Frankenstein Conquers the World

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Frankenstein Conquers the World
Frankenstein Conquers the World 1965.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byIshirō Honda
Produced byTomoyuki Tanaka
Screenplay byTakeshi Kimura
Story byReuben Bercovitch
StarringNick Adams
Tadao Takashima
Kumi Mizuno
Music byAkira Ifukube
CinematographyHajime Koizumi
Sadamasa Arikawa
Edited byRyohei Fujii
Production
company
Distributed byToho (Japan)
American International Pictures (United States)
Release date
  • August 8, 1965 (1965-08-08) (Japan)
  • July 8, 1966 (1966-07-08) (United States)
Running time
89 minutes[1]
CountryJapan
United States
LanguageJapanese[Note 1]
Box office¥93 million[3]

Frankenstein Conquers the World (フランケンシュタイン対地底怪獣, Furankenshutain tai Baragon, also known as Frankenstein vs. Baragon)[1] is a 1965 science fiction kaiju film directed by Ishirō Honda, with special effects by Eiji Tsuburaya. The film stars Nick Adams, Kumi Mizuno, Tadao Takashima, with Koji Furuhata as Frankenstein and Haruo Nakajima as Baragon. The screenplay is credited to Takeshi Kimura, with the story credited to Reuben Bercovitch based on a synopsis by Jerry Sohl.[4] The film was a Japanese-American co-production; it was the first collaboration between Toho, Henry G. Saperstein Enterprises,[5] and Benedict Productions.[6]

Frankenstein Conquers the World was released in Japan on August 8, 1965 and was given a theatrical release in the United States on July 8, 1966 by American International Pictures. In 1966, Toho/UPA released a sequel titled The War of the Gargantuas.[7]

Plot[edit]

During World War II in Nazi Germany, a Kriegsmarine Officer, flanked by three Commandos, barges into the laboratory of a Dr. Riesendorf with orders to seize the immortal heart of the Frankenstein Monster, on which Riesendorf is busy experimenting. The heart is transported by U-boat and passed on to a Japanese Imperial Navy submarine, who take it back to Hiroshima for further experimentation. But just as the experiments are about to begin, Hiroshima is bombed with a nuclear weapon by the Allied Forces.

15 years later, a feral boy runs rampant in the streets of Hiroshima, catching and devouring small animals such as dogs and rabbits. This comes to the attention of American scientist Dr. James Bowen and his assistants Sueko Togami and Ken'ichiro Kawaji. A year later, they find the boy hiding in a cave on a beach, cornered by outraged villagers. Dr. Bowen and his team take care of the boy and discover he is building a strong resistance to radiation rather than getting sick from it. The Former Imperial Navy Officer Kawai, who brought the Frankenstein heart to Hiroshima, is now working in an oil factory in Akita Prefecture, when a sudden earthquake destroys the refinery. Kawai catches a glimpse of a monster within a fissure before it disappears.

Meanwhile, Dr. Bowen and his team find that the strange boy is growing in size due to intake of protein. Afraid of his strength, the scientists lock and chain the boy in a jail cell and Sueko, who really cares for him, feeds him some protein food to sustain him. Meanwhile, Dr. Bowen is visited by Kawai, who tells him that the boy could have grown from the heart of Frankenstein, as the boy was seen in Hiroshima more than once before. At Bowen's advice, Dr. Kawaji confers with the aging Dr. Riesendorf in Frankfurt. Riesendorf recommends cutting off the monster's arm or leg, speculating that a new one will grow back.

Sueko and Dr. Bowen strongly object to this method, fearing that nothing may grow back. Even when Bowen suggests that they wait a little longer to think it over, Kawaji tenaciously attempts to sever one of the limbs of the now-gigantic monster, now called "Frankenstein". He is interrupted by a TV crew, whom Kawaji allows to film the monster, though they enrage him with bright studio lights and breaks loose. Frankenstein visits Sueko at her apartment before disappearing.

Unbeknownst to Bowen and his team, the subterranean monster Baragon ravages various villages. The military and media believe this to be Frankenstein's doing, and the monster narrowly escapes being hunted down by the military. Before Bowen and his team have no choice but to dismiss Frankenstein, Kawai returns to tell them that Frankenstein may not be responsible for the disasters: it could be the monster (Baragon) he saw in Akita. He tries to convince the authorities, but to no avail. Kawaji still wishes the scientists luck in finding Frankenstein.

Bowen, Sueko, and Kawaji then form a search party of their own to find Frankenstein. To Bowen and Sueko's shock, Kawaj reveals his plans to kill Frankenstein by blinding him with grenades, in order to recover the heart and brain. Kawaji presses on to find Frankenstein but finds Baragon instead. Kawaji and Bowen try in vain to stop the monster with the grenades, and when it is about to eat Sueko, Frankenstein arrives and saves her. The monsters battle until the earth beneath them collapses and swallows them. Kawaji states the immortal heart will live on and they may one day see him again but Bowen believes Frankenstein is better off dead.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Furuhata and Nakajima on-set with the special effects crew.

Toho had always been interested in the Frankenstein character as, in 1961, producer Tomoyuki Tanaka commissioned a film project called Frankenstein vs. the Human Vapor. Acting as a sequel to the 1960 film The Human Vapor, the Mizuno character from that film finds the Frankenstein Monster's body, and revives him, so that he can help him use the Frankenstein formula to revive his beloved girlfriend Fujichiyo (who had died at the end of said film). As a rough draft of the story was being written by Takeshi Kimura (using the pen name Kaoru Mabuchi), it was ultimately cancelled before the draft was finished.

In 1962, Toho purchased a script from an independent producer from America named John Beck called King Kong vs Prometheus. Beck had stolen the story treatment (which was originally called King Kong meets Frankenstein)[8] from Willis O'Brien and had George Worthing Yates flesh it out into a screenplay.[9] Toho wanted to have King Kong fight their own monster Godzilla instead of the Frankenstein giant in the original story and, after working out a deal with Beck as well as RKO, the copyright holder of King Kong at the time, produced King Kong vs. Godzilla.[10]

Influenced by the concept of the giant Frankenstein monster from the King Kong vs. Prometheus story, Toho planned on making Frankenstein vs. Godzilla as a follow up to King Kong vs. Godzilla. Written in 1963 by Kimura, the story dealt with the heart of the original Frankenstein monster becoming irradiated and growing into a Frankenstein-monster giant. Afraid the giant would start eating people, Godzilla would be freed from an icy prison by the JSDF and goaded into a fight with the monster in hopes of killing him. Even though King Kong vs. Godzilla had already been made with Godzilla escaping from an iceberg that he was trapped in at the end of Godzilla Raids Again, script writer Mabuchi thought with Godzilla disappearing into the ocean at the end of that film, that the idea of Godzilla becoming frozen in the North Sea into another icy prison could still work. The story would end with natural disasters defeating the monsters as Godzilla disappears into a raging river flow, and the Frankenstein giant disappears into magma caused by an erupting volcano.[11][12][13]

Toho was not fond of the logistics of the story, so the idea was dropped. When the Godzilla series would resume a year later in 1964, Mothra was brought in as Godzilla's next opponent for the film Mothra vs. Godzilla instead.

In 1965, they would finally co-produce the story with financial backing from Henry G. Saperstein's film company Henry G. Saperstein Enterprises into this film. A new dinosaurian opponent named Baragon was created to replace Godzilla as Frankenstein's opponent, and the script was slightly altered. Most of the concepts from the original story treatment were retained in this version such as the irradiated heart of the monster, the monster's relentless pursuit of food, and a natural disaster defeating the monster during the climax. In addition, most of the characters from the original story such as research scientist Dr. Bowen (played by Nick Adams), would be retained. In the American version, Jerry Sohl would get credit for a synopsis and executive producer Reuben Bercovitch would get credit for the story.[4]

Koji Furuhata earned the role of Frankenstein's monster through an open audition. Furuhata wore green contact lenses to emulate a Caucasian look, a flat-head prosthetic and brow resembling Jack Pierce's Frankenstein design, and large shirts and loincloths. Honda had originally wanted to explore more of the science-gone-wrong theme but was forced to change the story in the middle to reach a climactic monster battle.[14] Nick Adams delivered all of his lines in English while everyone else delivered their lines in Japanese.[2]

Alternate ending[edit]

Henry G. Saperstein had requested an alternative ending for the international release in which Frankenstein battled a giant octopus. This resulted in the cast and crew being reassembled after principal photography and post-production had wrapped, as well as building a new set and creating the octopus. Despite filming the new ending, Saperstein ended up cutting it regardless because he believed the octopus "wasn't that good".[3]

When the film was in production, trade magazines listed this film's title as Frankenstein vs. the Giant Devilfish. Honda had stated the reason why the octopus ending was initially requested was because the American co-producers were "astonished" by the octopus scene in King Kong vs. Godzilla and wanted a similar scene. Honda also confirmed that various endings were shot, stating: "In fact Mr. Tsuburaya had shot five or six final scenes for this film. The infamous giant octopus is only one of these endings." Honda also expressed that the alternate ending was never intended to be released on the Japanese version, stating: "there was never any official plan to utilize the sequence; but an alternative print with that ending was accidentally aired on television surprising many Japanese fans because it was not the ending they had remembered from the original theatrical release."[15]

When Benedict Pictures would co-produce the film's sequel The War of the Gargantuas with Toho the following year, an octopus sequence would be shot again (a marine-based battle between the Oodako and Gaira) that would remain intact in both versions of the film.

Release[edit]

The film was released in Japan on August 8, 1965, 2 days after the 20th anniversary of the Hiroshima bombing.[4] The film grossed ¥93 million during its Japanese theatrical run.[3] The film was released theatrically in the United States as Frankenstein Conquers the World on July 8, 1966 by American International Pictures.[16] This version was dubbed in English by Titra Studios and restored Adams' original English dialogue.[1]

Home media[edit]

In June 2007, Tokyo Shock released Frankenstein Conquers the World on a 2-disc DVD, the first time the film was released on DVD in North America. This version includes the original Japanese theatrical version, the original American English version from American International Pictures (running at 84 minutes), and the international version with the alternate octopus ending (running at 93 minutes). All three versions were presented in widescreen. The international version (titled Frankenstein vs. the Giant Devilfish) features an audio commentary by Sadamasa Arikawa, the film's special effects photographer. Disc two features two Japanese trailers, deleted scenes, and a photo gallery, which was provided by Ed Godziszewski (editor of Japanese Giants and author of The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Godzilla).[1]

In November 2017, Toho released the film on Blu-ray in Japan. This release also includes an HD remaster of the international version, Frankenstein vs. the Giant Devilfish.[17]

Sequel[edit]

The following year, Toho released a sequel titled The War of the Gargantuas, also co-produced with UPA. In the film, pieces of Frankenstein's cells mutate into two giant humanoid monsters: Sanda (the Brown Gargantua) and Gaira (the Green Gargantua). The former is a benevolent and peace-loving creature, the latter is murderous and savage. Apart from a reference to a severed hand, UPA obscured all references to Frankenstein in the American version and the names of the monsters were changed to the Brown Gargantua and the Green Gargantua. Gaira and Sanda would later appear in two of Toho's tokusatsu series, Ike! Godman and Ike! Greenman, before remaining absent for over 40 years, with Gaira making his latest appearance in a 2008 Ike! Greenman special.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ During filming, Nick Adams delivered all of his lines in English, however, he was dubbed over by Gorō Naya for the film's Japanese release.[2] Adams' original English dialogue was restored for the film's American release.[1]
  1. ^ a b c d e Aiken, Keith (April 13, 2007). "Frankenstein Conquers the World Final DVD Specs". SciFi Japan. Retrieved December 19, 2017.
  2. ^ a b Ryfle & Godziszewski 2017, p. 223.
  3. ^ a b c Ryfle & Godziszewski 2017, p. 226.
  4. ^ a b c Ryfle & Godziszewski 2017, p. 224.
  5. ^ Galbraith IV 2008, p. 225.
  6. ^ Ryfle & Godziszewski 2017, p. 302.
  7. ^ Galbraith IV 1998, p. 181.
  8. ^ Cotta Vaz 2005, p. 361.
  9. ^ Steve Archer. Willis O'Brien: Special Effects Genius. Mcfarland, 1993.
  10. ^ "Willis O'Brien-Creator of the Impossible" by Don Shay. Cinefex #7 R.B Graphics. 1982. pp. 69–70
  11. ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 119.
  12. ^ Ryfle 1998, p. 120.
  13. ^ Ryfle & Godziszewski 2017, p. 234.
  14. ^ Ryfle & Godziszewski 2017, p. 225.
  15. ^ Memories of Ishiro Honda. Twenty Years After The Passing Of Godzilla's Famed Director by Hajime Ishida. Famous Monsters of Filmland #269. Movieland Classics LLC, 2013. Pg. 21
  16. ^ Galbraith IV 2008, p. 221.
  17. ^ "ビデオの日記念!『日本のいちばん長い日』『激動の昭和史 沖縄決戦』『マタンゴ』『フランケンシュタイン対地底怪獣(バラゴン)』『モスラ3部作』が待望の初ブルーレイ化". Tower Records. Retrieved December 19, 2017.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cotta Vaz, Mark (2005). Living Dangerously: The Adventures of Merian C. Cooper, Creator of King Kong. Villard. ISBN 978-1-4000-6276-8.
  • Famous Monsters of Filmland. June 1966 (#39). Cover, and p. 10–24. (pictures & plot summary)
  • Galbraith IV, Stuart (1998). Monsters Are Attacking Tokyo! The Incredible World of Japanese Fantasy Films. Feral House. ISBN 0922915474.
  • Galbraith IV, Stuart (2008). The Toho Studios Story: A History and Complete Filmography. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 1461673747.
  • Kalat, David (2010). A Critical History and Filmography of Toho's Godzilla Series (2nd Edition). McFarland. ISBN 9780786447497.
  • Ragone, August (2007). Eiji Tsuburaya: Master of Monsters. Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-6078-9.
  • Ryfle, Steve (1998). Japan’s Favorite Mon-Star: The Unauthorized Biography of the Big G. ECW Press. ISBN 1550223488.
  • Ryfle, Steve; Godziszewski, Ed (2017). Ishiro Honda: A Life in Film, from Godzilla to Kurosawa. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 9780819570871.

External links[edit]