the Czech Republic if they deployed U.S. defensive systems. Russian opposition activists later celebrated when Steinmeier and the SDP lost the 2009 election, signaling their discontent with Steinmeier. Oleg Petrovich Orlov, head of the Memorial human rights group, said that Steinmeier had prolonged Schröder's policies on Russia and that Germany's policies were "extremely bad for civil society, democracy and the country as a whole".
During his time in office, Steinmeier managed to extract German hostages from Iraq and Yemen. In 2007, he also succeeded in securing the release of a German citizen who was imprisoned in Iran for illegally entering the country's waters on a fishing expedition.
Steinmeier served as acting chairman of the SPD from 7 September 2008 to 18 October 2008. Domestically, throughout his term he was the only major politician with approval ratings consistently as high as or higher than Merkel’s. This was helped by the especially high ratings foreign ministers generally receive in Germany.
Opposition leader, 2009-2013
On 7 September 2008, following the resignation of SPD chairman Kurt Beck, Steinmeier was chosen as the SPD candidate for chancellor for the 2009 federal elections and also designated as acting SPD Chairman, pending the return of Müntefering to that position. In his election campaign, he argued for new tax rules to deter high executive pay and bonuses, and for minimum wages to slow the growing gap between Germany's highest and lowest earners. He also focused on improving public healthcare.
After the SPD's decisive defeat in the elections – the party’s worst performance since World War II – Steinmeier, who had been elected to represent Brandenburg an der Havel – Potsdam-Mittelmark I – Havelland III – Teltow-Fläming I, was elected Peter Struck’s successor as chairman of the SPD's parliamentary group in the Bundestag, and as such leader of the opposition. After a hospitalization for donating a kidney to his wife in August 2010, Steinmeier returned to his office in October 2010.
During his time as leader of the parliamentary opposition, Steinmeier regularly accused Angela Merkel’s government of increasing the national debt and pandering to the rich. In 2011, Steinmeier argued that Merkel’s decision to appoint her economics adviser, Jens Weidmann, to be the next head of Bundesbank undermined the political independence and public trust in the German central bank.
In late 2012, Steinmeier was once again considered a possible candidate to challenge Chancellor Angela Merkel in the 2013 general election, but soon withdrew from the contest. As a consequence, SPD chairman Sigmar Gabriel later announced that the leadership agreed to nominate Peer Steinbrück.
Federal Foreign Minister, 2013-
After the elections of 2013 and the new grand coalition government, Steinmeier was appointed foreign minister for a second time in December 2013. He replaced Guido Westerwelle, who had signed the P5+1 accord with Iran in November 2013. His deputies are Michael Roth (SPD) and Maria Böhmer (CDU). Upon taking office, Steinmeier initiated an ambitious review of Germany’s foreign policy, holding meetings nationwide and drawing in more than 12,000 people who work at the ministry or abroad.
Over the course of 2014, Steinmeier alternated with Merkel as Germany’s most popular politician in polls of eligible voters.
In light of criticism from the United States, Steinmeier has stood firm on Germany’s approach in the Ukraine conflict, where it was balancing support for European economic sanctions on Russia with leaving the door open to a revived partnership. In May 2014, he proposed a greater mediation role for the OSCE, including the convening of local "round table" talks in Ukraine to defuse conflicts. During the Minsk II talks on a ceasefire for eastern Ukraine in early 2015, he successfully negotiated with Russian President Vladimir Putin on allowing German doctors to visit Ukrainian military pilot Nadezhda Savchenko, who had been on hunger strike for more than two months in a Russian jail. Steinmeier has in the past repeatedly ruled out arms shipments to resolve the yearlong conflict.
In 2015, Steinmeier hosted a meeting of the delegations from Libya’s two rival governments, who were battling for control of the country, and United Nations Special Representative Bernardino León to discuss a UN-sponsored peace and power-sharing proposal despite splits among some of the parties.
In the past, Human Rights Watch has labeled Steinmeier as "Realpolitik advocate", for whom, "when it comes to defining his relationship with countries such as Russia and China, human rights play only a subordinate role."
In Steinmeier’s opinion, the “[r]ejection of capital punishment is one of the keystones of German human-rights policy. The death penalty goes against our fundamental ethic and moral principles.“ He personally called for the abolition of the death penalty in Uzbekistan; capital punishment in Uzbekistan has been abolished since 2008. In April 2014, he summoned the Egyptian ambassador Mohamed Higazy after a Cairo court sentenced 683 individuals to death for inciting violence during protests in summer 2013, following the military overthrow of elected President Mohammed Morsi.
In response to the protests following the 2009 Iranian presidential election against the disputed victory of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Steinmeier condemned what he called "brutal actions" against demonstrators in Tehran and summoned the Iranian ambassador Alireza Sheikhattar to explain.
After Germany had only narrowly managed to avoid a deficit warning from the European Commission in 2002, Schröder and Steinmeier became the driving forces behind weakening the Stability and Growth Pact, a rule-based framework for the coordination of national fiscal policies originally intended as the guarantor of a stable euro.
In a joint article in the Financial Times on 14 December 2010, Steinmeier and Peer Steinbrück proposed to solve the European debt crisis with “a combination of a haircut for debt holders, debt guarantees for stable countries and the limited introduction of European-wide bonds in the medium term, accompanied by more aligned fiscal policies.“ In February 2011, Steinmeier proposed Steinbrück as a candidate to lead the European Central Bank.
Under Steinmeier’s parliamentary leadership, the Social Democrats raised pressure on Chancellor Angela Merkel to agree to more burden-sharing to stem the euro zone crisis, repeatedly calling on her to assume greater risks to avert a breakup of the single currency. In both February and November 2012, his parliamentary group voted largely in favour of the Merkel government’s proposal for eurozone bailout packages for Greece, while criticizing the measures were "not an enduring solution for the Greeks." In July 2014, he helped build the opposition’s support for a euro zone rescue package for Spanish banks. Later, as foreign minister, he publicly advised against "frivolous" talk of a Greek withdrawal from the eurozone, calling for a serious search for a solution.
Reacting to a growth of euro-skeptic political parties across Europe by early 2014, Steinmeier offered the United Kingdom limited support on renegotiating the Treaties of the European Union, saying Germany wanted to see Britain’s influence in the “midst” of the EU, not on “the sidelines.” In December 2014, Steinmeier and the foreign ministers from the three Nordic countries Denmark, Finland and Sweden – Margot Wallström, Erkki Tuomioja and Martin Lidegaard – met in the so-called "N3 + 1" format to discuss issues of common concern for the first time.
Relations with France
On May 14, 2014, Steinmeier became the first German foreign minister to attend a meeting of the French cabinet. Together with his French counterpart Laurent Fabius, he has flown on several joint diplomatic missions in 2014, including to Moldova, Georgia, Tunisia, and Nigeria.
Relations with Russia
Upon returning to government in late 2013, Steinmeier criticized Russia in his inaugural speech for exploiting Ukraine's economic plight to prevent it from signing the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement. In March 2014, he defended Russia's membership of the G8, saying "he format of the G8 is actually the only one in which we in the West can speak directly with Russia." When Germany held the chairmanship of the group in 2015, he maintained that excluding Russia over its actions in Ukraine was a necessary step but not a goal in itself; citing the Middle East, he argued that "a look at the world shows that we need Russia as a constructive partner in a number of conflicts."
Relations with Central Asia
During a 2006 meeting with Turkmen President Saparmurat Niyazov, Steinmeier criticized Turkmenistan for its slow progress in implementing the rule of law and human rights and said that the state's progress in carrying out political reforms had been "too halting."
When Germany chaired a United Nations group aimed at resolving 2008 Russo-Georgian diplomatic crisis, Steinmeier presented to the three conflict parties – Georgia, Abkhazia and Russia – a plan which included a three-stage peace proposal, entailing an end to violence, confidence-building measures over the following year that could lead to the resumption of direct talks between Georgia and Abkhazia, and the return of about 250,000 Georgian refugees to Abkhazia. However, both Georgia and Abkhazia rejected the proposal. In September 2008, Steinmeier called for an international probe into the conflict over Georgia's breakaway provinces. During a 2014 visit to the country, he reiterated that membership of NATO and of the EU would remain off the cards for a long while to come.
In August 2006, Steinmeier made his first visit to Afghanistan, where Germany had taken over the command of the 21,000-strong NATO-led International Stability and Assistance Force (ISAF) shortly before. Ahead of the 2009 federal elections, Steinmeier – then still in his capacity as foreign minister – commissioned an internal report on Germany’s engagement in Afghanistan which recommended that Germany should start pulling out of the country within four years; at the time, this was seen as a stark departure from Steinmeier’s earlier insistence Germany should not set a date for withdrawing its then 4,200-strong contingent from the north of Afghanistan as the move could play into the hands of Taliban insurgents.
In October 2014, Steinmeier visited both Armenia and Azerbaijan to facilitate a negotiated solution to the long-standing conflict over Nagorny Karabakh, a region of Azerbaijan controlled by ethnic Armenians.
Relations with the Middle East
When Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad called the extermination of 6 million Jews during World War II a "myth" during an address carried live on state television in 2005, Steinmeier summoned the Iranian chargé d'affaires to issue a protest of the "shocking" remarks. In response to a letter to the leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran, sent by 47 United Sates Senators led by Republican Tom Cotton, Steinmeier said during a visit to Washington, D.C. that the move had complicated P5+1 talks over Iran’s nuclear program by allowing Tehran to claim the West is not negotiating in good faith.
On the occasion of the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the State of Israel, Steinmeier participated in the first joint cabinet meeting of the governments of Germany and Israel in Jerusalem in March 2008. In co-ordination with the governments of the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, he hosted the Berlin Conference in Support of Palestinian Civil Security & The Rule of Law in Berlin on 24 June 2008; the conference assembled foreign ministers and representatives of over forty countries and international organizations, including Condoleezza Rice, Tzipi Livni, Ahmed Qurei, and Tony Blair. In Steinmeier’s first visit to Israel and the Palestinian territories since his return to office in 2014, he represented the German government at the official funeral ceremony for former Prime Minister Ariel Sharon at the Knesset; within his first two years in office, he visited Israel four times. At the OSCE’s Berlin Conference on Anti-Semitism in late 2014, Steinmeier said Germany's Jews were subjected to threats and attacks at pro-Palestinian demonstrations, and the conflict between Israel and Gaza must not be used as justification for an anti-Semitic behavior.
In early 2014, Steinmeier agreed with Chancellor Angela Merkel and Defence Minister Ursula von der Leyen that Germany would help destroy Syria's arsenal of chemical weapons materials as part of an international disarmament program. In October 2014, he co-chaired the Berlin Conference on the Syrian Refugee Situation along with Development Minister Gerd Müller and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, António Guterres.
Relations with Africa
Steinmeier has made the African continent the destination of many foreign trips. On his first visit as Germany’s foreign minister in 2006, his tour to Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and Mauritania was aimed at preparing Germany for its presidency of the EU and the G8 the following year. In August 2007, he travelled to Nigeria and Ghana. In February 2008, he made a three-day visit to Ghana (on the occasion of the 2008 Africa Cup of Nations), Togo and Burkina Faso. Over the course of 2014, Steinmeier visited Ethiopia, Tanzania and Angola; Nigeria and Tunisia (with his French counterpart Laurent Fabius); and South Africa (for the 8th South Africa-Germany Bi-National Commission). In 2015, he traveled to Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria; and to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda and Kenya; and Egypt.
In June 2007, Steinmeier and EU Commissioner Benita Ferrero-Waldner flew to Benghazi, Libya to try to advance efforts to free six foreign medics sentenced to death for infecting 426 Libyan children with HIV.
Later that year, Steinmeier summoned the Zimbabwean chargé d'affaires and stated that comments in state-run newspaper The Herald referring to German Chancellor Angela Merkel as a "Nazi" were unacceptable; Merkel had previously confronted human rights abuses in Zimbabwe.
Since becoming a member of the German Bundestag, Steinmeier has voted in favor of German participation in United Nations peacekeeping missions as well as in United Nations-mandated European Union peacekeeping missions on the African continent, such as in Somalia (2009, 2010, 2011, 2014 and 2015), Darfur/Sudan (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015), South Sudan (2011, 2013 and 2014), Mali (2013 and 2014), the Central African Republic (2014), and Liberia (2015). In 2012 and 2013, however, he voted against German participation in Operation Atalanta in Somalia.
Vergangenheitsbewältigung of German Nazi past
In 2014, Steinmeier and Italian Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini took part in the remembrance of the 244 victims of a massacre by German troops in Civitella on June 29, 1944, during World War II. Later that year, he attended the ordination of four rabbis educated in Germany which was held at the White Stork Synagogue in Wrocław, one day after the 75th anniversary of the German attack on Poland.
When incoming Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras, in his first major speech to parliament in early 2015, pledged to seek war reparations from Germany, Steinmeier replied to Greek Foreign Minister Nikos Kotzias that Germany was fully aware of its political and moral responsibility for the "terrible events" in Greece between 1941 and 1944 when Nazi troops occupied the country. "Still, we are firmly convinced that all reparations issues, including forced loans, are judicially settled once-and-for-all," Steinmeier said.
Dalai Lama visit
Steinmeier openly attacked Merkel over her 2007 meeting with the Dalai Lama, accusing the chancellor of “playing to public opinion” without regard for the effectiveness of the meeting in improving political or religious rights on the ground in China. In 2008, he refused to meet the Dalai Lama during his five-day visit, arguing that such a meeting could undermine international efforts to promote sustained contact between China and Tibet. Instead, Steinmeier issued the statement "it takes a lot of courage not to meet with the Dalai Lama these days", which the New York Times described as "extraordinarily cynical" and accused of Steinmeier of prioritizing business interests over human rights.
In the case of the 2002 innocently imprisoned and tortured by the US Murat Kurnaz, who was first sold as terror suspect in Pakistan and then imprisoned in Afghanistan and later in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Cuba until 2006, Steinmeier allegedly had an offer by the United States Department of Defense and the CIA already in September 2002 regarding a transfer of Murat Kurnaz to Germany, where he was born and raised. By refusing the offer he is thought to have been politically directly responsible for the continued imprisonment of Kurnaz.
A BND-commission of enquiry was consulted.
Armenian Genocide recognition debate
During a 2015 debate about Germany's recognition of the Armenian Genocide on the occasion of its centenuary, Steinmeier was the politician most reluctant to it, calling it relativization of the Holocaust. He was widely criticized for his position, as even Israel's president Reuven Rivlin recognizes the Armenian genocide and links it with the Holocaust.
- Aktion Deutschland Hilft (Germany's Relief Coalition), Member of the Board of Trustees
- Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, ex-officio Member of the Board of Trustees
- German Coordinating-Council for Christian-Jewish Cooperation Organizations, Member of the Board (2009-2013)
- German Evangelical Church Assembly, Member of the Board
- German Protestant Institute of Archaeology, Member of the Board
- International Journalists’ Programmes, Member of the Board of Trustees
- KfW, ex-officio Member of the Supervisory Board
- Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (2006)
- Royal Norwegian Order of Merit
- Ordem do Mérito (2009)
- Honorary doctorate of the Ural State Technical University (2010)
Steinmeier is married and has one daughter. On 24 August 2010, due to an illness of his wife, he successfully donated a kidney to her. Steinmeier is said to like jazz and to be an avid football fan.
- Frank-Walter Steinmeier Financial Times, September 9, 2008.
- Steinmeier to run for German leader Al Jazeera, October 18, 2008.
- Judy Dempsey (October 17, 2005), A promotion to cabinet for Schröder's top aide New York Times.
- Markus Feldenkirchen (September 24, 2009), From Pen-Pusher to Chancellor Candidate: Frank-Walter Steinmeier's Reluctant Path into the Spotlight Der Spiegel.
- Melissa Eddy (September 30, 2013), German Politician Faces Plagiarism Accusations New York Times.
- Bernstein, Richard (23 November 2005). "Merkel Takes Office in Germany and Announces Coalition Cabinet". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Schrödermeier: A foreign minister under pressure to account for the past The Economist, January 19, 2006.
- Judy Dempsey (May 17, 2007), Letter From Europe: In German town, a foreign minister paves way for future International Herald Tribune.
- Richard Bernstein and Michael R. Gordon (March 2, 2006), Berlin File Says Germany's Spies Aided U.S. in Iraq New York Times.
- Charles Hawley (October 20, 2005), Letter from Berlin: Taming the Lions with Angela Merkel Bloomberg.
- Judy Dempsey (May 17, 2007), Letter From Europe: In German town, a foreign minister paves way for future New York Times.
- Andreas Cremer and Brian Parkin, "Muentefering, Vice-Chancellor Under Merkel, Quits", Bloomberg, 13 November 2007.
- Noah Barkin (September 23, 2009), "Factbox - German SPD candidate Frank-Walter Steinmeier", Reuters.
- Markus Walker (September 14, 2009), "German Challenger Gains an Edge", Wall Street Journal.
- Nicholas Kulish (September 5, 2008), Without Primaries or Caucuses, Campaign for German Chancellor Begins New York Times.
- Mark Landler (May 22, 2007), Putin Prompts Split in German Coalition New York Times.
- Jakob Mischke and Andreas Umland (March 20, 2014), Germany abandons its ‘soft’ approach to Russia Le Monde diplomatique.
- Andrew Rettman (January 23, 2007), Steinmeier sketches new EU policy on Central Asia EUobserver.
- Keir A. Lieber and Daryl G. Press (March/April, 2006), The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy Foreign Affairs.
- Yegor Gaidar (March 28, 2006), "Nuclear punditry can be a dangerous game", Financial Times.
- John Vinocur (February 27, 2007), Silenced by Self-Inflicted Impotence International Herald Tribune.
- "German Vote Raises Hopes in Russia". Moscow Times. 29 September 2009.
- "German Foreign Minister to Meet Clinton: Steinmeier Calls For 'New Trans-Atlantic Agenda'", Spiegel Online, February 3, 2009.
- Geir Moulson (December 18, 2005), German Foreign Minister Confirms Hostage in Iraq Is Free Washington Post.
- German hostages freed in Iraq Al Jazeera, May 2, 2006.
- "Iran releases German fisherman", Al Jazeera, March 13, 2007.
- "German SPD party reshuffles leadership, with eye on election", Xinhua, 7 September 2008.
- Germany's parties and politicians, Al Jazeera, September 27, 2009.
- "Merkel's rival concedes defeat in German election". The Telegraph. 27 September 2009.
- Patrick Donahue (December 15, 2013), Merkel’s Third-Term Cabinet: Social Democratic Party Ministers International Herald Tribune.
- "Steinmeier wird Oppositionsführer". Die Zeit (in German). 27 September 2009.
- Judy Dempsey (November 16, 2009), Social Democrats in Germany Strive to Rebound From Election Pummeling International Herald Tribune.
- Judy Dempsey (February 16, 2011), Merkel Names an Adviser to Lead the Central Bank New York Times.
- Melissa Eddy (September 28, 2012), Merkel’s Ex-Finance Minister to Oppose Her New York Times.
- Alison Smale (November 19, 2014), Germany’s Foreign Minister, a Man in the Middle – Frank-Walter Steinmeier Meets With Vladimir Putin New York Times.
- Birgit Jennen (June 18, 2014), Merkel Running for Fourth Term Seen Possible by Ally De Maiziere Bloomberg News.
- Patrick Donahue (March 12, 2015), Germany Blasts Republicans in U.S. on Iran Nuclear Talks Bloomberg News.
- Ukraine: Germany calls for second Geneva conference Deutsche Welle, May 4, 2014.
- Alexandra Hudson (February 23, 2015), German Doctors Visited Detained Ukrainian Pilot in Russia New York Times.
- Patrick Donahue (March 11, 2015), Merkel’s Top Diplomat to Rebuff U.S. Call to Arm Ukraine Bloomberg News.
- EU leaders push Libya rivals over peace deal The Daily Star, June 11, 2015.
- Wenzel Michalski (February 10, 2014), A Second Chance for German Foreign Minister Steinmeier Human Rights Watch.
- Federal Minister Steinmeier on the World Day against the Death Penalty Federal Foreign Office, press release of October 9, 2009.
- Speech by Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier to the German Bundestag on the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Consulate General of the Federal Republic of Germany in Dubai, December 5, 2008.
- Robert Hutton (February 3, 2014), Steinmeier summons Egyptian ambassador after mass death sentence Deutsche Welle, April 29, 2014.
- Dave Graham (June 14, 2009), Germany summons Iranian ambassador over election Reuters.
- Christian Reiermann and Klaus Wiegrefe (July 16, 2012), Chancellor Schröder's Legacy: Germany's Leading Role in Weakening the Euro Der Spiegel.
- Peer Steinbrück and Frank-Walter Steinmeier (December 14, 2010), Germany must lead fightback Financial Times.
- Erik Kirschbaum (February 13, 2011), Steinbrueck says not interested in ECB's top job Reuters.
- Rainer Buergin (August 9, 2012), German SPD Demands Merkel Backs More Crisis Burden-Sharing Bloomberg Businessweek.
- Greece bailout: German MPs give strong backing BBC News, February 27, 2012.
- German parliament approves Greek bailout fund Al Jazeera, November 30, 2012.
- Gareth Jones and Stephen Brown (November 30, 2012), German lawmakers approve Greek bailout despite qualms Reuters.
- Charles Hawley (November 30, 2012), Squabbling in the Bundestag: German Parliament Rubber Stamps Aid for Greece Spiegel Online.
- Annika Breidthardt and Michelle Martin (July 20, 2012), Merkel wins Spanish aid vote with big majority Reuters.
- Michelle Martin (April 14, 2015), Mogherini says Europe must show flexibility on Greece Reuters.
- Robert Hutton (February 3, 2014), Germany Offers U.K. Limited Support on EU Treaty Negotiation Bloomberg[disambiguation needed].
- Mu Xuequan (December 2, 2014), FMs from Germany, three Nordic countries meet first time in "N3 + 1" format Xinhua News Agency.
- German minister opposes EU utility unbundling idea Reuters 20 January 2007
- Alison Smale (October 15, 2014), French Minister Attends German Cabinet Session New York Times.
- Alexandra Hudson (December 17, 2013), New German minister criticizes Russia over Ukraine Reuters.
- Thorsten Severin (March 2, 2014), German foreign minister against excluding Russia from G8, Reuters.
- Andreas Rinke (June 4, 2015), German minister says G7 should welcome back Russia longer term Reuters.
- Margarita Antidze (April 24, 2014), Steinmeier Criticizes Central Asia's Forgotten Dictatorship, Deutsche Welle, November 2, 2006.
- Abkhazia rejects peace plan Al Jazeera, July 18, 2008.
- Steinmeier Calls for International Probe Into Georgia Conflict Deutsche Welle, September 5, 2008.
- Margarita Antidze (April 24, 2014), France, Germany show EU support for Georgia as Ukraine crisis mounts Reuters.
- Steinmeier Reasserts Germany's Pledge to Afghanistan Deutsche Welle, August 21, 2006.
- Bertrand Benoit (September 13, 2009), Steinmeier shifts stance on troop pullout Financial Times.
- Armenia warns Azeris over helicopter shooting Al Jazeera, November 12, 2014.
- Karl Vick (December 15, 2005), Iran's President Calls Holocaust 'Myth' in Latest Assault on Jews Washington Post.
- Anton Troianovski (March 12, 2015), Germany Warns GOP Letter Affects Iran Talks Wall Street Journal.
- Bilateral agreements reached at first Israeli-German intergovernmental consultations Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, press release of March 17, 2008.
- Barak Ravid (June 24, 2008), Livni, Qureia to brief Rice in Berlin Haaretz.
- Israel stages state memorial for Ariel Sharon Al Jazeera, January 13, 2014.
- Stephen Brown (November 13, 2014), German FM: Hatred of Jews on the rise due to Mideast violence Haaretz.
- Germany will help dispose of Syrian chemical weapons Reuters, January 9, 2014.
- Supporting stability in the region: Syrian Refugee Conference in Berlin Federal Foreign Office, Berlin.
- Steinmeier Clinches Debt Repayment Deal on North Africa Tour Deutsche Welle, November 16, 2006.
- Libya talks raise hopes in HIV case Al Jazeera, June 11, 2007.
- Fred Attewill (December 11, 2007), Zimbabwe's 'Nazi' slur on chancellor rankles Berlin The Guardian.
- Hanns-Jochen Kaffsack (June 29, 2014), German FM commemorates Nazi victims of small Italian hill town Haaretz.
- In sign of Jewish revival, four rabbis ordained in Poland Haaretz, September 3, 2014.
- Michael Nienaber (February 10, 2015), Greek Foreign Minister Takes War Reparations Claim to Berlin, Gets Rebuffed New York Times.
- Hugh Williamson (November 16, 2007), Beijing forces Steinbrück to cancel visit Financial Times
- James Blitz and Hugh Williamson (May 20, 2008), UK visit by Dalai Lama irks China Financial Times
- Steinmeier's bad example New York Times 20 May 2008
- German Minister Criticized for Planned Meeting with Dalai Lama. Spiegel Online International. 17 May 2008
- Dalai Lama `Disappointed' Germany's Steinmeier Won't Meet Him Bloomberg[disambiguation needed] 9 May 2008
- Berlin lehnte Kurnaz-Freilassung ab, Deutschlandfunk 23. January 2007 (German).
- Report in stern.de 20. April 2007 on Kurnaz and his imprisonment in Guantánamo on the occasion of the release of his book (German)
- An Innocent Man, Tortured by the U.S., Asks the U.N.: Where’s the Accountability? Article in The Intercept, 11. November 2014
- Katharina Schuler: „Fall Kurnaz: Kälte, Hunger, Schläge“, Die Zeit Nr. 4/2007, 19. January 2007.
Media related to Frank-Walter Steinmeier at Wikimedia Commons
|Chief of the Chancellery
Thomas de Maizière
|Minister of Special Affairs
|Minister of Foreign Affairs
|Vice Chancellor of Germany
|Minister of Foreign Affairs
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Social Democratic Party
|Leader of the Social Democratic Party in the Bundestag