Frank Giacoia

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Frank Giacoia
Giacoia from 1978 Marvel Comics Calendar
Born (1924-07-06)July 6, 1924[1]
Died February 4, 1988(1988-02-04) (aged 63)
Nationality American
Area(s) Penciller, Inker
Pseudonym(s) Frank Ray, Phil Zupa, Espoia
Notable works
Captain America
Awards Shazam Award, 1974

Frank Giacoia (July 6, 1924 - February 4, 1988)[2] was an American comic book artist known primarily as an inker. He sometimes worked under the name Frank Ray,[3] and to a lesser extent Phil Zupa,[4] and the single moniker Espoia (the latter used for collaborations with fellow inker Mike Esposito).[citation needed]


Early life and career[edit]

Frank Giacoia studied at Manhattan's School of Industrial Art (later the High School of Art and Design) and the Art Students League of New York. He broke into comics by penciling the feature "Jack Frost" in USA Comics #3 (Jan. 1942), published by Marvel Comics' 1940s precursor, Timely Comics. His friend and collaborator Carmine Infantino, a classmate at the Art Students League, recalled that

...Frank Giacoia and I were in constant contact. One day in '40 we decided to go up to Timely Comics, which later became Marvel, to see if we could get some work. They gave us a script called 'Jack Frost' and that story became our first published work. Frank did the pencils and I did the inking. Joe Simon was the editor and he offered us both a staff job. Frank quit school and took the job. I wanted desperately to quit school and I told my father that it was a great opportunity. He said, 'No way! You're gonna finish school'.[5]

Later in 1941, Giacoia joined the New York City comic-book packager Eisner & Iger,[citation needed] the studio of Golden Age greats Will Eisner and Jerry Iger. His early works include crime for Ace Comics, horror for Avon Comics, and a multitude of characters for National Publications (the primary company that evolved into DC Comics) including the Flash and Batman.

Other companies for which Giacoia did art during the 1940s and 1950s include Crestwood, Dell Comics, Eastern Color, Fawcett, Harvey Comics Lev Gleason Publications and Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics. For Timely's USA Comics #1 (Aug. 1941), he penciled the debut of the feature "Jack Frost", inked by friend and high-school classmate Carmine Infantino — the latter's first art for comics.

The Silver Age[edit]

During the 1960s Silver Age of comic books, Giacoia became best known as a Marvel Comics inker, particularly on Captain America stories penciled by the character's co-creator, industry legend Jack Kirby. One of the company's preeminent names, he worked on virtually every title at one time or another.

Giacoia also worked on the newspaper comic strip The Amazing Spider-Man (based on the Marvel comic-book series of the same name) from 1978–1981, as well as on the strips Flash Gordon, The Incredible Hulk, Johnny Reb and Billy Yank, Sherlock Holmes and Thorne McBride.

He was credited as "Frankie Ray" for some time. In Fantastic Four #53 (August 1966) his real name was announced in the "Marvel Bullpen Bulletin."


Giacoia was nominated for the Shazam Award for Best Inker (Dramatic Division) in 1974.


The 20 Greatest Inkers of American Comic Books — #5 Frank Giacoia:

In comics from 1941, Frank Giacoia's smooth, thick line has been recognizable over a surfeit of outstanding pencillers. Gil Kane (who called him 'an extraordinarily powerful inker'), Carmine Infantino, Gene Colan and Jack Kirby all benefited from his heavy, robust linework which always helped tell the story in a simple, direct way. His collaboration with Kirby on the short-lived newspaper strip Johnny Reb and Billy Yank (which Giacoia created) was superb, as was generally the case when he teamed with 'the King.' Frank worked for many publishers during his 40-odd years in comics: Lev Gleason, Hillman, Timely, DC and of course Marvel (where he sometimes moonlighted under the alias Frankie Ray while still working for DC).[6]

"So You Want A Job, Eh?" - The Gene Colan Interview

I was looking to team up with someone, but I didn't. Once it left my hands, I never could get a good inker. I can't remember his name, the fellow who inked for DC that eventually worked with Stan. He passed away... Italian guy.

Roy Thomas: Frank Giacoia?

Yeah, I loved him. He always made me look good. [7]—Gene Colan


  1. ^ "United States Social Security Death Index," index, FamilySearch ( : accessed 26 Feb 2013), Frank Giacoia, 4 February 1988; citing U.S. Social Security Administration, Death Master File, database (Alexandria, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, ongoing).
  2. ^ Dates per Social Security Death Index
  3. ^ Rozakis, Bob (April 9, 2001). "Secret Identities". "It's BobRo the Answer Man" (column), Comics Bulletin. Archived from the original on November 14, 2010. Retrieved November 14, 2010. 
  4. ^ Evanier, Mark (April 14, 2008). "Why did some artists working for Marvel in the sixties use phony names?". P.O.V. Online (column). Archived from the original on November 24, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2008. 
  5. ^ Infantino, Carmine, with David J. Spurlock, The Amazing World of Carmine Infantino: An Autobiography (Vanguard Productions, 2000; ISBN 1-887591-11-7), pp. 12-13
  6. ^ "Atlas Comics [retailer] Presents the 20 Greatest Inkers of American Comic Books"
  7. ^ "So You Want A Job, Eh?" - The Gene Colan Interview