Frank Carlucci

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Frank Carlucci
Frank Carlucci official portrait.JPEG
Official portrait, 1987
16th United States Secretary of Defense
In office
November 23, 1987 – January 20, 1989
PresidentRonald Reagan
DeputyWilliam Taft
Preceded byCaspar Weinberger
Succeeded byDick Cheney
14th United States National Security Advisor
In office
December 2, 1986 – November 23, 1987
PresidentRonald Reagan
DeputyPeter Rodman
Colin Powell
Preceded byJohn Poindexter
Succeeded byColin Powell
19th United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
In office
February 4, 1981 – December 31, 1982
PresidentRonald Reagan
Preceded byGraham Claytor
Succeeded byPaul Thayer
13th Deputy Director of Central Intelligence
In office
February 5, 1978 – February 4, 1981
PresidentJimmy Carter
Ronald Reagan
Preceded byJohn F. Blake
Succeeded byBobby Inman
United States Ambassador to Portugal
In office
January 24, 1975 – February 5, 1978
PresidentGerald Ford
Jimmy Carter
Preceded byStuart Scott
Succeeded byRichard Bloomfield
4th Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity
In office
January 1971 – December 1972
PresidentRichard Nixon
Preceded byDonald Rumsfeld
Succeeded byPhillip V. Sanchez
Personal details
Born
Frank Charles Carlucci III

(1930-10-18)October 18, 1930
Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedJune 3, 2018(2018-06-03) (aged 87)
McLean, Virginia, U.S.
Resting placeArlington National Cemetery[1]
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)
Jean Anthony
(m. 1954; div. 1974)

Marcia Myers
(m. 1976)
Children3
EducationPrinceton University (AB)
Harvard University (MBA)
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Navy
Years of service1952–1954
RankLieutenant

Frank Charles Carlucci III GCIH (/ˌkɑːrˈli/ kar-LOO-chee; October 18, 1930 – June 3, 2018) was an American politician and diplomat who served as the United States Secretary of Defense from 1987 to 1989 in the administration of President Ronald Reagan.[2] He was the first Italian American to serve in that position.

Carlucci served in a variety of senior-level governmental positions, including Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity in the Nixon administration, Deputy Director of the CIA in the Carter administration, and Deputy Secretary of Defense and National Security Advisor in the Reagan administration.

Early life[edit]

Carlucci was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, the son of Roxann (née Bacon) and Frank Charles Carlucci, Jr., an insurance broker. His father was of Italian and Swiss descent.[3] His grandfather was from Santomenna, Italy.[4]

After graduating from Wyoming Seminary in 1948, Carlucci attended Princeton University, where he roomed with Donald Rumsfeld. Carlucci graduated with an A.B. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University in 1952 after completing a 153-page senior thesis, "Two American Businesses in Costa Rica."[5] He then attended Harvard Business School for an M.B.A. in 1954–1955.[6] He was an officer in the US Navy from 1952 to 1954.[7] He joined the US Foreign Service and worked for the US State Department from 1956 to 1969.[8]

Early career[edit]

In 1961, Carlucci was the second secretary at the US Embassy in the Congo. During that time, Patrice Lumumba, the first prime minister of independent Congo, was killed in January 1961 during the Congo Crisis.[9]

According to subsequently-released US government documents, US President Dwight Eisenhower ordered the CIA to eliminate Lumumba.[9][10] Minutes of an August 1960 National Security Council meeting confirm that Eisenhower told CIA chief Allen Dulles to "eliminate" the Congolese leader.[11] The official notetaker, Robert H. Johnson, testified to that before the Senate Intelligence Committee in 1975. However, subsequent investigations indicate that Lumumba was ultimately executed by an order of a political rival, Moïse Tshombe, who led the State of Katanga, with Belgian assistance.[9][12]

According to Robert B. Oakley, Carlucci befriended the future Congo Prime Minister Cyrille Adoula in 1959-1960, who was then a Congolese Member of Parliament.[13] According to James Schlesinger, Adoula began a White House meeting with President John F. Kennedy with the question "Où est Carlucci?" ("Where is Carlucci?"). Kennedy first responded, "Who the hell is Carlucci?" He then sent Dean Rusk to find him.[14] Oakley added that that instance was "the beginning of Carlucci's meteoric rise!"[15]

A fictionalized 2000 biopic, Lumumba, directed by Raoul Peck, portrayed Carlucci as being involved during his service in Congo in the murder of Lumumba.[14][16] Carlucci furiously denied the claims and successfully went to court to prevent his being named in the film when it was released in the United States.[14][16]

Service in presidential administrations[edit]

Secretary Carlucci at a press conference, 1988

In 1969, when US President Richard Nixon persuaded U.S Representative Donald Rumsfeld to leave his seat to become the director of the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), the agency created by Sargent Shriver to fight Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, Rumsfeld had Carlucci transferred to OEO from the State Department to head up the Community Action Program.[17] Carlucci was Undersecretary of Health, Education and Welfare when Caspar Weinberger was secretary during the Nixon administration.[17]

In the aftermath of the catastrophic flooding caused by Hurricane Agnes in June 1972, Nixon designated Carlucci to lead the federal response in northeastern Pennsylvania because of his personal ties to the region. At the time, Agnes was the costliest disaster in U.S. history, and the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania was one of the worst hit areas. Carlucci's time in this role was viewed positively by commonwealth and local officials, as well as the general public, given his local ties and effectiveness.[18]

Carlucci became Ambassador to Portugal and served in that position from 1974 to 1977.[17] He was remembered in Portugal among the winners of the coup of 25 November 1975.[19] The Carlucci American International School of Lisbon, the oldest American school in the Iberian Peninsula, is named after him.

Carlucci was Deputy Director of the CIA from 1978 to 1981, under Director Stansfield Turner.[8]

Department of Defense[edit]

Carlucci was United States Deputy Secretary of Defense from 1981 to 1983.[20] He served as United States National Security Advisor from 1986 to 1987,[21] where he appointed Colin Powell, later his successor, as US Deputy National Security Advisor.[22]

Carlucci became US Secretary of Defense in 1987 after Caspar Weinberger resigned for being involved in the Iran-Contra Affair.[8] Carlucci served in that position until the end of the Reagan administration, on January 20, 1989.[8][17] Carlucci was notable during the administration for advocating an arms build-up to hasten the end of the Cold War, a policy that Reagan followed.[17]

Later life[edit]

Business[edit]

Carlucci served as chairman of the Carlyle Group from 1992 to 2003 and chairman emeritus until 2005.[8][17] He had business interests in the following companies: Ashland Global Holdings, General Dynamics, Westinghouse, Neurogen, CB Commercial Real Estate, Nortel, BDM International, Quaker Oats, and Kaman.[23] Carlucci was at one time a director of the private security firm Wackenhut[24] and was a co-founder and senior member of the Frontier Group, a private-equity investment firm.[25] Carlucci was an advisory board member of G2 Satellite Solutions and the Chairman Emeritus of Nortel Networks.[26]

Organizations[edit]

Carlucci was affiliated with the Project for the New American Century (PNAC), a conservative think tank.[27] He was Chairman Emeritus of the US-Taiwan Business Council after he had been Chairman from 1999 to 2002; he was succeeded in 2003 by William Cohen.[28][29] Carlucci was a member of the Board of Trustees of the RAND Corporation[30] and was a founding co-chair of the Advisory Board for RAND's Center for Middle East Public Policy.[31] He was also a member of the Honorary Board of the Drug Policy Alliance, a group that advocates drug legalization.[32]

Personal life and death[edit]

Carlucci was married to Billie Jean Anthony from 1954 until the couple divorced in 1974.[33] They had two children.[33] Carlucci was later married to Marcia McMillan Myers from 1976 until his death. They had one daughter.[33]

Carlucci died on June 3, 2018, from complications of Parkinson's disease, at his home in McLean, Virginia, at the age of 87.[7][8]

Honors[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Frank Carlucci III Notice
  2. ^ "Frank C. Carlucci – Ronald Reagan Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  3. ^ Mazur, Suzan (June 30, 2005). "Suzan Mazur: Frank Carlucci I, "Sublime Prince"". Scoop News. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  4. ^ "Santomenna: Sui sentieri della memoria". Archived from the original on June 17, 2019. Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  5. ^ Carlucci, Frank Charles (1952). "Two American Businesses in Costa Rica". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ "Frank Carlucci, Carlyle chairman who led Pentagon, dies at 87". Pensions and Investments. June 4, 2018. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  7. ^ a b Nelan, Bruce (June 4, 2018). "Frank Carlucci, defense secretary and tamer of federal bureaucracies, dies at 87". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e f McFadden, Robert D. (June 4, 2018). "Frank C. Carlucci, Diplomat and Defense Secretary to Reagan, Dies at 87". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  9. ^ a b c David Akerman (October 21, 2000). "Who Killed Lumumba?". BBC. Archived from the original on July 16, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  10. ^ Michael S. Mayer (2009). The Eisenhower Years. Infobase Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8160-5387-2. Archived from the original on October 17, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
  11. ^ Kettle, Martin (August 10, 2000). "President 'ordered murder' of Congo leader". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  12. ^ Witte, Ludo de (2002). The Assassination of Lumumba. Verso. p. 78. ISBN 1859844103. Retrieved April 17, 2018 – via Google Books.
  13. ^ Kennedy, Charles Stuart; Stern, Thomas (July 7, 1992). "AMBASSADOR ROBERT B. OAKLEY" (PDF). Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training. pp. 16–17. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  14. ^ a b c Shorrock, Tim (March 14, 2002). "Company Man". The Nation. Archived from the original on September 21, 2002. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
  15. ^ Kennedy, Charles Stuart; Stern, Thomas (July 7, 1992). "AMBASSADOR ROBERT B. OAKLEY" (PDF). Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training. p. 17. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
  16. ^ a b ""Carlucci" bleeped from HBO version of Lumumba". WSWS. March 15, 2002. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  17. ^ a b c d e f "Frank Carlucci, Carlyle Chairman Who Led Pentagon, Dies at 87". Bloomberg. June 4, 2018. Archived from the original on June 4, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  18. ^ "Frank Carlucci III, key figure in Agnes flood recovery, dies at 87". Pocono Record. June 5, 2018. Retrieved April 4, 2022.
  19. ^ Frank Carlucci parecia "um típico mafioso italiano" Archived July 7, 2012, at archive.today, João Pedro Henriques, 13 de Novembro 2008
  20. ^ SecDef stories - Frank C. Carlucci Archived December 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Department of Defense
  21. ^ "Frank C. Carlucci". history.defense.gov. Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2018. Frank C. Carlucci, who had served as Caspar Weinberger's deputy secretary between 1981 and 1983, succeeded him as secretary of defense.
  22. ^ Bamford, James (January 18, 1987). "Carlucci and the N.S.C." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  23. ^ "BDM International". Brand.Edgar. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  24. ^ "Frank Carlucci Demands His $37 Million". Courthouse News. May 30, 2013. Archived from the original on September 22, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  25. ^ "Frank C. Carlucci Biography". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  26. ^ "Frank C. Carlucci". CSIS. Archived from the original on July 1, 2017. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  27. ^ B.W.Holmes (December 2004). "Partial list of people associated with the Project For The New American Century". Reasoned spirituality. Archived from the original on December 25, 2017. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  28. ^ "About the Council". US-Taiwan Business Council. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  29. ^ Conley, Richard S. (2017). Historical Dictionary of the Reagan-Bush Era (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 50. ISBN 978-1538101810. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  30. ^ "The Carluccis Support RAND's Commitment to Follow the Research Wherever It Leads". RAND. Archived from the original on April 19, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  31. ^ "Frank Charles Carlucci III". SourceWatch. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  32. ^ DPA 2010 Annual Report, p. 22.
  33. ^ a b c "Frank Carlucci". NNDB. Archived from the original on June 3, 2018. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  34. ^ "Cidadãos Estrangeiros Agraciados com Ordens Portuguesas". Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas. Archived from the original on February 8, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2019.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by Director of the Office of Economic Opportunity
1971–1972
Succeeded by
Philip Sanchez
Preceded by United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
1981–1983
Succeeded by
Preceded by National Security Advisor
1986–1987
Succeeded by
Preceded by United States Secretary of Defense
1987–1989
Succeeded by
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by United States Ambassador to Portugal
1975–1978
Succeeded by
Government offices
Preceded by Deputy Director of Central Intelligence
1978–1981
Succeeded by