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Some of Asimov's science fiction short stories and novels predict that this suspicion will become strongest and most widespread in respect of "mechanical men" that most-closely resemble human beings (see android), but it is also present on a lower level against robots that are plainly electromechanical automatons.
The name, "Frankenstein Complex", is derived from the name of Victor Frankenstein in the novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus by Mary Shelley in about the year 1818. In Shelley's story, Frankenstein created an intelligent, somewhat superhuman being, but he finds that his creation is horrifying to behold and abandons it. This ultimately leads to Victor's death at the conclusion of a vendetta between himself and his creation.
In much of his fiction, Dr. Asimov depicts the general attitude of the public towards robots as negative, with ordinary people fearing that robots will either replace them or dominate them, although dominance would not be allowed under the specifications of the Three Laws of Robotics, the first of which is:
- "A robot may not harm a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm."
However, Asimov's fictitious earthly public is not fully persuaded by this, and remains largely suspicious and fearful of robots. I, Robot's short story "Little Lost Robot" is about this "fear of robots".
In Asimov's robot novels, the Frankenstein Complex is a major problem for roboticists and robot manufacturers. They do all they can to reassure the public that robots are harmless, even though this sometimes involves hiding the truth because they think that the public would misunderstand it. The fear by the public and the response of the manufacturers is an example of the theme of paternalism, the dread of paternalism, and the conflicts that arise from it in Asimov's fiction.
The same theme occurs in many later works of fiction featuring robots, although it is rarely referred to as such.
Examples of human hostility towards robots have occurred in real life; for example, in an area in which self-driving cars were being tested, the residents vandalized those vehicles.
- Frankenstein argument – an argument against engineered intelligent beings (but not specifically robots)
- Uncanny valley – a hypothesis that posits a gap in emotional response to things created to resemble humans that fall short of perfect mimicry.
- Jean-Jacques Lecercle, Frankenstein: Mythe et Philosophie (Press Universitaires de France, 1997)
- Shuntaro, Ono, Frankenstein Complex: what can change someone into a monster(Seisoushobou, 2009) 小野俊太郎『フランケンシュタイン・コンプレックス』（青草書房 2009年）
- Olander, editors Patricia Warrick, Martin Harry Greenberg, Joseph (1978). Science fiction : contemporary mythology : the SFWA-SFRA (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row. pp. 252. ISBN 0-06-046943-9.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- MacDorman, Karl F.; Chattopadhyay, Debaleena (2016). "Reducing consistency in human realism increases the uncanny valley effect; increasing category uncertainty does not". Cognition. 146: 190–205. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2015.09.019. PMID 26435049.
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- Mori, M. (1970/2012). The uncanny valley (K. F. MacDorman & N. Kageki, Trans.). IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 19(2), 98–100. doi:10.1109/MRA.2012.2192811
- O'Hara, Caitlin. "Arizonians Attack Waymo's Self-Driving Cars". The Daily Beast.