Frankie Muse Freeman
Frankie Muse Freeman
Marie Frankie Muse
November 24, 1916
Danville, Virginia, U.S.
|Died||January 12, 2018 (aged 101)|
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
National Urban League
Delta Sigma Theta sorority
Epsilon Sigma Iota Sorority
|Movement||Civil Rights Movement|
Marie Frankie Muse Freeman (née Muse; November 24, 1916 – January 12, 2018) was an American civil rights attorney, and the first woman to be appointed to the United States Commission on Civil Rights (1964–79), a federal fact-finding body that investigates complaints alleging discrimination. Freeman was instrumental in creating the Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights founded in 1982. She was a practicing attorney in State and Federal courts for nearly sixty years.
In 2007, Freeman was inducted in the International Civil Rights Walk of Fame at the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site, Atlanta, Georgia, for her leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement.
This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. (January 2018)
The daughter of William Brown Muse and Maude Beatrice Smith Muse, Frankie came from a college-educated family. She was born and grew up in Danville, Virginia, where she attended Westmoreland School and learned to play the piano. At age sixteen, Muse enrolled in her mother's alma mater, Hampton Institute, which she attended between 1933 and 1936. In 1944, she was admitted to Howard University Law School and received a law degree in 1947. While a student at Howard Law, Freeman became a member of Epsilon Sigma Iota sorority, the first American legal sorority for women of color.
In 1948, after writing to several law firms and not hearing back from them, Muse decided to establish her own private practice. She began her practice with pro bono, divorce and criminal cases. After two years, Freeman began her work in civil rights when she became legal counsel to the NAACP legal team that filed suit against the St. Louis Board of Education in 1949. In 1954, Freeman was the lead attorney for the landmark NAACP case Davis et al. v. the St. Louis Housing Authority, which ended legal racial discrimination in public housing with the city. Settling in St. Louis, Freeman worked as staff attorney for the St. Louis Land Clearance and Housing Authorities from 1956–70, first as associate general counsel and later as general counsel of the St. Louis Housing Authority.
In March 1964, she was nominated by President Lyndon Johnson as a member of the United States Commission on Civil Rights. On September 15, 1964, the Senate approved Freeman's nomination and she was officially appointed as the first black woman on the civil rights commission. Freeman was subsequently reappointed by presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter, and held the position until July 1979.
She was appointed as Inspector General for the Community Services Administration during Jimmy Carter's presidential administration in 1979. A year later, the Republican Ronald Reagan was elected president and demanded the resignation of Democratic inspectors general appointed by previous presidents.
Freeman returned to St. Louis, where she practiced law. In 1982, Freeman joined 15 other former high federal officials who formed a bipartisan Citizens Commission on Civil Rights, a group committed to ending racial discrimination and devising remedies that would counteract its harmful effects.
At age 90, she was still practicing law with Montgomery Hollie & Associates, L.L.C. in St. Louis, a three-attorney firm. She had numerous volunteer activities, such as adult Sunday school classes at Washington Tabernacle Missionary Baptist Church. She was on the board of the World Affairs Councils of America, St. Louis, with the mission to promote understanding, engagement, relationships, and leadership in world affairs.
Freeman was a Trustee Emeritus of the Board of Trustees of Howard University, past Chairman of the Board of Directors of the National Council on Aging, Inc. and the National Urban League of Metropolitan St. Louis. She was also a board member of the United Way of Greater St. Louis, the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum District, and the St. Louis Center for International Relations.
Legacy and honors
- Freeman received honorary doctorate degrees from several institutions to include Hampton University, University of Missouri–St. Louis, Saint Louis University, Washington University in St. Louis and Howard University.
- 1990: Inducted into the National Bar Association's Hall of Fame.
- 2011: Received the Spingarn Medal of the NAACP.
- 2014: Received the Spirit of Excellence Award from the American Bar Association Commission on Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Profession.
Sister Freeman had the honor of having a statue erected in downtown St. Louis in Kiener Plaza, at 500 Chestnut Street, with an unveiling date of November 21, 2017. The honor was presented by the NAACP and had many patrons to include Washington Tabernacle Missionary Baptist Church where Sister Freeman was an active member.
- "Frankie Muse Freeman, iconic St. Louis civil rights activist, dies at 101". Stltoday.com. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "International Civil Rights Walk of Fame". Gainformer.com. Retrieved 13 January 2018.[permanent dead link]
- "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts". whitehouse.gov. 5 February 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2018 – via National Archives.
- DeBardelaben, LaNesha NeGale (2008). ""Frankie Freeman Muse"". In Gates Jr., Henry (ed.). African American National Biography. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. Online.
- Holland, Elizabethe (15 Jan 2012). "At 95, Citizen of Year Frankie Freeman continues to serve". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
- Citizens' Commission on Civil Rights Archived 2008-02-09 at the Wayback Machine, Cccr.org; accessed January 13, 2018.
- Ashley Jost (2016-12-17). "St. Louis civil rights leader receives honorary degree from Mizzou". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
- "Committees of the Board - Office of the Secretary - Howard University". Howard.edu. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "SLU honors the Aronsons, the Joneses and Freeman - St. Louis Business…".
- "Charter Day 2004 - Howard University". Howard.edu. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "Commission on Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Profession". Americanbar.org. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "News". News.msn.com. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
- "Bronze statue honors longtime attorney, civil rights advocate Frankie Muse Freedom". Stltoday.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
- The History Maker: Frankie Muse Freeman bio
- St. Louis Character: Frankie Freeman, St. Louis Business Journal