|Servant of God
|Founder, Legion of Mary|
|Born||Francis Michael Duff
7 June 1889
|Died||7 November 1980
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church, esp. among members of the Legion of Mary|
Servant of God Francis Michael "Frank" Duff (7 June 1889 – 7 November 1980) was a native of Dublin, Ireland, the eldest child of a wealthy family. He is best known for bringing attention to the role of the laity during the Second Vatican Council of the Roman Catholic Church, and for founding the Legion of Mary.
Early life and charity work
Frank Duff was born in Dublin in 1889, the eldest of seven children of John Duff (died 23 December 1918) and his wife, Susan Letitia (née Freehill; died 27 February 1950). The family lived at St. Patrick's Road, Drumcondra, Dublin. Duff attended Blackrock College, and, in 1908, entered the Civil Service, and was assigned to the Irish Land Commission.
Six years later, aged 24, he joined the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, and was exposed to the real poverty of Dublin of that time. Many who lived in tenement squalor were forced to attend soup kitchens for sustenance, and some of the natural consequences of abject poverty, alcoholism and prostitution were rife in Dublin. Duff joined and soon rose through the ranks to President of the St. Patrick's Conference at St. Nicholas of Myra parish. Duff, having concern for the people he saw as materially and spiritually deprived, got the idea to picket Protestant soup kitchens[why?] and to set up rival Catholic soup kitchens. He and Sergeant Major Joe Gabbett[who?], who had already been working at discouraging Catholics from patronizing Protestant soup kitchens, over the years succeeded in closing down two of them.
In 1916, aged 27, Duff published his first pamphlet, Can we be Saints?, in which he expressed the conviction that all without exception are called to be saints, and that through Christian faith all persons have available the means necessary to attain such sainthood.
He briefly acted as private secretary to Michael Collins, the chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-chief of the National Army. In 1924, he was transferred to the Department of Finance. He eventually retired from the Civil Service in 1934 to devote all of his time to the Legion of Mary. 
Inspired by St. Louis de Montfort's True Devotion to Mary, he founded the Legion of Mary. Along with a group of Catholic women and Fr. Michael Toher, a priest of the Dublin Archdiocese, he formed the first branch of what was to become the first praesidium of the Legion of Mary on 7 September 1921. From that date until his death, with the help of many others, he guided the world-wide extension of the Legion.
The Legion of Mary
On 7 September 1921, Duff founded the Legion of Mary. This is a lay apostolate organisation at the service of the Roman Catholic Church, under ecclesiastical guidance. Its twofold purpose is the spiritual development of its members and advancing the reign of Christ through Mary. The first legionairies were women. Today, the Legion of Mary has an estimated four million active members -- and 10 million auxiliary members -- in close to 200 countries in almost every diocese in the Catholic Church.
In 1965, Pope Paul VI invited Duff to attend the Second Vatican Council as a Lay Observer. Duff made promotion of devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus a part of the Legion's apostolacy. He took to heart the words of Our Lord to Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque: "My Heart is so inflamed with Love for men that it is no longer able to keep within itself the flames of its burning Love. It must make itself known unto men to enrich them with the treasures it contains".
Duff wrote the following prayer:
"O Lord, all hearts are in Your Hand
You can bend, as it pleases You,
the most obdurate, and soften the most hardened.
Do that honour this night through the Blood, merits, wounds, names and inflamed
Hearts of Your Beloved Son and His Most Holy Mother by
granting the conversion of the whole world.
Nothing less My God, Nothing less because of Mary Thy Mother
and because of Thy might and Thy Mercy".
Duff died at age 91 on 7 November 1980 in Dublin, and was interred in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin. In July 1996 the Cause of Duff's canonisation was introduced by the Archbishop of Dublin, Desmond Cardinal Connell.
- Burns, J.S. (1956). "Walking with Mary (The spirit of the Legion of Mary". Glasgow. ASIN B0007IXKU2.
- Radio documentary from Sunday, 26 June 2011, about Duff's life can heard here
- Drake, Tim."Frank Duff: A New Evangelist Ahead of His Time", catholicpulse.com, 1 April 2014.
- Kennedy, Finola. Frank Duff: A Life Story, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011; ISBN 978-08264-432-50.
- The biography of Frank Duff, on the website of the Center for the Promotion of Legion of Mary Saints; retrieved 18 March 2007.
- Kennedy, Finola (2007). Frank Duff: A Life Story. Burns & Oates. ISBN 978-14411-674-77.,
- Cooney, John (1 January 1999). "John Charles McQuaid: Ruler of Catholic Ireland". Syracuse University Press. Retrieved 19 February 2017 – via Google Books.
- Molloy, Cian."Sainthood Cause Delayed for Legion of Mary Founder", National Catholic Register, 8 February 1998.
- Cooney, John. "Review: Biography: 'Frank Duff, A Life Story' by Finola Kennedy", independent.ie, 23 July 2011; accessed 19 September 2014.
- Legion of Mary official website, legion-of-mary.ie; accessed 1 August 2015.