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Frank Robinson

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Frank Robinson
Robinson with the Cincinnati Reds in 1961
Outfielder / Manager
Born: (1935-08-31)August 31, 1935
Beaumont, Texas, U.S.
Died: February 7, 2019(2019-02-07) (aged 83)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Batted: Right
Threw: Right
MLB debut
April 17, 1956, for the Cincinnati Redlegs
Last MLB appearance
September 18, 1976, for the Cleveland Indians
MLB statistics
Batting average.294
Home runs586
Runs batted in1,812
Managerial record1,065–1,176
Winning %.475
As player
As manager
As coach
Career highlights and awards
Member of the National
Baseball Hall of Fame
Vote89.2% (first ballot)

Frank Robinson (August 31, 1935 – February 7, 2019) was an American professional baseball outfielder and manager in Major League Baseball (MLB) who played for five teams over 21 seasons: the Cincinnati Reds (1956–1965), Baltimore Orioles (1966–1971), Los Angeles Dodgers (1972), California Angels (1973–1974), and Cleveland Indians (1974–1976). In 1975, Robinson became the first Black manager in big-league history, as the player-manager of the Indians.[1]

The only player to be named Most Valuable Player (MVP) of both the National League (NL) and the American League (AL), Robinson was named the NL MVP after leading the Cincinnati Reds to the pennant in 1961 and was named the AL MVP in 1966 with the Baltimore Orioles after winning the Triple Crown; Robinson's 49 home runs (HR) that year tied for the most by any AL player between 1962 and 1989, and stood as a franchise record for 30 years. He helped lead the Orioles to the first two World Series titles in franchise history in 1966 and 1970, and was named the Series MVP in 1966 after leading the Orioles to a four-game sweep of the Los Angeles Dodgers.

A 14-time All-Star, Robinson batted .300 nine times, hit 30 home runs 11 times, and led his league in slugging four times and in runs scored three times. His 586 career home runs ranked fourth in major league history at the time of his retirement, and he ranked sixth in total bases (5,373) and extra-base hits (1,186), eighth in games played (2,808), and ninth in runs scored (1,829). His 2,943 career hits are the most since 1934 by any player who fell short of the 3,000-hit mark. He was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility in 1982.[2]

After managing the Indians, Robinson went on to manage the San Francisco Giants, Baltimore Orioles, and Montreal Expos / Washington Nationals. For most of the last two decades of his life, Robinson served in various executive positions for Major League Baseball concluding his career as honorary president of the American League.[3]

Early life[edit]

Robinson was born in Beaumont, Texas. He was the youngest of Ruth Shaw's ten children and the only child of her marriage to Frank Robinson.[4] His parents divorced when he was an infant, and his mother moved with her children to Alameda, California, and then to the West Oakland neighborhood of nearby Oakland.[1] He attended McClymonds High School in Oakland where he was a basketball teammate of Bill Russell. He was a baseball teammate of Vada Pinson and Curt Flood.[5] He also played American Legion Baseball.[1]

Playing career[edit]

Minor leagues[edit]

In 1953, Bobby Mattick, a scout for the Cincinnati Reds, signed Robinson to a contract worth $3,500 ($39,858 in current dollar terms).[1] He made his professional debut for the Ogden Reds of the Class C Pioneer League. He batted .348 with 83 runs batted in (RBI) in 72 games played. He was promoted to the Tulsa Oilers of the Class AA Texas League in 1954, but was demoted to the Columbia Reds of the Class A South Atlantic League. He returned to Columbia in 1955.[1]

Major Leagues[edit]

Cincinnati Reds (1956–1965)[edit]

Robinson made his major league debut on April 17, 1956 at the age of 20.[6] After posting 11 consecutive losing seasons, the Reds surprised their opposition by jumping to first place at the mid-point of the 1956 season. Robinson led the team with 18 home runs at mid-season, earning him the role as starting left fielder for the National League in the 1956 All-Star Game.[1][7] The Reds stayed in the pennant race until the last day of the season, ending up with a 91–63 record, two games behind the Brooklyn Dodgers.[8]

Robinson ended the 1956 season with a .290 batting average and 83 runs batted in while, his 38 home runs tied the Major League Baseball record for home runs hit by a Rookie player previously set by Wally Berger in 1930.[6][9] His rookie home run record stood for 31 years when it was broken by Mark McGwire's 49 home runs in 1987.[9] His impressive power hitting display earned him the 1956 National League Rookie of the Year Award.[10]

In 1957, the Reds were once again in first place at mid-season when, Robinson and six of his Redleg teammates—Ed Bailey, Johnny Temple, Don Hoak, Gus Bell, Wally Post and Roy McMillan—were voted into the National League starting lineup for the 1957 All-Star Game. An investigation launched by Commissioner Ford Frick found that the majority of the ballots cast had come from Cincinnati as the result of a ballot stuffing campaign by Reds fans.[11]

Frick allowed Robinson to remain on the team while Bell and Post were replaced on the NL starting roster by outfielders Hank Aaron and Willie Mays.[11] Bell remained as a reserve player, but Post was removed from the roster altogether.[11] Subsequently, Frick suspended fans' All-Star game voting rights until they were eventually restored in 1970.[11] The Reds faltered after the All-Star break and dropped to fourth place in the season final standings.

Robinson earned the 1957 Associated Press National League Sophomore-of-the-Year award by improving his batting average to .322, tying him with Hank Aaron for third place in the 1957 NL Batting Championship behind future Hall of Fame members Stan Musial (.366) and Willie Mays (.333).[12][13] He credited manager, Birdie Tebbetts for his performance saying, "He kept after me all year and that's what a young ball player needs."[12] In 1958, Robinson would win the only Gold Glove Award of his career however, his batting average dropped to .269 as the Reds fell to last place in the National League, prompting Tebbetts to announce his resignation on August 14.[6][14][15] In 1959, Robinson improved to a .311 batting average along with 125 runs batted in and 36 home runs.[6]

Robinson with the Reds in 1961

In 1961, Robinson moved to right field and produced another strong offensive season.[1] In July he batted .409, hit 13 home runs, and drove in 34 runs to win NL Player of the Month Award, and finished the season with a .323 batting average with 37 home runs and 124 runs batted in, helping to propel the Reds to the 1961 National League Pennant.[6][16] His performance earned him the 1961 National League Most Valuable Player Award.[17] In the 1961 World Series against the New York Yankees, Robinson had a lackluster performance, producing only three hits as the Reds fell to the Yankees in five games (4–1).[18]

Robinson hit a career-high .342 in 1962, just four points behind NL Batting Champion, Tommy Davis.[19] He also led the league in runs scored, doubles, on-base percentage, slugging percentage and on-base plus slugging.[19] His 134 runs scored, 51 doubles, 136 runs batted in and .421 on-base percentage were also career highs for Robinson.[6]

Robinson was noted as a fiercely aggressive player. He spiked Johnny Logan in 1957, causing Logan to miss six weeks. In a game against the Milwaukee Braves on August 15, 1960, Robinson slid hard into third base, prompting a fistfight with Milwaukee's future Hall of Fame third baseman, Eddie Mathews.[20]

Baltimore Orioles (1966–1971)[edit]

Prior to the 1966 season, Reds owner Bill DeWitt traded Robinson to the Baltimore Orioles in exchange for pitcher Milt Pappas, pitcher Jack Baldschun, and outfielder Dick Simpson. The trade turned out to be very lopsided. DeWitt, who had a slew of successful trades including his time as GM in Detroit and the early 1960s rebuilding the Reds, famously referred to Robinson as "not a young 30" after the trade. The Reds led the NL in offense in 1965 and needed pitching. Pappas, who was a consistent performer in Baltimore was a major disappointment in Cincinnati while Robinson had continued success in Baltimore.[21] In Robinson's first year in Baltimore, he won the Triple Crown, leading the American League with a .316 batting average (then the lowest ever by a Triple Crown winner), 49 home runs (the most ever by a right-handed Triple crown winner) and 122 runs batted in.[6] On May 8, 1966, Robinson became the only player ever to hit a home run completely out of Memorial Stadium.[22] The shot came off of Luis Tiant in the second game of a doubleheader against the Cleveland Indians, and the home run measured 541 feet (165 m). Until the Orioles' move to Camden Yards in 1992, a flag labeled "HERE" was flown at the spot where the ball left the stadium.[23]

The Orioles won the 1966 World Series, and Robinson was named World Series Most Valuable Player. In the Orioles' four-game sweep of the defending champion Los Angeles Dodgers, Robinson hit two home runs—one in Game One (which Baltimore won 5–2), and one in Game Four (the only run of the game in a 1–0 series-clinching victory). Robinson hit both home runs off of Don Drysdale.[24]

During the 1969 season, Robinson brought some humor to the Orioles' clubhouse by presiding over their kangaroo court, held after every Oriole win. As the judge, he would hear arguments from both sides and give out fines for minor infractions (such as one dollar per lady talked to during a game) and "awards", named after people notoriously bad at a certain skill and involving a prop the "winner" had to display until the next court session. For instance, Jim Palmer once won the John Mason Baserunning Award, a smelly, decrepit baseball cleat presented for baserunning gaffes. Palmer credited the kangaroo court for helping the Orioles bond as a team.[25]

On June 26, 1970, Robinson hit back-to-back grand slams in the fifth and sixth innings in the Orioles' 12–2 victory over the Washington Senators. The same runners were on base both times: Dave McNally was on third base, Don Buford was on second, and Paul Blair was on first.[26]

The Orioles won three consecutive American League pennants between 1969 and 1971. Before the 1969 World Series, Robinson said, "Bring on the Mets and Ron Gaspar!" He was told by his teammate Merv Rettenmund, "It's Rod, stupid." He then retorted by saying, "OK. Bring on Rod Stupid!"[27] Baltimore won the 1970 World Series over the Reds.[1]

Final years as a player (1972–1976)[edit]

Robinson, circa 1973

Robinson was traded along with Pete Richert from the Orioles to the Los Angeles Dodgers for Doyle Alexander, Bob O'Brien, Sergio Robles and Royle Stillman at the Winter Meetings on December 2, 1971.[28] When the 1972 Major League Baseball strike occurred, Robinson was one of three Dodgers out of thirty who voted against it. When the vote was announced, he said, "I don't believe in the strike, and I voted against it. But I was voted down, so now I'm on your side. I'm with you guys."[29] The 1972 season was his first season in the National League since playing with the 1965 Reds. He played 103 games while compiling a .251 batting average, 59 RBIs, 86 hits, and 19 home runs.[6] Teammate Tommy John said, "Frank didn't have a great year in 1972, but he played hard all year...He set a positive role model for the team."[29]

Robinson's only season with the Dodgers ended when he was dealt along with Bill Singer, Bobby Valentine, Billy Grabarkewitz and Mike Strahler to the California Angels for Andy Messersmith and Ken McMullen at the Winter Meetings on November 28, 1972. The transaction was the result of Robinson's request for regular playing time, something Dodgers general manager Al Campanis wanted for the team's younger prospects. It also reunited him with Angels general manager Harry Dalton who had worked in a similar capacity when both were with the Orioles.[30] In his time with the Angels, he became their first designated hitter while also being teammates again with Vada Pinson. He played 147 games in 1973 and 129 in 1974. In his tenure with the Angels, he hit for a .259 average while having 50 home runs, 249 hits, and 160 RBIs.[6]

On September 12, 1974, the Angels traded Robinson to the Cleveland Indians for Ken Suarez, cash and a player to be named later (Rusty Torres). Three weeks later the Indians named him their manager and persuaded him to continue playing. In his first at-bat as a player/manager for Cleveland in 1975, he hit a home run off of Doc Medich of the Yankees. He injured his shoulder in 1975 and did not play often. He retired from playing after the 1976 season, after batting .226 with 14 home runs in 235 at-bats for Cleveland from 1974 through 1976.[31] His final at-bat in the majors came against Baltimore on September 18, where he pinch-hit in the 8th inning and collected an RBI base hit in a 3–2 loss.[1][32]

Career statistics[edit]

During a 21-year baseball career, he batted .294 with 586 home runs, 1,812 runs batted in, and 2,943 hits.[6] At his retirement, his 586 career home runs were the fourth most in history (behind only the records of Hank Aaron, Babe Ruth and Willie Mays). He is third on Cincinnati's all-time home run leaders list (324, behind Johnny Bench and Joey Votto) and is the Reds' all-time leader in slugging percentage (.554).[33]

In his career, Robinson held several major league records. In his rookie season, he tied Wally Berger's record for home runs by a rookie (38).[34] (The current record would be set by Pete Alonso in 2019.) Robinson still holds the record for home runs on opening day (8), which includes a home run in his first at bat as a player-manager.[35]

Robinson won the 1966 American League Triple Crown (.316 BA, 49 HR, 122 RBI). Only two players (Carl Yastrzemski and Miguel Cabrera) have since won the award in either league and the two MVP awards, which made him the first player in baseball history to earn the title in both leagues.[36]

Total 2,808 .294 10,006 1,829 2,943 528 72 586 1,812 204 77 1,420 1,532 .389 .537 .926 6,346 333 263 106 .984 [6]


Managing career[edit]

Robinson managed in the winter leagues late in his playing career.[37] By the early 1970s, he had his heart set on becoming the first black manager in the majors; the Angels traded him to the Cleveland Indians midway through the 1974 season due to his open campaigning for the manager's job. He was appointed player-manager by the Indians on October 2, 1974, giving him the distinction of being the first black manager in the Majors.[38] Robinson had a rocky time in Cleveland, as general manager Phil Seghi generally liked to second guess his manager along with trying to push for him to play alongside managing (the result was that he played roughly 80 games as manager). Disagreements with players such as Gaylord Perry did not help matters (he went to the press saying he wanted to be paid a dollar more than Robinson's $173,500 salary). The Indians had a 79–80 record, and had an 81–78 record in 1976, their first winning record in eight years. Cleveland started the 1977 season 26–31 and fired Robinson on June 19, 1977.[31][39]

Robinson managed the San Francisco Giants from 1981 through 106 games of the 1984 season, when he was fired.[1][37] He finished the 1984 season as the hitting coach for the Milwaukee Brewers on a contract worth $1.[40] In 1985, he joined the Orioles front office. He was named the manager of the Orioles for 1988. He was awarded the American League Manager of the Year Award in 1989 for leading the Orioles to an 87–75 record, a turnaround from their previous season in which they went 54–107, and the division title came down to the final three-game series between Baltimore and the Toronto Blue Jays, but the Jays would win the first two games to clinch the division.[41] It would be the closest Robinson ever came to managing a team to the postseason.

Robinson as manager of the San Francisco Giants in 1983

Robinson managed the Orioles through 1991, and the Montreal Expos/Washington Nationals franchise from 2002 through 2006.[1] After Robinson had spent some years known in baseball as the Director of Discipline, he was chosen by Major League Baseball in 2002 to manage the Expos, which MLB owned at that time.[42] The Expos, who had losing records in the five previous seasons, finished the 2002 and 2003 seasons with 83–79 records. The Expos then next slumped to a 67–95 record in 2004, their final season before relocation to Washington, D.C.[43]

In a June 2005 Sports Illustrated poll of 450 MLB players, Robinson was selected as the worst manager in baseball, along with Buck Showalter, then manager of the Texas Rangers. In the August 2006 poll, he again was voted worst manager with 17% of the vote and 37.7% of the NL East vote.[44]

On April 20, 2006, with the Nationals' 10–4 victory over the Philadelphia Phillies, Robinson got his 1000th win, becoming the 53rd manager to reach that milestone.[45] He had earned his 1000th loss two seasons earlier.[6]

During a game against the Houston Astros on May 25, 2006, Robinson pulled Nationals catcher Matt LeCroy during the middle of the seventh inning, violating an unwritten rule that managers do not remove position players in the middle of an inning. Instead, managers are supposed to discreetly switch position players in between innings. However, LeCroy, the third-string catcher, had allowed Houston Astros baserunners to steal seven bases over seven innings and had committed two throwing errors. Although the Nationals won the game 8–5, Robinson found the decision so difficult to make on a player he respected so much, he broke down crying during post-game interviews.[46]

On September 30, 2006, the Nationals' management declined to renew Robinson's contract for the 2007 season, though they stated he was welcome to come to spring training in an unspecified role. Robinson, who wanted either a front office job or a consultancy, declined.[47] On October 1, 2006, he managed his final game, a 6–2 loss to the Mets, and prior to the game addressed the fans at RFK Stadium.[48] Robinson's record as a manager stood at 1,065 wins and 1,176 losses. He is one of just seven managers to have won 1,000 games without having made the postseason once, and he is the only one to do it since the Expansion Era began in 1961 (incidentally, five of those managers won pennants in the 19th century, while the sixth was Jimmy Dykes who retired as a manager in 1961).[49]

Managerial record[edit]

Team Year Regular season Postseason
Games Won Lost Win % Finish Won Lost Win % Result
CLE 1975 159 79 80 .497 4th in AL East
CLE 1976 159 81 78 .509 4th in AL East
CLE 1977 57 26 31 .456 fired
CLE total 375 186 189 .496 0 0
SF 1981 59 27 32 .458 5th in NL West
52 29 23 .558 3rd in NL West
SF 1982 162 87 75 .537 3rd in NL West
SF 1983 162 79 83 .488 5th in NL West
SF 1984 106 42 64 .396 fired
SF total 541 264 277 .488 0 0
BAL 1988 155 54 101 .348 7th in AL East
BAL 1989 162 87 75 .537 2nd in AL East
BAL 1990 161 76 85 .472 5th in AL East
BAL 1991 37 13 24 .351 fired
BAL total 515 230 285 .447 0 0
MON 2002 162 83 79 .512 2nd in NL East
MON 2003 162 83 79 .512 4th in NL East
MON 2004 162 67 95 .414 5th in NL East
WAS 2005 162 81 81 .500 5th in NL East
WAS 2006 162 71 91 .438 5th in NL East
MON/ WAS total 810 385 425 .475 0 0
Total[49] 2241 1065 1176 .475 0 0


Frank Robinson's number 20 was retired by the Baltimore Orioles in 1972.
Frank Robinson's number 20 was retired by the Cincinnati Reds in 1998.
Frank Robinson's number 20 was retired by the Cleveland Indians in 2017.

In addition to his two Most Valuable Player awards (1961 and 1966) and his World Series Most Valuable Player award (1966), Robinson was honored in 1966 with the Hickok Belt as the top professional athlete of the year in any sport.[50][51]

In 1982, Robinson was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame as a Baltimore Oriole.[52] Robinson is also a charter member of the Baltimore Orioles Hall of Fame (along with Brooks Robinson), and a member of the Cincinnati Reds Hall of Fame, being inducted into both in 1978. He was named to the Washington Nationals Ring of Honor for his "significant contribution to the game of baseball in Washington, D.C" on May 9, 2015. He was inducted into the Cleveland Indians Hall of Fame in 2016. The Reds, Orioles, and Indians have retired his uniform number 20. He is one of only two major-league players, the other being Nolan Ryan, to have his number retired by three different organizations.[53]

In 1999, Robinson ranked 22nd on The Sporting News list of the 100 Greatest Baseball Players.[54] He was nominated as a finalist for the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.[55] In 2020, The Athletic ranked Robinson at number 20 on its "Baseball 100" list, complied by sportswriter Joe Posnanski.[56]

Three teams have honored Robinson with statues:


President George W. Bush awarded Robinson the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 9, 2005.[59]

The citation on the award read:

"Frank Robinson played the game of baseball with total integrity and steadfast determination. He won Most Valuable Player awards in both the National and American Leagues. He achieved the American League Triple Crown in 1966. His teams won five League titles and two World Series championships. In 1975, Frank Robinson broke the color barrier as baseball's first African-American manager, and he later won Manager of the Year awards in both the National and American Leagues. The United States honors Frank Robinson for his extraordinary achievements as a baseball player and manager and for setting a lasting example of character in athletics."

On April 13, 2007, Robinson was awarded the first Jackie Robinson Society Community Recognition Award at George Washington University.[60]

Front office and media career[edit]

Robinson in January 2014

Robinson served as an assistant general manager for the Orioles through 1995 when he was fired.[61] He worked for MLB as vice president of on-field operations from 1999 to 2002. He was responsible for player discipline, uniform policy, stadium configuration, and other on-field issues.[62]

Robinson served as an analyst for ESPN during spring training in 2007.[63] The Nationals offered to honor Robinson during a May 20 game against his former club the Baltimore Orioles but he refused.[64]

In 2007 Robinson rejoined the MLB front office serving as a special advisor for baseball operations from 2007 to 2009. He then served as special assistant to Bud Selig from 2009 to 2010 and was named senior vice president for major league operations from 2010 to 2011. In June 2012, he became executive vice president of baseball development.[62] In February 2015, Robinson left that position and was named senior advisor to the Commissioner of Baseball and honorary American League president.[65]

Personal life[edit]

While playing for the Reds in the late 1950s, Robinson attended Xavier University in Cincinnati during the off-season.[66] While in Baltimore, he became active in the civil rights movement. He originally declined membership in the NAACP unless the organization promised not to make him do public appearances. However, after witnessing Baltimore's segregated housing and discriminatory real estate practices, he reconsidered and became an enthusiastic speaker on racial issues.[34]

On February 9, 1961, Robinson pulled a .25 caliber pistol during an argument in a Cincinnati restaurant. He pleaded guilty on March 20 to a charge of carrying a concealed weapon and was sentenced to pay a $250 fine (equivalent to $2,549 in 2023).[67]

Robinson met Barbara Ann Cole in 1961; they married that year[1] and lived in Los Angeles where Barbara sold real estate.[61] They had two children.[53] In 2003, he guest starred on an episode of Yes, Dear as himself, along with Ernie Banks and Johnny Bench.[68]

On February 7, 2019, Robinson died of bone cancer in Los Angeles at the age of 83.[69]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Frank Robinson (SABR BioProject)". Society for American Baseball Research.
  2. ^ "Robinson, Frank". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum.
  3. ^ a b Fay, John (February 8, 2019). "Frank Robinson was part of the worst trade in modern Reds history". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved August 9, 2019.
  4. ^ "Frank Robinson". Famous African Americans. Retrieved May 17, 2022.
  5. ^ "Who's Better At Hoops: Bill Russell Or Frank Robinson?". The Baltimore Sun. December 12, 1990. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Frank Robinson Career Statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  7. ^ "1956 Frank Robinson batting log". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  8. ^ "1956 Cincinnati Redlegs Schedule, Box Scores and Splits". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
  9. ^ a b "Most Home Runs by a Rookie Player". statmuse.com. Retrieved October 14, 2023.
  10. ^ "1956 Rookie of the Year voting". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 14, 2023.
  11. ^ a b c d Wulf, Steve (June 29, 2015). "The stuff of legends: In 1957, Cincinnati fans stacked the All-Star team too". ESPN.
  12. ^ a b "Robinson Says Credit Of Honor Belongs To Tebbetts". The Dispatch. Associated Press. November 2, 1957. p. 16. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
  13. ^ "1957 Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  14. ^ "1958 National League Gold Glove Award winners". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  15. ^ "Birdie Tebbetts Quits As Cincinnati Manager". Schenectady Gazette. Associated Press. August 15, 1958. p. 26. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  16. ^ "MLB Major League Baseball Players of the Month". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  17. ^ "1961 National League Most Valuable Player voting results". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  18. ^ "Frank Robinson postseason batting statistics". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  19. ^ a b "1962 Batting Leaders". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 12, 2023.
  20. ^ Sharnik, Morton. "The Moody Tiger of the Reds". Sports Illustrated Vault | Si.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  21. ^ "Baseball: More Than 150 Years" by David Nemec and Saul Wisnia. Publications International, Ltd. 1997, p. 413
  22. ^ 100 Things Orioles Fans Should Know and Do Before They Die, Dan Connolly, Triumph Books, Chicago, 2015,ISBN 978-1629370415, p. 117
  23. ^ Landers, Charles (May 8, 2017). "Frank Robinson once took a Luis Tiant fastball 541 feet straight out of Memorial Stadium". MLB.com.
  24. ^ "1966 World Series – Baltimore Orioles over Los Angeles Dodgers (4–0)". Baseball-Reference.com. January 1, 1970. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  25. ^ Palmer, Jim; Dale, Jim (1996). Palmer and Weaver: Together We Were Eleven Foot Nine. Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel. pp. 27–29. ISBN 0836207815.
  26. ^ Huber, Mike. "June 26, 1970: Frank Robinson's back-to-back grand slams". Society for American Baseball Research.
  27. ^ "Ultimate Mets Database – Memories of Rod Gaspar". Ultimatemets.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  28. ^ Durso, Joseph (December 3, 1971). "White Sox Add Bahnsen, Ship McKinney to Yanks". The New York Times.
  29. ^ a b John, Tommy; Valenti, Dan (1991). TJ: My Twenty-Six Years in Baseball. New York: Bantam. p. 127. ISBN 0-553-07184-X.
  30. ^ Durso, Joseph (November 29, 1972). "Angels Get Dodgers' Frank Robinson". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  31. ^ a b Special to The Plain Dealer (May 25, 2017). "Frank Robinson's debut as Cleveland Indians player-manager was historic (photos, audio)". cleveland.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  32. ^ "1976 Frank Robinson batting log". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved October 10, 2023.
  33. ^ "Reds All-Time Leaders | Cincinnati Reds". MLB.com. May 24, 2018. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  34. ^ a b "ESPN Classic - Robinson set records and broke barriers". Espn.go.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  35. ^ "Most memorable opening day moments". ESPN. March 31, 2003. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  36. ^ "Tigers' Miguel Cabrera wins AL MVP over Angels' Mike Trout". The Washington Post. November 15, 2012.
  37. ^ a b Van, Bill. "Frank Robinson, former SF Giants manager and baseball trailblazer, dies". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  38. ^ "Indians name Robinson manager". AP. October 3, 1974. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
  39. ^ "Frank Robinson Arrives in 1974, Clashes with Gaylord Perry – Reliving Yesteryear". July 10, 2014.
  40. ^ "Photo of Frank Robinson in Brewers uniform surfaces". WLUK. February 8, 2019.
  41. ^ Klingaman, Mike; Walker, Childs (February 7, 2019). "Baltimore Orioles Hall of Famer Frank Robinson dies at 83". The Baltimore Sun.
  42. ^ Chass, Murray (February 13, 2002). "Minaya, Robinson, Tavares Will Now Run the Expos". The New York Times. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  43. ^ "Robinson set records and broke barriers". ESPN. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  44. ^ "SI Players Poll". Sports Illustrated. August 22, 2006. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  45. ^ "Johnson, Nats give Robinson 1000th win". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
  46. ^ Zuckerman, Mark (May 26, 2006). "Robinson tearful after win". The Washington Times. Retrieved May 29, 2006.
  47. ^ Svrluga, Barry (January 11, 2007). "Nats Will Not Offer Robinson a Paid Job". The Washington Post.
  48. ^ Sheinin, Dave (October 2, 2006). "Nats' Robinson Bids a Fond Farewell". The Washington Post.
  49. ^ a b "Frank Robinson Managerial Record". Baseball-Reference.com.
  50. ^ Great Baseball Feats, Facts and Figures, 2008 Edition, p.153, David Nemec and Scott Flatow, A Signet Book, Penguin Group, New York, ISBN 978-0-451-22363-0
  51. ^ "Frank Robinson". Hickok Belt. August 31, 1935. Archived from the original on February 9, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  52. ^ Muder, Craig. "Aaron, Robinson elected to Hall of Fame". National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum.
  53. ^ a b Justice, Richard. "Frank Robinson dies | Baltimore Orioles". MLB.com.
  54. ^ "The Sporting News Selects Baseball's 100 Greatest Players". The Sporting News. April 26, 1999. Archived from the original on April 16, 2005.
  55. ^ Sandomir, Richard (October 31, 1999). "All-Century Became All About Rose and Gray". The New York Times.
  56. ^ Posnanski, Joe (March 7, 2020). "The Baseball 100: No. 20, Frank Robinson". The Athletic.
  57. ^ Seidel, Jeff. "O's pay tribute to Robinson at Camden Yards". Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
  58. ^ "Cleveland Indians to unveil statues honoring Robinson and Boudreau – Cleveland.com (Cleveland Plain Dealer)". Cleveland.com. January 24, 2017. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  59. ^ "President Offers Tributes to Medal of Freedom Honorees". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 10, 2005. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  60. ^ "Fredericksburg.com – Frank Robinson in town for honor". July 9, 2012. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  61. ^ a b Bamberger, Michael. "Home Again Frank Robinson is Back Where He Belongs: In the Game". Sports Illustrated Vault | Si.com. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  62. ^ a b "MLB Executives". MLB.com. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
  63. ^ "ESPN Hires Frank Robinson As an Analyst". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  64. ^ Svrluga, Barry (February 16, 2007). "Robinson Declines Celebration in His Honor". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  65. ^ "Hall of Famer Robinson to become senior adviser to MLB commish". Foxsports.com. Associated Press. February 2, 2015. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  66. ^ Moffi, Larry and Kronstadt, Jonathan. Crossing the Line: Black Major Leaguers, 1947–1959. McFarland (1994). pp. 156. ISBN 0-899-50930-4
  67. ^ "Major Leaguer Pleads Guilty to Weapons Charge". The Journal. Associated Press. March 20, 1961. p. 16. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
  68. ^ "Yes, Dear: Season 3, Episode 16 - Rotten Tomatoes". Rotten Tomatoes.
  69. ^ Goldstein, Richard (February 7, 2019). "Frank Robinson, Hall of Fame Slugger and First Black Baseball Manager, Dies at 83". The New York Times.

Further reading[edit]

Works by Robinson[edit]


External links[edit]

Awards and achievements
Preceded by Hitting for the cycle
May 2, 1959
Succeeded by
Preceded by Major League Player of the Month
July 1961
August 1964
Succeeded by
Preceded by Two Grand Slams in a game
June 26, 1970
Succeeded by
Sporting positions
Preceded by Baltimore Orioles Hitting Coach
Succeeded by
Preceded by Baltimore Orioles First Base Coach
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Baltimore Orioles Bench Coach
Succeeded by