Franz von Stuck (February 23, 1863 – August 30, 1928) was a German painter, sculptor, printmaker, and architect.
Life and career
|Detail of Stuck's The Sin, showing the snake's head, Smarthistory|
Born at Tettenweis near Passau, Stuck displayed an affinity for drawing and caricature from an early age. To begin his artistic education he relocated in 1878 to Munich, where he would settle for life. From 1881 to 1885 Stuck attended the Munich Academy.
He first became well known by cartoons for Fliegende Blätter, and vignette designs for programmes and book decoration. In 1889 he exhibited his first paintings at the Munich Glass Palace, winning a gold medal for The Guardian of Paradise.
In 1892 Stuck co-founded the Munich Secession, and also executed his first sculpture, Athlete. The next year he won further acclaim with the critical and public success of what is now his best known work, the painting The Sin. Also during 1893, Stuck was awarded a gold medal for painting at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, and was appointed to a royal professorship. In 1895, he began teaching painting at the Munich Academy.
In 1897 Stuck married an American widow, Mary Lindpainter, and began work designing his own residence and studio, the Villa Stuck. His designs for the villa included everything from layout to interior decorations; for his furniture Stuck received another gold medal at the 1900 Paris World Exposition.
Having attained a high public profile by this time, Stuck was ennobled on December 9, 1905, and would receive further public honours from around Europe during the remainder of his life. He continued to be well respected among young artists as professor at the Munich Academy, even after his artistic styles became unfashionable. His students over the years included Paul Klee, Hans Purrmann, Wassily Kandinsky, Alf Bayrle and Josef Albers.
Franz von Stuck died on August 30, 1928, in Munich; his funeral address memorialized him as "the last prince of art of Munich's great days". He is buried in the Munich Waldfriedhof next to his wife Mary.
Stuck's subject matter was primarily from mythology, inspired by the work of Arnold Böcklin. Large forms dominate most of his paintings and indicate his proclivities for sculpture. His seductive female nudes are a prime example of popular Symbolist content. Stuck paid much attention to the frames for his paintings and generally designed them himself with such careful use of panels, gilt carving and inscriptions that the frames must be considered as an integral part of the overall piece.
By the time of his death, Stuck's importance as an artist in his own right had almost been forgotten: his art seemed old-fashioned and irrelevant to a generation that had endured World War I. Stuck's reputation languished until the late 1960s when a renewed interest in Art Nouveau brought him to attention once more. In 1968 the Villa Stuck was opened to the public; it is now a museum.
Stuck's paintings were mentioned by Carl Jung, who wrote:
... Franz Stuck, whose snake-pictures bear significant titles like "Vice," "Sin," or "Lust" (see plate x). The mixture of anxiety and lust is perfectly expressed in the sultry atmosphere of these pictures,...
- "Stuck's The Sin". Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
- Anna Rosmus: Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. f
- Bracamonte, Miceala (August 8, 1997). "Franz von Stuck:The Burgher-God of Jugendstil". The Wall Street Journal, European Edition. p. 7.
- "The International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers". Mapping the Practice and Profession of Sculpture in Britain and Ireland 1851–1951. Glasgow University. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
- "Franz Stuck". Olympedia. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
- Anna Rosmus: Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 87f
- Jung, C.G. (1967). Symbols of Transformation (2nd ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-691-09775-6.
- Adam, Peter. Art of the Third Reich. New York City: Harry N. Abrams. 1992. ISBN 0-8109-2615-6.
- Gibson, Michael. Symbolism. Köln: Benedikit Taschen Verlag. 1995. ISBN 3-8228-9324-2.
- Mendgen, Eva. Von Stuck. Köln: Benedikt Taschen Verlag. 1995. ISBN 3-8228-8888-5.
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