Frank Miller (comic book writer)
|Born||January 27, 1957|
Olney, Maryland, U.S.
|Area(s)||Writer, penciller, inker, film director|
|The Dark Knight Returns|
Batman: Year One
Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American comic book writer, penciller and inker, novelist, screenwriter, film director, and producer best known for his comic book stories and graphic novels such as his run on Daredevil and subsequent Daredevil: Born Again, The Dark Knight Returns, Batman: Year One, Sin City, and 300.
He also directed the film version of The Spirit, shared directing duties with Robert Rodriguez on Sin City and Sin City: A Dame to Kill For, and produced the film 300. His film Sin City earned a Palme d'Or nomination, and he has received every major comic book industry award. In 2015, Miller was inducted into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame.
Miller is noted for combining film noir and manga influences in his comic art creations. "I realized when I started Sin City that I found American and English comics be too wordy, too constipated, and Japanese comics to be too empty. So I was attempting to do a hybrid".
Miller was born in Olney, Maryland, on January 27, 1957, and raised in Montpelier, Vermont, the fifth of seven children of a nurse mother and a carpenter/electrician father. His family was Irish Catholic.
Miller grew up a comics fan; a letter he wrote to Marvel Comics was published in The Cat #3 (April 1973). His first published work was at Western Publishing's Gold Key Comics imprint, received at the recommendation of comics artist Neal Adams, to whom a fledgling Miller, after moving to New York City, had shown samples and received much critique and occasional informal lessons. Though no published credits appear, he is tentatively credited with the three-page story "Royal Feast" in the licensed TV series comic book The Twilight Zone #84 (June 1978), by an unknown writer, and is credited with the five-page "Endless Cloud", also by an unknown writer, in the following issue (July 1978). By the time of the latter, Miller had his first confirmed credit in writer Wyatt Gwyon's six-page "Deliver Me From D-Day", inked by Danny Bulanadi, in Weird War Tales #64 (June 1978).
Former Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter recalled Miller going to DC Comics after having broken in with "...a small job from Western Publishing, I think. Thus emboldened, he went to DC, and after getting savaged by Joe Orlando, got in to see art director Vinnie Colletta, who recognized talent and arranged for him to get a one-page war-comic job". The Grand Comics Database does not list this job; there may have been a one-page DC story, or Shooter may have misremembered the page count or have been referring to the two-page story, by writer Roger McKenzie, "Slowly, painfully, you dig your way from the cold, choking debris..." in Weird War Tales #68 (Oct. 1978). Other fledgling work at DC included the six-page "The Greatest Story Never Told", by writer Paul Kupperberg, in that same issue, and the five-page "The Edge of History", written by Elliot S. Maggin, in Unknown Soldier #219 (Sept. 1978). His first work for Marvel Comics was penciling the 17-page story "The Master Assassin of Mars, Part 3" in John Carter, Warlord of Mars #18 (Nov. 1978).
At Marvel, Miller settled in as a regular fill-in and cover artist, working on a variety of titles. One of these jobs was drawing Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #27–28 (Feb.–March 1979), which guest-starred Daredevil. At the time, sales of the Daredevil title were poor but Miller saw potential in "a blind protagonist in a purely visual medium," he recalled in 2000. Miller went to writer and staffer Jo Duffy (a mentor-figure whom he called his "guardian angel" at Marvel) and she passed on his interest to editor-in-chief Jim Shooter to get Miller work on Daredevil's regular title. Shooter agreed and made Miller the new penciller on the title. As Miller recalled in 2008:
When I first showed up in New York, I showed up with a bunch of comics, a bunch of samples, of guys in trench coats and old cars and such. And [comics editors] said, 'Where are the guys in tights?' And I had to learn how to do it. But as soon as a title came along, when [Daredevil signature artist] Gene Colan left Daredevil, I realized it was my secret in to do crime comics with a superhero in them. And so I lobbied for the title and got it.
Daredevil and the early 1980s
Daredevil #158 (May 1979), Miller's debut on that title, was the finale of an ongoing story written by Roger McKenzie and inked by Klaus Janson. After this issue, Miller became one of Marvel's rising stars.
However, sales on Daredevil did not improve, Marvel's management continued to discuss cancellation, and Miller himself almost quit the series, as he disliked McKenzie's scripts. Miller's fortunes changed with the arrival of Denny O'Neil as editor. Realizing Miller's unhappiness with the series, and impressed by a backup story Miller had written, O'Neil moved McKenzie to another project so that Miller could try writing the series himself. Miller and O'Neil maintained a friendly working relationship throughout his run on the series. With issue #168 (Jan. 1981), Miller took over full duties as writer and penciller. Sales rose so swiftly that Marvel once again began publishing Daredevil monthly rather than bimonthly just three issues after Miller became its writer.
Issue #168 saw the first full appearance of the ninja mercenary Elektra—who became a popular character and star in a 2005 motion picture—although her first cover appearance was four months earlier on Miller's cover of The Comics Journal #58. Miller later wrote and drew a solo Elektra story in Bizarre Adventures #28 (Oct. 1981). He added a martial arts aspect to Daredevil's fighting skills, and introduced previously unseen characters who had played a major part in the character's youth: Stick, leader of the ninja clan the Chaste, who had been Murdock's sensei after he was blinded and a rival clan called the Hand.
Unable to handle both writing and penciling Daredevil on the new monthly schedule, Miller began increasingly relying on Janson for the artwork, sending him looser and looser pencils beginning with #173. By issue #185, Miller had virtually relinquished his role as Daredevil's artist, and he was providing only rough layouts for Janson to both pencil and ink, allowing Miller to focus on the writing.
Miller's work on Daredevil was characterized by darker themes and stories. This peaked when in #181 (April 1982) he had the assassin Bullseye kill Elektra, and Daredevil subsequently attempt to kill him. Miller finished his Daredevil run with issue #191 (Feb. 1983), which he cited in a winter 1983 interview as the issue he is most proud of; by this time he had transformed a second-tier character into one of Marvel's most popular.
Additionally, Miller drew a short Batman Christmas story, "Wanted: Santa Claus – Dead or Alive", written by Dennis O'Neil for DC Special Series #21 (Spring 1980). This was his first professional experience with a character with which, like Daredevil, he became closely associated. At Marvel, O'Neil and Miller collaborated on two issues of The Amazing Spider-Man Annual. The 1980 Annual featured a team-up with Doctor Strange while the 1981 Annual showcased a meeting with the Punisher.
As penciler and co-plotter, Miller, together with writer Chris Claremont, produced the miniseries Wolverine #1–4 (Sept.-Dec. 1982), inked by Josef Rubinstein and spinning off from the popular X-Men title. Miller used this miniseries to expand on Wolverine's character. The series was a critical success and further cemented Miller's place as an industry star.
His first creator-owned title was DC Comics' six-issue miniseries Ronin (1983–1984). In 1985, DC Comics named Miller as one of the honorees in the company's 50th-anniversary publication Fifty Who Made DC Great.
Miller was involved in a few unpublished projects in the early 1980s. A house advertisement for Doctor Strange appeared in Marvel Comics cover-dated February 1981. It stated "Watch for the new adventures of Earth's Sorcerer Supreme – - as mystically conjured by Roger Stern and Frank Miller!". Miller's only contribution to the series was the cover for Doctor Strange #46 (April 1981). Other commitments prevented him from working on the series. Miller and Steve Gerber made a proposal to revamp DC's three biggest characters: Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, under a line called "Metropolis" and comics titled "Man of Steel" or "The Man of Steel", "Dark Knight" and "Amazon". However, this proposal was not accepted.
Batman: The Dark Knight Returns and the late 1980s
In 1986, DC Comics released the writer–penciler Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, a four-issue miniseries printed in what the publisher called "prestige format"—squarebound, rather than stapled; on heavy-stock paper rather than newsprint, and with cardstock rather than glossy-paper covers. It was inked by Klaus Janson and colored by Lynn Varley.
The story tells how Batman retired after the death of the second Robin (Jason Todd) and, at age 55, returns to fight crime in a dark and violent future. Miller created a tough, gritty Batman, referring to him as "The Dark Knight" based upon his being called the "Darknight Detective" in some 1970s portrayals, although the nickname "Dark Knight" for Batman dates back to 1940. Released the same year as Alan Moore's and Dave Gibbons' DC miniseries Watchmen, it showcased a new form of more adult-oriented storytelling to both comics fans and a crossover mainstream audience. The Dark Knight Returns influenced the comic-book industry by heralding a new wave of darker characters. The trade paperback collection proved to be a big seller for DC and remains in print.
By this time, Miller had returned as the writer of Daredevil. Following his self-contained story "Badlands", penciled by John Buscema, in #219 (June 1985), he co-wrote #226 (Jan. 1986) with departing writer Dennis O'Neil. Then, with artist David Mazzucchelli, he crafted a seven-issue story arc that, like The Dark Knight Returns, similarly redefined and reinvigorated its main character. The storyline, "Daredevil: Born Again", in #227–233 (Feb.-Aug. 1986) chronicled the hero's Catholic background and the destruction and rebirth of his real-life identity, Manhattan attorney Matt Murdock, at the hands of Daredevil's nemesis, the crime lord Wilson Fisk, also known as the Kingpin. After completing the "Born Again" arc, Frank Miller intended to produce a two-part story with artist Walt Simonson but it was never completed and remains unpublished.
Miller and artist Bill Sienkiewicz produced the graphic novel Daredevil: Love and War in 1986. Featuring the character of the Kingpin, it indirectly bridges Miller's first run on Daredevil and Born Again by explaining the change in the Kingpin's attitude toward Daredevil. Miller and Sienkiewicz also produced the eight-issue miniseries Elektra: Assassin for Epic Comics. Set outside regular Marvel continuity, it featured a wild tale of cyborgs and ninjas, while expanding further on Elektra's background. Both of these projects were critically well received. Elektra: Assassin was praised for its bold storytelling, but neither it nor Daredevil: Love and War had the influence or reached as many readers as Dark Knight Returns or Born Again.
Miller's final major story in this period was in Batman issues 404–407 in 1987, another collaboration with Mazzucchelli. Titled Batman: Year One, this was Miller's version of the origin of Batman in which he retconned many details and adapted the story to fit his Dark Knight continuity. Proving to be hugely popular, this was as influential as Miller's previous work. A trade paperback released in 1988 remains in print, and is one of DC's best selling books. The story was adapted as an original animated film video in 2011.
Miller had also drawn the covers for the first twelve issues of First Comics English language reprints of Kazuo Koike and Goseki Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub. This helped bring Japanese manga to a wider Western audience.
During this time, Miller (along with Marv Wolfman, Alan Moore and Howard Chaykin) had been in dispute with DC Comics over a proposed ratings system for comics. Disagreeing with what he saw as censorship, Miller refused to do any further work for DC, and he took his future projects to the independent publisher Dark Horse Comics. From then on Miller was a major supporter of creator rights and became a major voice against censorship in comics.
The 1990s: Sin City and 300
After announcing he intended to release his work only via the independent publisher Dark Horse Comics, Miller completed one final project for Epic Comics, the mature-audience imprint of Marvel Comics. Elektra Lives Again was a fully painted graphic novel written and drawn by Miller and colored by longtime partner Lynn Varley. Telling the story of the resurrection of Elektra from the dead and Daredevil's quest to find her, as well as showing Miller's will to experiment with new story-telling techniques.
1990 saw Miller and artist Geof Darrow start work on Hard Boiled, a three-issue miniseries. The title, a mix of violence and satire, was praised for Darrow's highly detailed art and Miller's writing.
At the same time Miller and artist Dave Gibbons produced Give Me Liberty, a four-issue miniseries for Dark Horse. Give Me Liberty was followed by sequel miniseries and specials expanding on the story of protagonist Martha Washington, an African-American woman in modern and near-future North America, all of which were written by Miller and drawn by Gibbons.
Miller also wrote the scripts for the science fiction films RoboCop 2 and RoboCop 3, about a police cyborg. Neither was critically well received. In 2007, Miller stated that "There was a lot of interference in the writing process. It wasn't ideal. After working on the two Robocop movies, I really thought that was it for me in the business of film." Miller came into contact with the fictional cyborg once more, writing the comic-book miniseries RoboCop Versus The Terminator, with art by Walter Simonson. In 2003, Miller's screenplay for RoboCop 2 was adapted by Steven Grant for Avatar Press's Pulsaar imprint. Illustrated by Juan Jose Ryp, the series is called Frank Miller's RoboCop and contains plot elements that were divided between RoboCop 2 and RoboCop 3.
In 1991, Miller started work on his first Sin City story. Serialized in Dark Horse Presents #51–62, it proved to be another success, and the story was released in a trade paperback. This first Sin City "yarn" was rereleased in 1995 under the name The Hard Goodbye. Sin City proved to be Miller's main project for much of the remainder of the decade, as Miller told more Sin City stories within this noir world of his creation, in the process helping to revitalize the crime comics genre. Sin City proved artistically auspicious for Miller and again brought his work to a wider audience without comics. Miller lived in Los Angeles, California in the 1990s, which influenced Sin City. He later lived in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of New York City, which was also an influence.
Daredevil: The Man Without Fear was a five issue miniseries published by Marvel Comics in 1993. In this story, Miller and artist John Romita Jr. told Daredevil's origins differently from in the previous comics, and they provided additional detail to his beginnings. Miller also returned to superheroes by writing issue #11 of Todd McFarlane's Spawn, as well as the Spawn/Batman crossover for Image Comics.
In 1994, Miller became one of the founding members of the comic imprint Legend, under which many of his Sin City works were released via Dark Horse Comics. In 1995, Miller and Darrow collaborated again on Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot, published as a two-part miniseries by Dark Horse. In 1999 it became an animated series on Fox Kids.
Written and illustrated by Frank Miller with painted colors by Varley, 300 was a 1998 comic-book miniseries, released as a hardcover collection in 1999, retelling the Battle of Thermopylae and the events leading up to it from the perspective of Leonidas of Sparta. 300 was particularly inspired by the 1962 film The 300 Spartans, a movie that Miller watched as a young boy.
Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again and 2000–2019
He was one of the artists on the Superman and Batman: World's Funnest one-shot written by Evan Dorkin published in 2000. Miller moved back to Hell's Kitchen by 2001 and was creating Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again as the 9/11 terrorist attacks occurred about four miles from that neighborhood. His differences with DC Comics put aside, he saw the sequel initially released as a three-issue miniseries, and though it sold well, it received a mixed to negative reception. Miller also returned to writing Batman in 2005, taking on the writing duties of All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder, a series set inside of what Miller describes as the "Dark Knight Universe," and drawn by Jim Lee. All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder also received largely negative reviews.
Miller's previous attitude towards movie adaptations was to change after Robert Rodriguez made a short film based on a story from Miller's Sin City entitled "The Customer is Always Right". Miller was pleased with the result, leading to him and Rodriguez directing a full-length film, Sin City using Miller's original comics panels as storyboards. The film was released in the U.S. on April 1, 2005. The film's success brought renewed attention to Miller's Sin City projects. Similarly, a 2006 film adaptation of 300, directed by Zack Snyder, brought new attention to Miller's original comic book work. A sequel to the film, Sin City: A Dame to Kill For, based on Miller's second Sin City series and co-directed by Miller and Robert Rodriguez, was released in theaters on August 22, 2014.
From 2015 to 2017, DC released a nine-issue, bimonthly sequel to The Dark Knight Returns and The Dark Knight Strikes Again, titled The Dark Knight III: The Master Race. Miller co-wrote it with Brian Azzarello, and Andy Kubert and Klaus Janson were the artists. Issue one was the top-selling comic of November 2015, moving an estimated 440,234 copies. In 2016, Miller and Azzarello also co-wrote the graphic novel, The Dark Knight Returns: The Last Crusade with art by John Romita Jr. and Peter Steigerwald.
From April to August 2018, Dark Horse Comics published monthly Miller's five-issue miniseries sequel to 300, Xerxes: The Fall of the House of Darius and the Rise of Alexander, which marked his first work as both writer and artist comics creation since Holy Terror.
In 2017 Miller announced he was writing a Superman: Year One project with artwork by John Romita Jr. The three-issue series was released by DC Black Label from June to October 2019 and received mixed reviews.
Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing published his and author Tom Wheeler's young-adult novel Cursed, about the King Arthur legend from the point of view of the Lady of the Lake in October 2019.
In December 2019, DC released Dark Knight Returns: The Golden Child, the fourth series in The Dark Knight Returns universe to mixed reviews. It is written by Miller with artwork by Rafael Grampa.
In October 2012, Joanna Gallardo-Mills, who began working for Miller as an executive coordinator in November 2008, filed suit against Miller in Manhattan for discrimination and "mental anguish", stating that Miller's former girlfriend, Kimberly Cox, created a hostile work environment for Gallardo-Mills in Miller and Cox's Hell's Kitchen living and work space.
In July 2020, producer Stephen L'Heureux, who worked on Sin City: A Dame to Kill For, filed a $25 million defamation and economic interference lawsuit against Miller and fellow producer Silenn Thomas. L'Heureux alleged the pair had repeatedly made, "false, misleading and defamatory statements" about L'Heureux's ownership of the developmental rights of Sin City and Hard Boiled to Skydance Media CEO David Ellison and other Skydance executives and prevented the creation of a film adaptation of Hard Boiled and a TV series based on Sin City. Miller's attorney Allen Grodsky denied the allegation stating, "The claims asserted in Mr. L'Heureux's lawsuit are baseless, and we will be aggressively defending this lawsuit."
In July 2011 at the San Diego Comic-Con International while promoting his upcoming graphic novel Holy Terror in which the protagonist hero fights Al-Qaeda terrorists, Miller made a remark about Islamic terrorism and Islam saying, "I was raised Catholic and I could tell you a lot about the Spanish Inquisition but the mysteries of the Catholic Church elude me. And I could tell you a lot about Al-Qaeda, but the mysteries of Islam elude me too."
In November 2011, Miller posted remarks pertaining to the Occupy Wall Street movement on his blog, calling it "nothing but a pack of louts, thieves, and rapists, fed by Woodstock-era nostalgia and putrid false righteousness." He said of the movement, "Wake up, pond scum. America is at war against a ruthless enemy. Maybe, between bouts of self-pity and all the other tasty tidbits of narcissism you've been served up in your sheltered, comfy little worlds, you've heard terms like al-Qaeda and Islamicism." Miller's statement generated controversy. In a 2018 interview, Miller backed away from his comments saying that he "wasn't thinking clearly" when he made them and alluded to a very dark time in his life during which they were made.
Miller was married to colorist Lynn Varley from 1986 to 2005. She colored many of his most acclaimed works (from Ronin in 1984 through 300 in 1998) and the backgrounds to the 2006 movie 300.
Style and influence
Although still conforming to traditional comic book styles, Miller infused his first issue of Daredevil with his own film noir style. Miller sketched the roofs of New York in an attempt to give his Daredevil art an authentic feel not commonly seen in superhero comics at the time. One journalist noted,
Daredevil's New York, under Frank's run, became darker and more dangerous than the Spider-Man New York he'd seemingly lived in before. New York City itself, particularly Daredevil's Hell's Kitchen neighborhood, became as much a character as the shadowy crimefighter; the stories often took place on the rooftop level, with water towers, pipes and chimneys jutting out to create a skyline reminiscent of German Expressionism's dramatic edges and shadows.
Ronin shows some of the strongest influences of manga and bande dessinée on Miller's style, both in the artwork and narrative style. Sin City was drawn in black and white to emphasize its film noir origins. Miller has said he opposes naturalism in comic art: "People are attempting to bring a superficial reality to superheroes which is rather stupid. They work best as the flamboyant fantasies they are. I mean, these are characters that are broad and big. I don't need to see sweat patches under Superman's arms. I want to see him fly."
Praise and criticism
Daredevil: Born Again and The Dark Knight Returns were both critical successes and influential on subsequent generations of creators to the point of being considered classics of the medium. Batman: Year One was also met with praise for its gritty style, while comics including Ronin, 300 and Sin City were also successful, cementing Miller's place as a legend of comic books. However, later material such as Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again received mixed reviews. In particular, All Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder was widely considered a sign of Miller's creative decline.
Fellow comic book writer Alan Moore has described Miller's work from Sin City-onward as homophobic and misogynistic, despite praising his early Batman and Daredevil material. Moore previously penned a flattering introduction to an early collected edition of The Dark Knight Returns, and the two have remained friends. Moore has praised Miller's realistic use of minimal dialogue in fight scenes, which "move very fast, flowing from image to image with the speed of a real-life conflict, unimpeded by the reader having to stop to read a lot of accompanying text".
Miller's graphic novel Holy Terror was accused of being anti-Islamic. Miller later said that he regretted Holy Terror, saying, "I don't want to wipe out chapters of my own biography. But I'm not capable of that book again."
In terms of Miller's film career, his 2008 adaptation of The Spirit received negative reviews, earning a Rotten Tomatoes approval rating of 14% based on 111 reviews, with an average rating of 3.58/10, Metacritic gave it an aggregate score of 30 out of 100, based on 24 critics, indicating "generally negative reviews". and a metascore of 30/100 at Metacritic.com. Meanwhile, his film adaptation of Sin City was well received by audiences and critics.
- Received an Inkpot Award – 1981
- Best Single Issue –
- 1986 Daredevil #227 "Apocalypse" (Marvel)
- 1987 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns #1 "The Dark Knight Returns" (DC)
- Best Writer/Artist (single or team) – 1986 Frank Miller and David Mazzucchelli, for Daredevil: Born Again (Marvel)
- Best Graphic Album, 1987 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (DC)
- Best Art Team – 1987 Frank Miller, Klaus Janson and Lynn Varley, for Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (DC)
- Best Writer/Artist —
- 1991 for Elektra Lives Again (Marvel)
- 1993 for Sin City (Dark Horse)
- 1999 for 300 (Dark Horse)
- Best Graphic Album: New – 1991 Elektra Lives Again (Marvel)
- Best Finite Series/Limited Series —
- 1991 Give Me Liberty (Dark Horse)
- 1995 Sin City: A Dame to Kill For (Dark Horse/Legend)
- 1996 Sin City: The Big Fat Kill (Dark Horse/Legend)
- 1999 300 (Dark Horse)
- Best Graphic Album: Reprint —
- 1993 Sin City (Dark Horse)
- 1998 Sin City: That Yellow Bastard (Dark Horse)
- Best Artist/Penciller/Inker or Penciller/Inker Team – 1993 for Sin City (Dark Horse)
- Best Short Story – 1995 "The Babe Wore Red", in Sin City: The Babe Wore Red and Other Stories (Dark Horse/Legend)
- Eisner Awards Hall Of Fame, 2015
- Best Continuing or Limited Series –
- 1996 Sin City (Dark Horse)
- 1999 300 (Dark Horse)
- Best Graphic Album of Original Work – 1998 Sin City: Family Values (Dark Horse)
- Best Domestic Reprint Project – 1997 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, 10th Anniversary Edition (DC)
- Favourite Comicbook Penciler — 1983
- Favourite Comicbook Writer: U.S. — 1986
- Roll of Honour — 1987
- Favourite Comicbook Penciler — 1987
- Favourite Comic Album: U.S. — 1987 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (DC)
- Favourite Cover: U.S. — 1987 Batman: The Dark Knight Returns #1 (DC)
- Favourite Comic Album: US — 1988 Daredevil: Love and War (DC)
- Favourite Black & White Comicbook — 2000 Hell and Back (A Sin City Love Story) (Dark Horse)
- Favourite Comics Writer/Artist — 2002
- Favourite Comics-Related Book — 2006 Eisner/Miller (Dark Horse)
- Favourite Comics Writer/Artist — 2012
- Best Original Graphic Novel/One-Shot — 1991 Elektra Lives Again (Epic Comics)
- Best Writer/Artist — 1992
- Best Writer/Artist — 1993
- Best Graphic Novel Collection — 1993 Sin City
- Best Writer/Artist — 1994
- Palme d'Or – 2005 (nominated) Sin City (Dimension Films)
- The Comic-Con Icon Award – 2006
- Weird War Tales (a):
- Unknown Soldier #219: "The Edge of History" (a, with Elliot S. Maggin, 1978)
- Batman: The Greatest Stories Ever Told Volume 1 (tpb, 192 pages, 2005, ISBN 1-4012-0444-9) includes:
- Absolute Dark Knight (hc, 512 pages, 2006, ISBN 1-4012-1079-1) collects:
- The Dark Knight III: The Master Race #1–9 (w, with Brian Azzarello and Andy Kubert, 2015–2017)
- The Dark Knight Returns: The Last Crusade (w, with Brian Azzarello and John Romita Jr., 2016)
- Dark Knight Returns: The Golden Child (w, with Rafael Grampá and Jordie Bellaire, 2019)
- Batman: Year One (hc, 144 pages, 2005, ISBN 1-4012-0690-5; tpb, 2007, ISBN 1-4012-0752-9) collects:
- All Star Batman & Robin, the Boy Wonder #1–10 (w, with Jim Lee, 2005–2008)
- Ronin #1–6 (w/a, 1983) collected as Ronin (tpb, 302 pages, 1987, ISBN 0-446-38674-X; hc, 328 pages, 2008, ISBN 1-4012-1908-X)
- Superman #400: "The Living Legends of Superman" (a, with Elliot S. Maggin, among other artists, 1984)
- Fanboy #5 (a, with Mark Evanier, among other artists, 1999) collected in Fanboy (tpb, 144 pages, 2001, ISBN 1-56389-724-5)
- Superman and Batman: World's Funnest: "Last Imp Standing!" (a, with Evan Dorkin, among other artists, one-shot, 2000)
- Orion #3: "Tales of the New Gods: Nativity" (a, with Walt Simonson, 2000) collected in O: The Gates of Apokolips (tpb, 144 pages, 2001, ISBN 1-56389-778-4)
- Superman: Year One #1–3 (w, with John Romita Jr., 2019)
- John Carter, Warlord of Mars #18: "Meanwhile, Back in Helium!" (a, with Chris Claremont, 1978) collected in Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter, Warlord of Mars (tpb, 632 pages, Dark Horse, 2011, ISBN 1-59582-692-0) and John Carter, Warlord of Mars Omnibus (hc, 624 pages, 2012, ISBN 0-7851-5990-8)
- The Complete Frank Miller Spider-Man (hc, 208 pages, 2002, ISBN 0-7851-0899-8) collects:
- Marvel Two-in-One #51: "Full House—Dragons High!" (a, with Peter B. Gillis, 1979) collected in Essential Marvel Two-in-One Volume 2 (tpb, 568 pages, 2007, ISBN 0-7851-2698-8)
- Daredevil by Frank Miller & Klaus Janson Omnibus (hc, 840 pages, 2007, ISBN 0-7851-2343-1) collects:
- "A Grave Mistake" (a, with Roger McKenzie, in #158, 1979)
- "Marked for Death" (a, with Roger McKenzie, in #159–161, 1979–1980)
- "Blind Alley" (a, with Roger McKenzie, in #163, 1980)
- "Exposé" (a, with Roger McKenzie, in #164, 1980)
- "Arms of the Octopus" (w/a, with Roger McKenzie, in #165, 1980)
- "Till Death Do Us Part!" (w/a, with Roger McKenzie, in #166, 1980)
- "...The Mauler!" (a, with David Michelinie, in #167, 1980)
- "Elektra" (w/a, in #168, 1981)
- "Devils" (w/a, in #169, 1980)
- "Gangwars" (w/a, in #170–172, 1981)
- "The Assassination of Matt Murdock" (w/a, in #173–175, 1981)
- "Hunters" (w/a, in #176–177, 1981)
- "Paper Chase" (w/a, in #178–180, 1982)
- "Last Hand" (w/a, in #181–182, 1982)
- "Child's Play" (w/a, with Roger McKenzie, in #183–184, 1982)
- "Guts & Stilts" (w, with Klaus Janson, in #185–186, 1982)
- "Widow's Bite" (w, with Klaus Janson, in #187–190, 1982–1983)
- "Roulette" (w/a, in #191, 1983)
- What If? #28: "What If Daredevil became an agent of SHIELD" (w/a, in What If? #28, 1981)
- Daredevil Omnibus Companion (hc, 608 pages, 2008, ISBN 0-7851-2676-7) includes:
- "Badlands" (w, with John Buscema, in #219, 1985)
- "Warriors" (w, with Dennis O'Neil and David Mazzucchelli, in #226, 1986)
- "Born Again" (w, with David Mazzucchelli, in #227–233, 1986)
- Daredevil: Love and War (w, with Bill Sienkiewicz, graphic novel, tpb, 64 pages, 1986, ISBN 0-87135-172-2)
- Daredevil: The Man Without Fear #1–5 (w, with John Romita Jr., 1993)
- What If? #34: "What If Daredevil Were Deaf Instead of Blind?" (w/a, 1 page in What If? #34, 1982)
- Elektra by Frank Miller & Bill Sienkiewicz (hc, 400 pages, 2008, ISBN 0-7851-2777-1) collects:
- Daredevil by Frank Miller & Klaus Janson Omnibus (hc, 840 pages, 2007, ISBN 0-7851-2343-1) collects:
- Marvel Spotlight vol. 2 #8: "Planet Where Time Stood Still!" (a, with Mike W. Barr and Dick Riley, 1980)
- Marvel Preview #23: "Final Warning" (a, with Lynn Graeme, 1980)
- Power Man and Iron Fist #76: "Death Scream of the Warhawk!" (a, with Chris Claremont and Mike W. Barr, 1981)
- Bizarre Adventures #31: "The Philistine" (a, with Dennis O'Neil, 1982)
- Fantastic Four Roast (a, with Fred Hembeck, among other artists, one-shot, 1982)
- Wolverine #1–4 (a, with Chris Claremont, 1982) collected as Wolverine (hc, 144 pages, 2007, ISBN 0-7851-2572-8; tpb, 2009, ISBN 0-7851-3724-6)
- Incredible Hulk Annual #11: "Unus Unchained" (a, with Mary Jo Duffy, 1981)
- Marvel Fanfare #18: "Home Fires!" (a, with Roger Stern, 1984)
- Sensational She-Hulk #50: "He's Dead?!" (a, with John Byrne, among other artists, 1993)
Dark Horse Comics
- The Life and Times of Martha Washington in the Twenty-First Century (hc, 600 pages, 2009, ISBN 1-59307-654-1) collects:
- Give Me Liberty #1–4 (w, with Dave Gibbons, 1990–1991) also collected as Give Me Liberty (tpb, 216 pages, 1992, ISBN 0-440-50446-5)
- Martha Washington Goes to War #1–5 (w, with Dave Gibbons, 1994) also collected as MWGTW (tpb, 144 pages, 1996, ISBN 1-56971-090-2)
- Happy Birthday, Martha Washington (w, with Dave Gibbons, one-shot, 1995)
- Martha Washington Stranded in Space (w, with Dave Gibbons, one-shot, 1995)
- Martha Washington Saves the World #1–3 (w, with Dave Gibbons, 1997–1998) also collected as MWSTW (tpb, 112 pages, 1999, ISBN 1-56971-384-7)
- Martha Washington Dies: "2095" (w, with Dave Gibbons, one-shot, 2007)
- Hard Boiled #1–3 (w, with Geof Darrow, 1990–1992) collected as Hard Boiled (tpb, 128 pages, 1993, ISBN 1-878574-58-2)
- Sin City (w/a):
- Sin City (tpb, 208 pages, 1993, ISBN 1-878574-59-0) collects:
- "Episode 1" (in Dark Horse Presents 5th Anniversary Special, 1991)
- "Episodes 2–13" (in Dark Horse Presents #51–62, 1991–1992)
- A Dame to Kill for (tpb, 208 pages, 1994, ISBN 1-878574-59-0) collects:
- A Dame to Kill for #1–6 (1993–1994)
- The Big Fat Kill (tpb, 184 pages, 1996, ISBN 1-56971-171-2) collects:
- The Big Fat Kill #1–5 (1994–1995)
- That Yellow Bastard (tpb, 240 pages, 1997, ISBN 1-56971-225-5) collects:
- That Yellow Bastard #1–6 (1996)
- Family Values (graphic novel, tpb, 128 pages, 1997, ISBN 1-56971-313-8)
- Booze, Broads, & Bullets (tpb, 160 pages, 1998, ISBN 1-56971-366-9) collects:
- "Just Another Saturday Night" (in Sin City #1/2, 1997)
- "Fat Man and Little Boy" (in San Diego Comic Con Comics #4, 1995)
- "The Customer is Always Right" (in San Diego Comic Con Comics #2, 1992)
- Silent Night (one-shot, 1995)
- "And Behind Door Number Three?" (in The Babe Wore Red and Other Stories one-shot, 1994)
- "Blue Eyes" (in Lost, Lonely, & Lethal one-shot, 1996)
- "Rats" (in Lost, Lonely, & Lethal one-shot, 1996)
- "Daddy's Little Girl" (in A Decade of Dark Horse #1, 1996)
- Sex & Violence (one-shot, 1997)
- "The Babe Wore Red" (in The Babe Wore Red and Other Stories one-shot, 1994)
- Hell and Back (tpb, 312 pages, 2001, ISBN 1-56971-481-9) collects:
- Hell and Back, a Sin City Love Story #1–9 (1999–2000)
- Sin City (tpb, 208 pages, 1993, ISBN 1-878574-59-0) collects:
- RoboCop vs. The Terminator #1–4 (w, with Walt Simonson, 1992)
- Madman Comics #6–7 (w, with Mike Allred, 1995) collected in Madman Volume 2 (tpb, 456 pages, 2007, ISBN 1-58240-811-4)
- The Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot #1–2 (w, with Geof Darrow, 1995) collected as TBG and RtBR (tpb, 80 pages, 1996, ISBN 1-56971-201-8)
- Dark Horse Presents (w/a):
- "Lance Blastoff!" (in #100-1, 1995)
- "Lance Blastoff, America's Favourite Hero!" (in #114, 1996)
- 300 #1–5 (w/a, 1998) collected as 300 (hc, 88 pages, 2000, ISBN 1-56971-402-9; tpb, 2002)
- Dark Horse Maverick 2000: "Mercy!" (w/a, anthology one-shot, 2000)
- 9-11: Artists Respond, Volume One: "Untitled" (w/a, graphic novel, tpb, 196 pages, 2002, ISBN 1-56389-881-0)
- Dark Horse Maverick: Happy Endings: "The End" (w/a, anthology graphic novel, tpb, 96 pages, 2002, ISBN 1-56971-820-2)
- Autobiografix: "Man with Pen in Head" (w/a, anthology graphic novel, tpb, 104 pages, 2003, ISBN 1-59307-038-1)
- Usagi Yojimbo #100 (w/a, among others, 2009) collected in UY: Bridge of Tears (hc, 248 pages, 2009, ISBN 1-59582-297-6; tpb, 2009, ISBN 1-59582-298-4)
- Xerxes: The Fall of the House of Darius and the Rise of Alexander #1-5 (w/a, 2018)
- Ms. Tree #1–4: "Frank Miller's Famous Detective Pin-Up" (w/a, Eclipse, 1983)
- Strip AIDS U.S.A.: "Robohomophobe!" (w/a, anthology graphic novel, tpb, 140 pages, Last Gasp, 1988, ISBN 0-86719-373-5)
- AARGH! #1: "The Future of Law Enforcement" (w/a, Mad Love, 1988)
- Spawn (w, Image):
- Bad Boy (w, with Simon Bisley, Oni Press, one-shot, 1997)
- Holy Terror (w/a, graphic novel, hc, 120 pages, Legendary Comics, 2011, ISBN 1-937278-00-X)
- Marvel Premiere #49, 53–54, 58 (Marvel, 1979–1981)
- Marvel Spotlight #2, 5, 7 (Marvel, 1979–1980)
- Uncanny X-Men Annual #3 (Marvel, 1979)
- Marvel Super Special #14 (Marvel, 1979)
- ROM Spaceknight #1, 3, 17–18 (Marvel, 1979–1981)
- The Avengers #193 (Marvel, 1980)
- Captain America #241, 245, 255, Annual #5 (Marvel, 1980–1981)
- The Amazing Spider-Man #203, 218–219 (Marvel, 1980–1981)
- Marvel Team-Up #95, 99, 102, 106, Annual #3 (Marvel, 1980–1981)
- Star Trek #5, 10 (Marvel, 1980–1981)
- The Spectacular Spider-Man #46, 48, 50–52, 54–57, 60 (Marvel, 1980–1981)
- Spider-Woman #31–32 (Marvel, 1980)
- Power Man and Iron Fist #66, 68, 70–74 (Marvel, 1980–1981)
- Machine Man #19 (Marvel, 1981)
- Doctor Strange #46 (Marvel, 1981)
- Star Wars #47 (Marvel, 1981)
- The Incredible Hulk #258, 261, 264, 268 (Marvel, 1981–1982)
- Micronauts #31 (Marvel, 1981)
- Moon Knight #9, 12, 15, 27 (Marvel, 1981)
- What If? #27 (Marvel, 1981)
- Ghost Rider #59 (Marvel, 1981)
- Amazing Heroes #4, 25, 69 (Fantagraphics Books, 1981–1985)
- Marvel Fanfare #1 (Marvel, 1982)
- World's Finest Comics #285 (DC Comics, 1982)
- Wonder Woman #298 (DC Comics, 1982)
- Spider-Man and Daredevil Special Edition (Marvel, 1984)
- The New Adventures of Superboy #51 (cover, 1984)
- Batman and the Outsiders Annual #1 (cover, 1984)
- Destroyer Duck #7 (Eclipse, 1984)
- Superman: The Secret Years #1–4 (DC Comics, 1985)
- 'Mazing Man #12 (DC Comics, 1986)
- Anything Goes! #2 (Fantagraphics Books, 1986)
- Lone Wolf and Cub #1–12 (First Comics, 1987–1988)
- Death Rattle #18 (Kitchen Sink, 1988)
- Eternal Warrior #1 (Valiant, 1992)
- Archer & Armstrong #1 (Valiant, 1992)
- Magnus, Robot Fighter #15 (Valiant, 1992)
- X-O Manowar #7 (Valiant, 1992)
- Shadowman #4 (Valiant, 1992)
- Rai #6 (Valiant, 1992)
- Harbinger #8 (Valiant, 1992)
- Solar, Man of the Atom #12 (Valiant, 1992)
- Comics' Greatest World: Arcadia #1 (Dark Horse, 1993)
- John Byrne's Next Men #17 (Dark Horse, 1993)
- Marvel Age #127 (Marvel, 1993)
- Comics' Greatest World: Vortex #4 (Dark Horse, 1993)
- Zorro #1 (Topps, 1993)
- X: One Shot to the Head #4 (Dark Horse, 1994)
- Medal of Honor #4 (Dark Horse, 1995)
- Mickey Spillane's Mike Danger #1 (Tekno Comix, 1995)
- Prophet #2 (Extreme Studios, 1995)
- X #18–22 (Dark Horse, 1995–1996)
- G.I. Joe #1 (Dark Horse, 1995)
- Batman Black and White #2 (DC Comics, 1996)
- Dark Horse Presents #115 (Dark Horse, 1996)
- Heavy Metal #183 (HM Communications, 1999)
- Bone #38 (Cartoon Books, 2000)
- Spawn #100 (Image, 2000)
- Green Lantern/Superman: Legend of the Green Flame #1 (DC Comics, 2000)
- Dark Horse Maverick 2001 (Dark Horse, 2001)
- The Escapists #1 (Dark Horse, 2006)
- Jurassic Park #1 (IDW Publishing, 2010)
- Dark Horse Presents #1 (Dark Horse, 2011)
- The Creep #0 (Dark Horse, 2012)
- Detective Comics vol. 2, #27 (variant) (DC Comics, 2014)
- Moonshine #1 (image, 2016)
- Shaolin Cowboy: Who'll Stop the Reign #1 (Dark Horse, 2017)
- RoboCop 2—Miller's original script was heavily edited through rewrites as it was deemed unfilmable. The original script was adapted in 2003 by Steven Grant into the comics series, Frank Miller's RoboCop.
- RoboCop 3—Miller co-wrote this with the film's director Fred Dekker. The original script was adapted in 2013–2014 by Steven Grant into the comics series, RoboCop: Last Stand.
- Sin City—Miller made his directorial debut in this 2005 adaptation of his Sin City yarns, co-directing with Robert Rodriguez.
- 300—Miller was a producer for the film, which adapted the original comics series, Directed by Zack Snyder into an epic feature film in 2006.
- The Spirit—Although Miller co-directed Sin City, this 2008 film was his first solo directing project. He also wrote the screenplay.
- Batman: Year One—This was co-written and was due to be directed by Darren Aronofsky until Warner Bros. cancelled the project opting for Christopher Nolan's Batman Begins. It was finally adapted into an animated film, produced by Bruce Timm, resulting in a direct-to-home-media released in October, 2011.
- Batman: The Dark Knight Returns—A two-part direct-to-DVD animated film based on The Dark Knight Returns was released in 2012 and 2013 respectively.
- Sin City: A Dame to Kill For—In 2005, after Sin City was released, Robert Rodriguez announced plans for a follow-up film that would feature many of the same characters. He planned for the film to be based on A Dame to Kill For. Miller said the film would be a prequel and a sequel with interlinking stories both before and after the first film. Miller, who was writing the screenplay in 2006, had anticipated for production to begin later in the year. The film, co-directed by Miller and Rodriguez, was released in August 2014.
The film version of Daredevil (2003) predominantly used the tone established and stories written by Miller, who had no direct creative input on the film (except for a cameo appearance). In Elektra (2005), Miller received credit for "comic book characters". The Wolverine (2013) was inspired by the 1982 Wolverine miniseries that Miller penciled with writer Chris Claremont.
Frank Miller has appeared in six films in small, cameo roles, dying in each.
- In RoboCop 2 (1990), he plays "Frank, the chemist" and dies in an explosion in an illegal drug lab.
- In Jugular Wine: A Vampire Odyssey (1994), he is killed by vampires in front of Marvel Comics' Stan Lee.
- In Daredevil (2003), he appears as a corpse with a pen in his head, thrown by Bullseye, who steals his motorcycle. The credits list Frank Miller as "Man with Pen in Head".
- In Sin City (2005), he plays the priest killed by Marv in the confessional.
- In The Spirit (2008), which was written and directed by Miller, he appears as "Liebowitz", the officer whose head is ripped off by the Octopus and thrown at the Spirit. The name alludes to Jack Liebowitz, a co-founder of what became DC Comics.
- In Sin City: A Dame to Kill For (2014), which Miller wrote and co-directed, he appears as "Sam", a man just shot by another character, played by Miller's co-director Robert Rodriguez, also in a cameo.
- Miller appears in the third episode of the 2020 television series Cursed, which he co-wrote and co-produced.
- "Comics Industry Birthdays". Comics Buyer's Guide. Iola, Wisconsin (1650): 107. February 2009.
- Miller, John Jackson (June 10, 2005). "Comics Industry Birthdays". Comics Buyer's Guide. Iola, Wisconsin. Archived from the original on February 18, 2011.
- Dunning, John (n.d.). "Frank Miller: Comic Yo Kill For". Dazed. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
- Webster, Andy (July 20, 2008). "Artist-Director Seeks the Spirit of The Spirit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008.
- Lovece, Frank (December 22, 2008). "Spirit guide: Frank Miller adapts Will Eisner's cult comic". Film Journal International. Archived from the original on April 5, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2008.
- Applebaum, Stephen (December 22, 2008). "Frank Miller interview: It's no sin". The Scotsman. Edinburgh, Scotland. Archived from the original on October 15, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2010.
- The Cat #3 at the Grand Comics Database.
- Miller, Frank (July 21, 2010). "Neal Adams". FrankMillerInk.com (official site). Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved March 14, 2014.
- "Royal Feast", The Twilight Zone #84 (June 1978) at the Grand Comics Database.
- "Endless Cloud", The Twilight Zone #85 (July 1978) at the Grand Comics Database.
- "Deliver Me From D-Day", Weird War Tales #64 (June 1978) at the Grand Comics Database
- Mithra, Kuljit (July 1998). "Interview with Jim Shooter". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
- Weird War Tales #68 (Oct. 1978) at the Grand Comics Database
- Frank Miller at the Grand Comics Database. NOTE: A different artist named Frank Miller was active in the 1940s. He died December 3, 1949.
- Saffel, Steve (2007). "A Not-So-Spectacular Experiment". Spider-Man the Icon: The Life and Times of a Pop Culture Phenomenon. London, United Kingdom: Titan Books. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-84576-324-4.
Frank Miller was the guest penciler for The Spectacular Spider-Man #27, February 1979, written by Bill Mantlo. [The issue's] splash page was the first time Miller's [rendition of] Daredevil appeared in a Marvel story.
- "Daredevil by Frank Miller & Klaus Janson, Vol. 1". Goodreads. n.d. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016.
- Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1970s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8.
In this issue the great longtime Daredevil artist Gene Colan was succeeded by a new penciller who became a star himself: Frank Miller.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Mithra, Kuljit (February 1998). "Interview with Dennis O'Neil". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- Kraft, David Anthony; Salicup, Jim (April 1983). "Frank Miller's Ronin". Comics Interview (2). Fictioneer Books. pp. 7–21.
- Khoury, George (2016). Comic Book Fever: A Celebration of Comics: 1976-1986. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-60549-063-2.
- DeFalco, Tom "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 201: "Matt Murdock's college sweetheart first appeared in this issue [#168] by writer/artist Frank Miller."
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 202: "Possibly modeled after Nantembo, a Zen master who reputedly disciplined his students by striking them with his nantin staff, Stick first appeared in this issue [#176] by Frank Miller."
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 202: The Hand was a league of ninja assassins who employed dark magic...Introduced in Daredevil #174 by writer/artist Frank Miller, this group of deadly warriors had been hired by the Kingpin of Crime to exterminate Matt Murdock."
- Cordier, Philippe (April 2007). "Seeing Red: Dissecting Daredevil's Defining Years". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (21): 33–60.
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 207: "Frank Miller did the unthinkable when he killed off the popular Elektra in Daredevil #181."
- Manning, Matthew K.; Dougall, Alastair, ed. (2014). "1980s". Batman: A Visual History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-4654-2456-3.
One of the most important creators ever to work on Batman, writer/artist Frank Miller drew his first Batman story in this issue. While it featured five self-contained tales, the story 'Wanted: Santa Claus – Dead or Alive', written by Denny O'Neil and penciled by Miller was the standout.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Manning, Matthew K.; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2012). "1980s". Spider-Man Chronicle Celebrating 50 Years of Web-Slinging. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-7566-9236-0.
Writer Denny O'Neil and artist Frank Miller...used their considerable talents in this rare collaboration that teamed two other legends – Dr. Strange and Spider-Man.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Manning "1980s" in Gilbert (2012), p. 120: "Writer Denny O'Neil teamed with artist Frank Miller to concoct a Spider-Man annual that played to both their strengths. Miller and O'Neil seemed to flourish in the gritty world of street crime so tackling a Spider/Punisher fight was a natural choice."
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 208: "The most popular member of the X-Men was finally featured in his first solo title, a four-issue limited series by writer Chris Claremont and writer/artist Frank Miller."
- Goldstein, Hilary (May 19, 2006). "Wolverine TPB Review He's the best at what he does and so is Frank Miller". IGN. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- Young, Paul (2016). Frank Miller's Daredevil and the Ends of Heroism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-8135-6382-4.
- Marx, Barry, Cavalieri, Joey and Hill, Thomas (w), Petruccio, Steven (a), Marx, Barry (ed). "Frank Miller Experiment in Creative Autonomy" Fifty Who Made DC Great: 50 (1985), DC Comics
- Cronin, Brian (April 12, 2007). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #98". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on July 31, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2010.
- Cronin, Brian (April 1, 2010). "Comic Book Legends Revealed #254". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on November 7, 2011. Retrieved November 6, 2011.
- Jameson, A. D. (February 8, 2010). "Reading Frank Miller's Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, part 2". Big Other. Retrieved September 27, 2018.
- Fleisher, Michael (1976). The Encyclopedia of Comic Book Heroes Volume 1 Batman. New York, New York: Collier Books. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-02-080090-3.
- Nobleman, Marc Tyler (2012). Bill the Boy Wonder: The Secret Co-Creator of Batman. Charlesbridge Publishing. p. Back Matter. ISBN 978-1-58089-289-6.
- The term appears on page seven of the story "The Joker" from Batman No. 1 (1940), which is reprinted in the book Batman Chronicles, Volume One (2005). In the lower right panel, Batman is shown swimming in the water after having been knocked off a bridge by the Joker, and the caption reads "THE SHOCK OF COLD WATER QUICKLY REVIVES THE DARK KNIGHT!"
- Manning, Matthew K.; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1980s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, UK: Dorling Kindersley. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
It is arguably the best Batman story of all time. Written and drawn by Frank Miller by Frank Miller (with inspired inking by Klaus Janson and beautiful watercolors by Lynn Varley), Batman: The Dark Knight revolutionized the entire [archetype] of the super hero.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Cronin, Brian (November 24, 2015). "The Fascinating Behind-The-Scenes Story of Frank Miller's "Dark Knight" Saga". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 226: "'Born Again' was a seven-issue story arc that appeared in Daredevil from issue #227 to #233 (Feb.–Aug. 1986) by writer Frank Miller and artist David Mazzucchelli."
- Mithra, Kuljit (1997). "Interview With Walt Simonson". ManWithoutFear.com. Archived from the original on March 21, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
The gist of it is that by the time Marvel was interested in having us work on the story, Frank was off doing Dark Knight and I was off doing X-Factor. So it never happened. Too bad—it was a cool story too.
- DeFalco "1980s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 228: "Produced by Frank Miller and illustrated by Bill Sienkiewicz, Elektra: Assassin was an eight-issue limited series. Because its mature content was inappropriate for children, it was published by Marvel's Epic Comics imprint."
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 227 "Melding Miller's noir sensibilities, realistic characterization, and gritty action with Mazzucchelli's brilliant iconic imagery, "Year One" thrilled readers and critics alike...as well as being one of the influences for the 2005 film Batman Begins.
- Gavaler, Chris (2017). Superhero Comics. London and New York: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 279–280. ISBN 978-1-4742-2635-6.
- Kit, Borys (April 20, 2011). "'Batman: Year One' Lines Up Voice Cast, Sets Comic-Con Premiere (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- Flinn, Tom. "Writer's Spotlight: Frank Miller: Comics' Noir Auteur," ICv2: Guide to Graphic Novels #40 (Q1 2007).
- Fleming, Mike Jr. (July 22, 2017). "Frank Miller On Why Superhero Movies Are Better Than Ever – The Comic-Con Interview". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 253: "Frank Miller made his triumphant return to Elektra, the character he breathed life into and then subsequently snuffed out, with the graphic novel Elektra Lives Again."
- Irving, Christopher (December 1, 2010). "Frank Miller Part 1: Dames, Dark Knights, Devils, and Heroes". NYCGraphicNovelists.com. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
Miller works Matt's narrating captions between the present, the past, and his dream imagery of Elektra, a fragmentation given a voiceover straight out of an old crime book, but with a heavy dose of sensitivity that never veers into the maudlin.
- Burgas, Greg (September 17, 2008). "Comics You Should Own – Hard Boiled". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
[W]e can see that Miller and Darrow were creating a marvelous satire, one that pulls no punches and lets none of us off the hook, which is what the best satire does. Hard Boiled is a wild and extremely fun ride, but it's also an insightful examination of a sickness in our society that we don't like to confront.
- "Give Me Liberty TPB :: Profile :: Dark Horse Comics". www.darkhorse.com. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
- Maslin, Janet (June 22, 1990). "Robocop 2 (1990) Review/Film; New Challenge and Enemy For a Cybernetic Organism". The New York Times. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- Ebert, Roger (November 5, 1993). "RoboCop 3". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- "Miller: 'Robocop Movies Almost Put Me Off Hollywood'". Contactmusic.com. June 20, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- Janson, Tim (April 27, 2007). "Review: Frank Miller's ROBOCOP". Avatar Press. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
- Lindenmuth, Brian (December 14, 2010). "The Fall (and Rise) of the Crime Comic". Mulholland Books. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
As much as 100 Bullets is a cornerstone of the modern crime comic, it did not spring fully formed into the world. The modern crime comic era started a few years earlier with two releases: the high-profile Sin City by Frank Miller and the independent Stray Bullets by David Lapham.
- Cavna, Michael (August 21, 2014). "For new 'Sin City,' Frank Miller draws out performances that go beyond the scripted". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Manning "1990s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 264: "Comic legends Frank Miller and John Romita, Jr. united to tell a new version of Daredevil's origin in this carefully crafted five-issue miniseries."
- Manning "1990s" in Dolan, p. 267: "This prestige one-shot marked Frank Miller's return to Batman and was labeled as a companion piece to his classic 1986 work Batman: The Dark Knight Returns. The issue was drawn by Todd McFarlane, one of the most popular artists in comic book history."
- Duncan, Randy; Smith, Matthew J. (2013). Icons of the American Comic Book: From Captain America to Wonder Woman. 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio/Greenwood. p. 515. ISBN 978-0-313-39923-7.
- Wilson, Matt D. (April 28, 2014). "Dark Horse Presents Reformats In August With Big Guy & Rusty". Comics Alliance. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
- Bernardin, Marc (May 26, 2010). "Where's my goddamn Big Guy and Rusty the Boy Robot movie?". io9. Retrieved November 20, 2014.
- Green, Karen (December 3, 2010). "Into the Valley of Death?". ComiXology. Archived from the original on October 20, 2011. Retrieved November 25, 2011.
It's like something out of Hollywood, right? Hollywood thought so, too. They made a movie in 1962 called The 300 Spartans, which 5-year-old Frank Miller saw in the theater, and it had a powerful influence on him.
- Yarbrough, Beau (March 18, 1999). "Evan Dorkin Debuts World's Funnest". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- David Brothers. Sons of DKR: Frank Miller x TCJ, 4thletter, April 6, 2009
- Manning "2000s" in Dougall, p. 258: "With this three-issue prestige format story, writer/artist Miller once again set the scene for a large scale Batman adventure."
- "Top 300 Comics–December 2001". ICv2. November 28, 2001. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
"Top 300 Comics–January 2002". ICv2. January 2, 2002. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
"Top 300 Comics–February 2002". ICv2. February 4, 2002. Archived from the original on September 13, 2016. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- Lalumière, Claude (September 21, 2002). "The Dark Knight Strikes Again". Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- Sabin, Roger (December 15, 2002). "Take a picture..." Archived from the original on March 29, 2016. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "A Quick Miller Minute on All-Star Batman and Robin"[permanent dead link], Cliff Biggers Newsarama, February 9, 2005
- Manning "2000s" in Dougall, p. 282: "Together with penciller Jim Lee, Miller delivered a series that took place in a reality that began with Miller and David Mazzucchelli's 'Batman: Year One'."
- "All-Star Batman and Robin the Boy Wonder Reviews". ComicBookRoundup.com. Retrieved May 5, 2021.
- Goldstein, Hilary (March 16, 2005). "Sin City: From Panel to Screen". IGN. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Daly, Steve (March 13, 2007). "How 300 went from the page to the screen". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
- Adler, Shawn (May 26, 2007). "Depp, Banderas To Call 'Sin City' Home?". MTV News.
- McMillan, Graeme (July 11, 2015). "Comic-Con: Will Eisner Comic Industry Award Winners Announced". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on July 28, 2015.
- "Superstar Writer/Artist Frank Miller Return to Batman!". DC Comics. April 24, 2015. Archived from the original on July 26, 2015.
- Wheeler, Andrew (July 9, 2015). "Andy Kubert and Klaus Janson Join The Master Race (The Comic)". ComicsAlliance. Archived from the original on August 14, 2015.
- Schedeen, Jesse (December 14, 2015). "The Dark Knight III #1 Dominates November's Comic Book Sales". IGN.
- "THE DARK KNIGHT RETURNS: THE LAST CRUSADE #1". DC. Retrieved July 24, 2016.
- "XERXES: THE FALL OF THE HOUSE OF DARIUS AND THE RISE OF ALEXANDER". Comic Book Roundup. 2018. Archived from the original on March 16, 2021. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
- Ching, Albert (February 20, 2018). "INTERVIEW: Frank Miller Returns To The World Of 300 With Xerxes". CBR.com: 2. Archived from the original on June 30, 2021. Retrieved March 16, 2021.
- Arrant, Chris (July 22, 2017). "Superman: Year One By Frank Miller & John Romita Jr". Newsarama. Archived from the original on July 23, 2017.
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- "SUPERMAN: YEAR ONE". Comic Book Roundup. Retrieved July 5, 2020.
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- "Dark Knight Returns: The Golden Child #1 Reviews". ComicBookRoundup.com. Retrieved May 10, 2021.
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- Schram, Jamie (October 10, 2012). "Ex-staffer sues Dark Knight comic creator, girlfriend for hostile work environment", Daily News; accessed January 17, 2018.
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'"Occupy" is nothing but a pack of louts, thieves, and rapists, an unruly mob, fed by Woodstock-era nostalgia and putrid false righteousness.'
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- "The Honest Alan Moore Interview". 2011. Retrieved April 26, 2013.
[The Occupy movement] is a completely justified howl of moral outrage and it seems to be handled in a very intelligent, non-violent way, which is probably another reason why Frank Miller would be less than pleased with it. I'm sure if it had been a bunch of young, sociopathic vigilantes with Batman make-up on their faces, he'd be more in favour of it.
- Thielman, Sam (April 27, 2018). "Frank Miller: 'I wasn't thinking clearly when I said those things'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 11, 2018.
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- Irving in NYCGraphicNovelists.com
- Manning "1980s" in Dolan, p. 202: The comic was an unusual blend of the influences on Miller by French cartoonist Moebius and Japanese Manga comic books.
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Miller's mixing of Muslims and Arabs – the book never differentiates – with terrorists highlights Holy Terror's unflattering portrayal of Muslims.
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- "The Spirit reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- "The Spirit". Metacritic.com. Retrieved December 20, 2012.
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Frank Miller Stan Lee cameo Jugular Wine.
- "Frank Miller". Avatar Press. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
Miller's filmography also includes...a handful of film cameos including an appearance in the 2003 film Daredevil.
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- "The Annotated Spirit: A Guide to the Movie's In-joke References". Filmjournal.com. December 22, 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2010.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Frank Miller.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Frank Miller (comic book writer)|
- Official website
- Frank Miller at the Comic Book DB (archived from the original)
- Frank Miller at the TCM Movie Database
- The Complete Works of Frank Miller
- Frank Miller at IMDb
- Frank Miller at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
- Frank Miller at Curlie
- Frank Miller at Library of Congress Authorities, with 65 catalog records