Frank Miller (cryptographer)

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Frank Miller
Born1842 (1842)
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
Died1925 (aged 82–83)
Alma materYale University
Known forInvention of the one-time pad

Frank Miller (1842–1925), was an American cryptographer, banker, and trustee of Stanford University. He invented the one-time pad in 1882,[1] 35 years before the patent issued to Gilbert Vernam.[2]

Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1842, he graduated from Yale University and then joined the Union Army during the American Civil War, where he was wounded during the Second Battle of Bull Run.[2]


  1. ^ Bellovin, Steven. "Frank Miller: Inventor of the One-Time Pad" (PDF). Columbia University. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b John Markoff (July 25, 2011). "Codebook Shows an Encryption Form Dates Back to Telegraphs". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-07-26.