Fraserburgh

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Fraserburgh
Fraserburgh Harbour.jpg
Fishing Fleet at Fraserburgh.jpg
Fishing Boats in Fraserburgh Harbour
Fraserburgh is located in Aberdeen
Fraserburgh
Fraserburgh
Fraserburgh shown within Aberdeenshire
Population 13,100 (2011)[1]
OS grid reference NJ997670
Council area
Lieutenancy area
Country Scotland
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town FRASERBURGH
Postcode district AB43
Dialling code 01346
Police Scottish
Fire Scottish
Ambulance Scottish
EU Parliament Scotland
UK Parliament
Scottish Parliament
Website visitfraserburgh.com
List of places
UK
Scotland
57°41′35″N 2°00′18″W / 57.693°N 2.005°W / 57.693; -2.005Coordinates: 57°41′35″N 2°00′18″W / 57.693°N 2.005°W / 57.693; -2.005

Fraserburgh (/ˈfrzərbərə/; Scots: The Broch or Faithlie;[2] Scottish Gaelic: A' Bhruaich) is a Parish town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland with a population recorded in the 2011 Census at 13,100.[3] It lies at the far northeast corner of Aberdeenshire, about 40 miles (64 km) north of Aberdeen, and 17 miles (27 km) north of Peterhead. It is the biggest shellfish port in Scotland and one of the largest in Europe, landing over 5,450 tonnes in 2016.[4] Fraserburgh is also a major port for white and pelagic fish.

History[edit]

16th and 17th century: Origins[edit]

The name of the town means, literally, 'burgh of Fraser', after the Fraser family that bought the lands of Philorth in 1504 and thereafter brought about major improvement due to investment over the next century. Fraserburgh became a burgh of barony in 1546.

By 1570, the Fraser family had built a castle (Fraserburgh Castle) at Kinnaird Head and within a year a church was built for the area. By the 1590s, the area (now known as Faithlie) had developed a small harbour.

In 1592, Faithlie was renamed Fraserburgh by a charter of the Crown under King James VI. Sir Alexander Fraser was given permission to improve and govern the town as Lord Saltoun. At present this title is still in existence and is held by Flora Fraser, 20th Lady Saltoun and head of Clan Fraser. The Royal Charter also gave permission to build a college and university in Fraserburgh allowing the Lord Saltoun to appoint a rector, a principal, a sub-principal, and all the professors for teaching the different sciences.

A grant from the Parliament of Scotland in 1595 allowed the first college building to be erected by Alexander Fraser, and in 1597 the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland recommended the Rev. Charles Ferme, then minister at the Old Parish, to be its first (and only) principal.[5]

In 1601, Fraserburgh became a burgh of regality. The college, however, closed only a decade or so after Ferme's arrest on the orders of James VI for taking part in the 1605 General Assembly of Aberdeen, being used again only for a short time in 1647 when King's College, Aberdeen temporarily relocated owing to an outbreak of plague. A plaque commemorating the University's existence may be seen at the Fraserburgh Heritage Centre.

18th and 19th century: Further growth and development[edit]

The population of Fraserburgh was growing with peaks due to seasonal employment. From a population of an estimated 1682 in 1755, a population of about 2000 was recorded in 1780, of whom 1000 resided in the town proper. There was an additional population of 200 in the village of Broadsea.[6]

In 1787, Fraserburgh Castle was converted to Kinnaird Head Lighthouse, Scotland's first mainland lighthouse and the first in Scotland to be lit by the Commissioners of Northern Lights.

In the 1790s, Rev. Alexander Simpson of the Fraserburgh Old Parish Church describes the harbour as small but good, telling that it had the capability to take vessels with '200 tons burden'. The Reverend notes that shipbuilding had become a main industry in the town, especially after 1784, and that the locals were making donations and seeking government assistance to have the harbour enlarged.[6]

In 1803, the original 1571 church building was replaced and enlarged to seat 1000 people. The Auld Kirk was to be the standing authority in the town up until the 1840s. This period also saw the extension of the harbour with a northern pier of 300 yards being built between 1807–1812 and, in 1818, a southern pier being built following an Act of Parliament.

Fraserburgh's population boomed in the early 19th Century, from 2271 in 1811 to 2954 by 1831. This was primarily put down to the growth in herring fishing, which intensified in 1815. The herring season also brought with it an additional 1200 people working in the Parish. Contemporary accounts mention the increase in general wealth brought by this increased trade spurring a change in dress and diet as well as a considerable amount of new houses being built in the town.

No less than £30,000 was spent developing the harbour between 1807 and 1840 by which time the harbour held eight vessels of 45–155 tons and 220 boats of the herring fishery.[7]

Lifeboat service[edit]

The town has had a local lifeboat on service since 1806 which was run privately by the local Harbour Board until the first RNLI operated station opened in 1858. This was the first official RNLI station opened in Scotland.

Throughout the 20th century, Fraserburgh suffered three lifeboat disasters. First, in 1919, the 'Lady Rothes' capsized while assisting H.M. Drifter Eminent. Coxswain Andrew Noble and Acting Second Coxswain Andrew Faquhar drowned.[8][9] Second, on 9 February 1953, six crew members lost their lives when the lifeboat capsized while escorting fishing vessels to the harbour. On this occasion Coxswain Andrew Ritchie, Mechanic George Duthie, Bowman Charles Tait, Assistant Mechanic James Noble and Crew Members John Crawford and John Buchan all lost their lives - the only survivor was Charles Tait. Lastly, on 21 January 1970 while on service to the Danish fishing vessel Opal, the lifeboat The Duchess of Kent capsized with the loss of five of her crew of six. Those killed were Coxswain John Stephen, Mechanic Frederick Kirkness and Crew Members William Hadden, James RS Buchan and James Buchan.[10]

In 2009, a local campaign was started to raise £40,000 to erect an official monument to the 14 men who lost their lives whilst serving on the Fraserburgh Lifeboat. The target was successfully achieved and the monument unveiled by Flora Fraser, 21st Lady Saltoun in August 2010.

Railways[edit]

Fraserburgh railway station opened in 1865 and closed to passengers in 1965. The railway line was built by the Formartine and Buchan Railway Company, which became part of the Great North of Scotland Railway. Trains operated to Aberdeen via Maud and Dyce, as well as a short branch line to St. Combs via Cairnbulg. In 1923 the GNSR was incorporated into the London and North Eastern Railway, which was in turn nationalised on 1 January 1948. Passenger services on the Buchan lines were withdrawn in 1965 as part of the Beeching cuts, although freight trains continued to operate Fraserburgh until 1979. The track was subsequently lifted.

Following the opening of the Borders Railway in September 2015, Fraserburgh became the most distant town in UK from the rail network, leading to calls for the lifted track to be reinstated.[11] The nearest operating station is currently Inverurie, 56 km (35 miles) away.

Climate[edit]

Fraserburgh has a marine climate heavily influenced by its proximity to the sea. As such, summer highs and winter lows are heavily moderated, with very mild winter temperatures for a location so far north. The differences between seasons are very narrow as a result, with February averaging highs of 6.7 °C (44.1 °F) and August 17.2 °C (63.0 °F).[12]

As a result of its marine influence, there is significant seasonal lag, with September being milder than June, and October having slightly milder nights than May, in spite of a considerable difference in the length of daylight. The climate is overcast and wet with and average of 1351.8 hours of sunshine per year. Temperature extremes have ranged from 26.6.C (July 1995) down to -14.4.C (February 1991) 747.7 millimetres (29.44 in) of precipitation per annum.[12]

Climate data for Fraserburgh 14m asl, 1981–2010
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.2
(57.6)
14.6
(58.3)
17.7
(63.9)
21.0
(69.8)
22.5
(72.5)
25.2
(77.4)
26.6
(79.9)
24.9
(76.8)
23.7
(74.7)
19.4
(66.9)
17.9
(64.2)
14.9
(58.8)
26.6
(79.9)
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
6.7
(44.1)
8.2
(46.8)
9.8
(49.6)
12.3
(54.1)
14.4
(57.9)
16.8
(62.2)
17.2
(63)
14.9
(58.8)
12.3
(54.1)
9.4
(48.9)
7.5
(45.5)
11.4
(52.5)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
2.2
(36)
2.7
(36.9)
4.3
(39.7)
6.6
(43.9)
9.0
(48.2)
11.0
(51.8)
11.4
(52.5)
9.4
(48.9)
6.9
(44.4)
4.6
(40.3)
3.1
(37.6)
6.1
(43)
Record low °C (°F) −12.5
(9.5)
−14.8
(5.4)
−10.2
(13.6)
−4.3
(24.3)
−2.1
(28.2)
−0.3
(31.5)
3.2
(37.8)
2.7
(36.9)
−1.3
(29.7)
−4.6
(23.7)
−8.8
(16.2)
−12.0
(10.4)
−14.8
(5.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 65.2
(2.567)
54.4
(2.142)
55.6
(2.189)
58.4
(2.299)
49.0
(1.929)
48.0
(1.89)
62.9
(2.476)
51.2
(2.016)
62.3
(2.453)
89.7
(3.531)
82.7
(3.256)
68.3
(2.689)
747.7
(29.437)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 41.8 73.6 113.4 145.8 198.5 168.5 160.6 161.6 126.8 85.4 48.7 27.2 1,351.8
Source: Met Office[13]

Fraserburgh is also notable for having the highest ever recorded wind speed in the UK at a low altitude. The 142 miles per hour (229 km/h) gust was recorded on 13 February 1989 at Kinnaird Head Lighthouse.[14] The corresponding hourly mean speed was 78 miles per hour (126 km/h).[15]

Places of Interest[edit]

The town has several attractions including an award-winning beach,[16] a major commercial harbour, Kinnaird Head Lighthouse, The Museum of Scottish Lighthouses, Fraserburgh Heritage Centre and the community war memorial by famed Scottish sculptor Alexander Carrick.

Fraserburgh is also home to a variety of impressive 19th Century churches, each in its own distinct style. This includes: Fraserburgh Baptist Church; Fraserburgh Old Parish Church (the oldest); Our Lady, Star of the Sea Roman Catholic Church; South Church; St Peter's Episcopal Church; and West Church.[17]

Photo gallery[edit]

Sports and Recreation[edit]

Bellslea Park

Fraserburgh has a number of sporting facilities including a swimming pool, ten-pin bowling alley, tennis courts, martial arts dojo, skatepark and football pitches.

Golf[edit]

Fraserburgh Golf Club is the fifth oldest club in Scotland and seventh oldest in the world, having been founded by 1777.[18] It has both an 18-hole and a 9-hole course, and a modern clubhouse. There is also a nearby driving range and cafe.

Football[edit]

Fraserburgh Football Club is a senior football club that plays in the Highland League. Fraserburgh United F.C. is a junior football club that plays in the Scottish Junior Football North Premier League (also known as the North Superleague).

Cricket[edit]

Fraserburgh Cricket Club was founded in 1862 and currently competes in the Aberdeenshire Grades Leagues. They play their home matches at Kessock Park. The club celebrated their 150th anniversary in 2012 and also succeeded in gaining promotion to Grade 2.

In 2013 Fraserburgh Cricket Club won the Bon Accord Cup for only the second time in their history with a close fought victory over Knightriders CC. In 2014, Fraserburgh Cricket Club gained promotion to Grade 1 by finishing second in Grade 2, meaning that they would play in the top tier of the Aberdeenshire Grades for the first time since 1975.

The club were relegated to Grade 2 in 2015, and have remained there to the present.

Port[edit]

Fraserburgh is a major white fish port and busy commercial harbour.

The harbour boasts a state of the art six berth slipway facility, storm gates, a large drydock, and fully refrigerated fish market facilities.[19]

A seafarers charity Apostleship of the Sea has a port chaplain in Fraserburgh.

Education[edit]

The town has a variety of educational establishments, including four primary schools (Fraserburgh North School, Fraserburgh South Park School, Lochpots School, St Andrew's School), a secondary school (Fraserburgh Academy), a SEN school (Westfield School), and a college of further education (North East Scotland College).

For the short-lived Fraserburgh University see above under History.

Fraserburgh Academy[edit]

The original academy building was opened in 1909. A new, more modern, school was built in the 1950s, and the original building was repurposed to house the academy's art and drama departments. The school has had many successes these past few years including having several of its pupils gaining prizes over a number of years in a nationwide photography competition - Focus Environment.

In early 2009, a group of MPs from the Scottish Parliament held a petition committee meeting in the school. Also in early 2009, the art department of the school organised commemorate photo exhibition in memory Glover's early years of living in Fraserburgh. These photos were displayed throughout the town, and some of the photos are being used as part of the Homecoming Scotland campaign. See article - Thomas Blake Glover

In September 2009, the school had a visit from the Poet Laureate Carol Ann Duffy who gave a speech to pupils from the school and others from the whole of Aberdeenshire.

Religion[edit]

Christianity is the prevalent religion in Fraserburgh and it is home to many congregations from a wide variety of Christian denominations. This includes three Church of Scotland congregations and four Pentecostal congregations (Elim Pentecostal, Assembly of God, Calvary Chapel and Emmanuel Christian Fellowship). Additionally, there are also congregations of Baptists, Roman Catholics, Scottish Episcopalians, Evangelists, Congregationalists, Brethren, Jehovah's Witnesses and Salvationists.

Politics[edit]

Notable people[edit]

  • George Bruce (1909–2002): Poet of the Scottish literary renaissance[21]
  • Martin Dickie MBE: Co-founder of Brewdog.[22]
  • Henry Duthie MBE (born 1923): founding member of FJAS, Boys' Brigade stalwart, and Chairman of Fraserburgh 400.
  • Steve Fairnie (1951–1993) : Fraserburgh born musician, painter, sculptor, actor, board game designer, chicken hypnotist, frontman of the post-punk band Writz and half of the Techno Twins.
  • Rev. Charles Ferm (c.1565–1617): born in Edinburgh; Minister of Fraserburgh Old Parish Church (1598–1617), Principal of the University of Fraserburgh. A notable rebel minister against Episcopacy.
  • William Fraser, 12th Lord Saltoun (1654–1715): born in Philorth; voted against ratifying the Treaty of Union.
  • Bill Gibb (1943–1988): born near Fraserburgh; became international fashion designer[23][24]
  • Thomas Blake Glover (1838–1911): born in Fraserburgh, where his father worked for the coastguard, moved to Japan and assisted in the introduction of modern industries. He remained in the country as a consultant to the Mitsubishi Company and died in Tokyo, a legend in his time.
  • Charles Alfred Jarvis Recipient of the Victoria Cross. He was the first person to be awarded a VC during the First World War.
  • Robertson Macaulay (1833–1915): one time president of Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada).
  • Colonel William McConnachie of Knowsie, JP (1848–1932): businessman, local politician and Provost of Fraserburgh.
  • Charles Rawden Maclean (1815–1880), alias "John Ross" opponent of slavery, was born in Fraserburgh[25]
  • Major Harold J. Milne, OBE, MC, DL, JP (1889–1963): Provost of Fraserburgh, First Freeman of the Burgh of Fraserburgh.
  • Dennis Nilsen (1945–2018): serial killer;[26] born at Academy Road, Fraserburgh; committed his murders in London in the five years leading up to his arrest in 1983.[27]
  • James Ramsay (1733–89): born in Fraserburgh; anti-slavery campaigner.
  • Sir George Strahan (1838–87): born in Fraserburgh; British colonial governor.
  • Christian Watt (1833–1923): author of 'Christian Watt diaries'
  • James Watt MBE: Co-founder of Brewdog [22]
  • Joseph Watt (1887–1955): Gardenstown born; recipient of the Victoria Cross 15 May 1917[28]

Twin towns[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aberdeenshire Council, Fraserburgh - 2011 Census accessed 3 January 2018
  2. ^ The Online Scots Dictionary
  3. ^ Aberdeenshire Council Information and Research Team - Fraserburgh, Census 2011 accessed 3 January 2018
  4. ^ Fishing Industry Statistics Aberdeenshire Council (December 2017)
  5. ^ (ed.) Thomson, Thomas, Acts and Proceedings of the General Assemblies of the Kirk of Scotland, Church of Scotland General Assembly, Edinburgh, 1845.
  6. ^ a b The Statistical Account on the Parish of Fraserburgh, between 1791–1799 (probably 1791) by Rev. Alexander Simpson of the Fraserburgh Old Parish Church
  7. ^ The Statistical Account on the Parish of Fraserburgh (January 1840) by Rev. John Cumming of the Fraserburgh Old Parish Church
  8. ^ "Losses to Shipping and Property". The Times (42086). London. 1919-04-29. p. 7.
  9. ^ "Notable Dates in History". The Flag in the Wind. The Scots Independent. Archived from the original on 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 August 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  11. ^ Peterhead and Fraserburgh most distant towns in UK from rail network Evening Express (7 September 2015)
  12. ^ a b "Fraserburgh climate information". Met Office. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
  13. ^ "Fraserburgh climate information". Met Office. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
  14. ^ Where are the windiest places in the UK? Met Office, accessed on 8 January 2018
  15. ^ Eastern Scotland: Regional Climate Met Office, accessed on 8 January 2018
  16. ^ Beaches Aberdeenshire Council, accessed 8 January 2018
  17. ^ Places of Worship in Scotland accessed 8 January 2018
  18. ^ Scottish Golf History, 1777 Fraserburgh Golf Club (1881) accessed 3 January 2017
  19. ^ Fraserburgh Harbour Commissioners: History accessed 8 January 2017
  20. ^ Ward 3 - Fraserburgh and District Archived 13 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. www.aberdeenshire.gov.uk, accessed 28 July 2009
  21. ^ George Bruce Poet of the Scottish literary renaissance independent.co.uk, 29 July 2002
  22. ^ a b "BrewDog founders Martin Dickie and James Watt collar MBE honours". www.bbc.co.uk. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  23. ^ Bill Gibb - Fashion fraserburghheritage.com, accessed 31 October 2008
  24. ^ Back in vogue - Bill Gibb scotsman.com, 15 October 2008
  25. ^ "John Ross Memorial". Fraserburgh Heritage Centre. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  26. ^ 1983: Nilsen 'strangled and mutilated' victims BBC News, accessed 31 October 2008
  27. ^ Famous Criminals Archived 12 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. crimeandinvestigation.co.uk, accessed 31 October 2008
  28. ^ Joseph Watt findagrave.com, accessed 31 October 2008

External links[edit]