Page semi-protected

Fred Rogers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search


Fred Rogers
Fred Rogers, late 1960s.jpg
Rogers on the set of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in the late 1960s
Born
Fred McFeely Rogers

(1928-03-20)March 20, 1928
DiedFebruary 27, 2003(2003-02-27) (aged 74)
Other namesMister Rogers
Alma materRollins College
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
OccupationChildren's television presenter, actor, puppeteer, singer, composer, television producer, author, educator, Presbyterian minister
Years active1951–2001
Spouse(s)
Joanne Byrd (m. 1952)
Children2
Official nameFred McFeely Rogers (1928–2003)
TypeRoadside
DesignatedJune 25, 2016
Signature
FredRogersSignature.svg

Fred McFeely Rogers (March 20, 1928 – February 27, 2003) was an American television personality, musician, puppeteer, writer, producer, and Presbyterian minister. He was known as the creator, composer, producer, head writer, showrunner and host of the preschool television series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (1968–2001). The show featured Rogers's kind, neighborly persona,[1] which nurtured his connection to the audience.[2] Rogers would end each program by telling his viewers, "You've made this day a special day, by just your being you. There's no person in the whole world like you; and I like you just the way you are."[3]

Trained and ordained as a minister, Rogers was displeased with the way television addressed children. He began to write and perform local Pittsburgh-area shows for youth. In 1968, Eastern Educational Television Network began nationwide distribution of Rogers's new show on WQED. Over the course of three decades, Rogers became a television icon of children's entertainment and education.[4]

Rogers advocated various public causes. In the Betamax case, the U.S. Supreme Court cited Rogers's prior testimony before a lower court in favor of fair-use television show recording (now called time shifting). Rogers also testified before a U.S. Senate committee to advocate for government funding of children's television.[5]

Rogers received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, 40 honorary degrees,[6] and a Peabody Award. He was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame and was recognized in two congressional resolutions. He was ranked number 35 of the TV Guide's Fifty Greatest TV Stars of All Time.[7] Several buildings and artworks in Pennsylvania are dedicated to his memory, and the Smithsonian Institution displays one of his trademark sweaters as a "Treasure of American History". On June 25, 2016, the Fred Rogers Historical Marker was placed near Latrobe, Pennsylvania in his memory.[8]

Early life

Main Street, Latrobe, Pennsylvania, Rogers's birthplace.
Photo of Fred Rogers as a senior in high school.

Rogers was born on March 20, 1928, in Latrobe, Pennsylvania 40 miles (65 km) southeast of Pittsburgh, at 705 Main Street,[9] to James and Nancy Rogers. James was "a very successful businessman"[10] who was president of the McFeely Brick Company, one of Latrobe's largest businesses. Nancy's father, Fred Brooks McFeely, after whom Rogers was named, was an entrepreneur.[11] Nancy knitted sweaters for American soldiers from western Pennsylvania who were fighting in Europe and regularly volunteered at the Latrobe Hospital. Initially dreaming of becoming a doctor, she settled for a life of hospital volunteer work. Rogers grew up in a three-story brick mansion at 737 Weldon Street in Latrobe.[12][9] He had a sister, Elaine, who was adopted by the Rogerses when he was 11 years old.[12] Rogers spent much of his childhood alone, playing with puppets and spending time with his grandfather. He learned how to play the piano when he was five years old.[6]

Rogers had a difficult childhood; he had a shy, introverted personality and was overweight. He was frequently homebound after suffering bouts of asthma.[10] He was bullied and taunted as a child for his weight, and was called "Fat Freddy."[13] According to Morgan Neville, director of the 2018 documentary Won't You Be My Neighbor?, Rogers had a "lonely childhood... I think he made friends with himself as much as he could. He had a ventriloquist dummy, he had [stuffed] animals, and he would create his own worlds in his childhood bedroom."[13]

Rogers attended Latrobe High School, where he overcame his shyness.[14] "It was tough for me at the beginning," Rogers told NPR's Terry Gross in 1984. "And then I made a couple friends who found out that the core of me was OK. And one of them was...the head of the football team."[15] Rogers served as president of the student council, was a member of the National Honor Society and was editor-in-chief of the school yearbook.[14] He attended Dartmouth College for one year before transferring to Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida; he graduated magna cum laude [11] in 1951 with a degree in music composition.[6]

Rogers graduated from Pittsburgh Theological Seminary and was ordained a minister of the United Presbyterian Church in 1963.[16]

Television career

External audio
Terry Gross and Fred Rogers, Fresh Air with Terry Gross[17]

Early work

Rogers wanted to enter seminary after college, but instead chose to go into television, after encountering one at his parents' home in Latrobe in 1951. In an interview with CNN, Rogers said, "I went into television because I hated it so, and I thought there's some way of using this fabulous instrument to nurture those who would watch and listen".[18][note 1] After graduating in 1951, he worked at NBC in New York City, as floor director of Your Hit Parade, The Kate Smith Hour, and Gabby Hayes' children's show, and as an assistant producer of The Voice of Firestone.[21][22][23]

WQED headquarters in Pittsburgh

In 1953, Rogers returned to Pittsburgh to work as a program developer at public television station WQED. Josie Carey worked with Rogers to develop the children's show The Children's Corner, which Carey hosted. He worked off-camera with Carey to develop the puppets, characters, and music for show. Rogers used many of the puppet characters developed during this time, such as Daniel the Striped Tiger (named for WQED's station manager, Dorothy Daniel, who gave Rogers a tiger puppet before the show's premiere),[24] King Friday XIII, Queen Sara Saturday (named for Rogers' wife),[25] X the Owl, Henrietta, and Lady Elaine, in his later work.[26][27] Children's television entertainer Ernie Coombs was an assistant puppeteer.[28] The Children's Hour won a Sylvania Award for best locally produced children's show in 1955 and was broadcast nationally on NBC.[29][30][31] While working on The Children's Hour, Rogers attended Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, and was ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1963. He also attended the University of Pittsburgh's Graduate School of Child Development,[32][31] when he began working with child psychologist Margaret McFarland, who according to Rogers biographer Maxwell King, became his "key advisor and collaborator" and his "child-education guru".[33] Much of Rogers' "thinking about and appreciation for children was shaped and informed" by McFarland.[32] She was his consultant for most of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood's scripts and songs for 30 years.[33]

In 1963, CBC in Toronto contracted Rogers to develop and host the 15-minute black-and-white children's program Misterogers; it lasted from 1963-1967.[28][34] It was the first time Rogers appeared on camera. Head of CBC's children programming Fred Rainsberry insisted on it, telling Rogers, "Fred, I've seen you talk with kids. Let's put you yourself on the air."[35] Coombs joined Rogers in Toronto as an assistant puppeteer.[28] Rogers also worked with Coombs on the children's show Butternut Square from 1964–1967. Rogers acquired the rights to Misterogers in 1967 and returned to Pittsburgh with his wife, his two young sons, and the sets he developed at the CBC back with him, despite his potentially promising career with the CBC and no job prospects in Pittsburgh.[36][37] (Coombs remained in Toronto, creating the long-running children's program Mr. Dressup, which ran from 1967 to 1996.)[38] Rogers' work for CBC "helped shape and develop the concept and style of his later program for the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in the U.S."[39]

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood

Rogers screens the tape replay with Betty Aberlin and Johnny Costa in 1969.

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (also called the Neighborhood), a half-hour educational children's program starring Rogers, began airing nationally in 1968 and ran for 895 episodes.[40] The program was filmed at WQED in Pittsburgh and was picked up and aired nationally by National Educational Television (NET), which later became the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).[41][42] The program's first season was composed of 180 black-and-white episodes. Each subsequent season, filmed in color and funded by PBS, the Sears-Roebuck Foundation, and other charities, consisted of 65 episodes.[43][44] By the time the program ended production in December 2000, its average rating was about .7 percent of television households, or 680,000 homes, and aired on 384 PBS stations. At its peak, in 1985-1986, its ratings were at 2.1 percent, or 1.8 million homes.[45][46] Production of the Neighborhood ended in December 2000, and the last original episode aired in 2001, although PBS continued to air reruns; by 2016, it was the third-longest running program in PBS history.[44][47]

Neighborhood Trolley from Mister Rogers' Neighborhood set at WQED studios in Pittsburgh.
A sweater worn by Rogers, on display in the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of American History
Rogers and François Clemmons reprising their famous foot bath in 1993. The scene was a message of inclusion during an era of racial segregation.

Many of the sets and props in Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, like the trolley, the sneakers, and the castle, were created for Rogers' show in Toronto by CBC designers and producers. The program also "incorporated most of the highly imaginative elements that later became famous"[48] on the program, such as the program's slow pace and its host's quiet manner.[49][50] The format of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood "remained virtually unchanged" for the entire run of the program.[51] Every episode began with a camera's eye view of a model of a neighborhood, then sweeping in closer to a representation of a house as an instrumental piano version of the theme song, "Won't You be My Neighbor?", which was written by music director Johnny Costa and inspired by a Beethoven sonata, is played.[52] The camera zooms to a model representing Mr. Rogers' house, then cuts to the house's interior, panning across the room to the front door, which is opened by the host as he sings the theme song to welcome his visitors while changing his suit jacket to a zippered cardigan (knit by his mother),[53] and his dress shoes to sneakers, "complete with a shoe tossed from one hand to another".[54]

The episode's theme is introduced, and Mr. Rogers leaves his home to visit another location, the camera panning back to the neighborhood model and zooming to the new location as he enters it. When the visit to the new location ends, Mr. Rogers leaves and returns to his home. Indicating that it is time to visit the Neighborhood of Make-Believe. Mr. Rogers heads over to the window seat by the trolley track and sets up the action there as the Trolley comes out. The camera follows it down a tunnel in the back wall of the house as it enters the Neighborhood of Make-Believe. The stories and lessons told there take place over a series of a week's worth of episodes and involve the puppet and human characters. The end of the visit occurs when the Trolley returns into the same tunnel from which it emerged, reappearing in Mr. Rogers' home, who interacts with the viewers before wrapping up the episode. He often will feed his fish, clean up any props he has used, and return to the front room, where he sings the closing song while changing back into his dress shoes and jacket. He exits the front door as he ends the song, and the camera zooms out of his home and pans across the neighborhood model as the episode ends.[note 2]

Mister Rogers' Neighborhood emphasized young children's social and emotional needs, and unlike another PBS show, Sesame Street, which premiered in 1969, did not focus on cognitive learning.[55] Writer Kathy Merlock Jackson stated, "While both shows target the same preschool audience and prepare children for kindergarten, Sesame Street concentrates on school-readiness skills while Mister Rogers Neighborhood focuses on the child's developing psyche and feelings and sense of moral and ethical reasoning".[56] The Neighborhood also did not spend as much resources on research as Sesame Street, but Rogers used early childhood education concepts taught by his mentor Margaret McFarland, Benjamin Spock, Erik Erikson, and T. Berry Brazelton in his lessons on his program.[57] As the Washington Post noted, Rogers taught young children about civility, tolerance, sharing, and self-worth "in a reassuring tone and leisurely cadence".[58] He tackled difficult topics such as the death of a family pet, sibling rivalry, the addition of a newborn into their families, moving and enrolling in a new school, or divorce.[58] For example, he wrote a special segment of the program that dealt with the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy that aired on June 7, 1968, days after it occurred.[59]

According to Rogers' biographer Maxwell King, the process of putting each episode of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood together was "painstaking".[60] Also according to King, Rogers' contribution to the program was "astounding".[61] Rogers wrote and edited all of the almost 900 episodes produced, played the piano and sang for most of the songs performed on the program, wrote 200 songs and 13 operas, created all the characters, both puppet and human, played most of the major puppet roles, performed as host for every episode, and produced and approved every detail of the program.[62] The puppets created for the Neighborhood of Make-Believe "included an extraordinary variety of personalities".[63] The puppets were simple, but they were "complex, complicated, and utterly honest beings".[64] In 1971, Rogers formed Family Communications, Inc. (FCI, now The Fred Rogers Company), to produce The Neighborhood and other programs and non-broadcast materials.[65][66]

In 1975, Rogers stopped producing Mr. Rogers' Neighborhood to focus on adult programming. The Neighborhood continued to air on PBS, but as reruns of 455 episodes.[67] King reported that the decision caught many of his coworkers and supporters "off guard".[68] Rogers continued to confer with McFarland about child development and early childhood education, however.[69] In 1979, after an almost five-year hiatus, Rogers returned to producing The Neighborhood; King called the new version "stronger and more sophisticated than ever".[70] King stated that by the program's second run in the 1980s, it was "such a cultural touchstone that it had inspired numerous parodies",[19] most notably Eddie Murphy's parody on Saturday Night Live in the early 1980s.[19]

Rogers retired from producing the Neighborhood in 2001, at the age of 73, although reruns continued to air on PBS. He and FCI had been making about two or three weeks of new programs per year for many years, "filling the rest of his time slots from a library of about 300 shows made since 1979."[46] The final original episode of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood aired on August 31, 2001.[71]

Other television work

In 1978, while on hiatus from Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, Rogers wrote, produced, and hosted a 30-minute interview program for adults on PBS called Old Friends...New Friends.[72][73] It lasted 20 episodes. Rogers' guests included Hoagy Carmichael, Helen Hayes, Milton Berle, poet Robert Frost’s daughter Lesley, and Willie Stargell.[72][74]

Rogers appeared as the first guest invited on the long-running Soviet children's TV show, Good Night, Little Ones, on December 7, 1988, which coincided with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev summit with American president Ronald Reagan in Washington, D.C. The Soviet program's host, Tatiana Vedeneeva, also appeared on Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, in a series of episodes about Rogers' visit to the Soviet Union.[75]

In 1994, Rogers wrote, produced, and hosted a special for PBS called Fred Rogers' Heroes, which featured interviews and portraits of four people from across the country who were having a positive impact on children and education.[76][77]

The only time Rogers appeared on television as someone other than himself was in 1996 when he played a preacher on one episode of Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman.[6]

Legacy

When I was a boy and I would see scary things in the news, my mother would say to me, 'Look for the helpers. You will always find people who are helping.' To this day, especially in times of "disaster," I remember my mother's words and I am always comforted by realizing that there are still so many helpers – so many caring people in this world.
—Fred Rogers
Whenever a great tragedy strikes—war, famine, mass shootings, or even an outbreak of populist rage—millions of people turn to Fred’s messages about life. Then the web is filled with his words and images. With fascinating frequency, his written messages and video clips surge across the internet, reaching hundreds of thousands of people who, confronted with a tough issue or ominous development, open themselves to Rogers’s messages of quiet contemplation, of simplicity, of active listening and the practice of human kindness.[78]
—Rogers biographer Maxwell King

Marc Brown, creator of another PBS children's show, Arthur, considered Rogers both a friend and "a terrific role model for how to use television and the media to be helpful to kids and families".[79] Josh Selig, creator of Wonder Pets, credits Rogers with influencing his use of structure and predictability, and his use of music, opera, and originality.[80]

Angela Santomero, co-creator of the children's television show Blue's Clues was inspired by Rogers to earn a degree in developmental psychology and go into educational television.[81] She and the other producers of Blue's Clues used many of the same techniques Rogers used, including using child developmental and educational research, and having the host speak directly to the camera and transition to a make-believe world.[82] In 2006, three years after Rogers' death, and after the end of production of Blue's Clues, the Fred Rogers Company contacted her to create a show that would promote Rogers' legacy.[81] In 2012, Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood, with characters from and based upon Mister Rogers' Neighborhood premiered on PBS.[83]

Rogers' style and approach to children's television and early childhood education also "begged to be parodied".[84] For example, comedian Eddie Murphy parodied Mister Rogers Neighborhood on Saturday Night Live during the 1980s.[85][86] Rogers told interviewer David Letterman in 1982 that parodies like Murphy's were done "with kindness in their hearts".[87]

Robert Thompson of Syracuse University noted that Rogers "took American childhood—and I think Americans in general—through some very turbulent and trying times,"[85] from the Vietnam War and the assassination of Robert Kennedy in 1968, to the 9/11 terrorists acts in 2001. In the years since the end of production of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in 2001 and his death in 2003, Rogers has, as Asia Simone Burns of National Public Radio put it, "been a source of comfort, sometimes in the wake of tragedy".[85] Also according to Burns, Rogers' words of comfort "began circulating on social media",[85] following tragedies such as the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting in 2012, the Manchester Arena bombing in Manchester, England in 2017, and the shooting at Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida in 2018.

Works

Rogers wrote many of the songs that were used on his television program, and wrote more than 36 books, including:

  • Mister Rogers Talks with Parents (1983)
  • Eight New Experiences titles:
    • Moving
    • Going to the Doctor
    • Going to the Hospital
    • Going to Day Care
    • Going to the Potty
    • Making Friends
    • The New Baby
    • When a Pet Dies
  • You Are Special: Words of Wisdom from America's Most Beloved Neighbor (1994)

Published Posthumously

  • The World According to Mister Rogers: Important Things to Remember (2003)
  • Life's Journeys According to Mister Rogers: Things to Remember Along the Way (2005)
  • Many Ways to Say I Love You: Wisdom for Parents and Children from Mister Rogers (2006)

Advocacy

Rogers speaks to Congress in 1969 in support of PBS.

PBS funding

In 1969, Rogers appeared before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Communications.[5] His goal was to support funding for PBS and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, in response to proposed budget cuts.[88] In about six minutes of testimony, Rogers spoke of the need for social and emotional education for children. He argued that alternative television programming like his Neighborhood helped encourage children to become happy and productive citizens, sometimes opposing less positive messages in commercial media and in popular culture. He recited the lyrics to one of his songs.[89]

The chairman of the subcommittee, John O. Pastore, was not familiar with Rogers' work and was sometimes described as impatient.[90] However, he reported that the testimony had given him goosebumps, and declared, "I think it's wonderful. Looks like you just earned the $20 million." The subsequent congressional appropriation, for 1971, increased PBS funding from $9 million to $22 million.[91]

VCR

During the controversy surrounding the introduction of the household VCR, Rogers was involved in supporting VCR manufacturers in court. His 1979 testimony, in the case Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., noted that he did not object to home recordings of his television programs by families in order to watch them together at a later time.[92] His testimony contrasted with the views of others in the television industry who objected to home recording or believed that VCRs should be taxed or regulated.[93][94]

When the case reached the Supreme Court in 1983, the majority decision considered the testimony of Rogers when it held that the Betamax video recorder did not infringe copyright.[95] The court stated that his views were a notable piece of evidence "that many [television] producers are willing to allow private time-shifting to continue" and even quoted his testimony in a footnote:

Some public stations, as well as commercial stations, program the Neighborhood at hours when some children cannot use it ... I have always felt that with the advent of all of this new technology that allows people to tape the Neighborhood off-the-air, and I'm speaking for the Neighborhood because that's what I produce, that they then become much more active in the programming of their family's television life. Very frankly, I am opposed to people being programmed by others. My whole approach in broadcasting has always been "You are an important person just the way you are. You can make healthy decisions." Maybe I'm going on too long, but I just feel that anything that allows a person to be more active in the control of his or her life, in a healthy way, is important.[96]

Personal life

Rogers met Sara Joanne Byrd (called "Joanne") from Jacksonville, Florida, while he attended Rollins College. They were married in 1952 and remained married until his death in 2003. They had two sons, James and John.[97][98] According to biographer Maxwell King, close associates said that Rogers was "absolutely faithful to his marriage vows."[99]

Rogers became a vegetarian in the 1970s, saying he couldn't eat anything that had a mother. He became a co-owner of Vegetarian Times in the 1980s and said in one issue "I love tofu burgers and beets".[100][101]

Death and memorials

The Fred Rogers Memorial Statue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Created by Robert Berks, and opened to the public on November 5, 2009.

Rogers was diagnosed with stomach cancer in December 2002, and underwent surgery in January 2003.[102] A week earlier, he had served as grand marshal of the Tournament of Roses Parade, with Art Linkletter and Bill Cosby.[103]

Rogers died on the morning of February 27, 2003, at his home with his wife by his side,[104] three weeks before his 75th birthday. His death was such a significant event in Pittsburgh that most of the front page of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette published the next day and an entire section of the paper devoted its coverage to him.[105] The Reverend William P. Barker presided over a public memorial in Pittsburgh. More than 2,700 people attended the memorial at Heinz Hall, including former Good Morning America host David Hartman; Teresa Heinz Kerry; philanthropist Elsie Hillman; PBS President Pat Mitchell; Arthur creator Marc Brown; and Eric Carle, the author-illustrator of The Very Hungry Caterpillar.[106] Speakers remembered Rogers's love of children, devotion to his religion, enthusiasm for music, and quirks. Teresa Heinz Kerry said of Rogers, "He never condescended, just invited us into his conversation. He spoke to us as the people we were, not as the people others wished we were."[107]

Rogers is interred at Unity Cemetery in Latrobe.[108]

At the 2003 Daytime Emmy Awards, host Wayne Brady and some of the cast of Sesame Street, including Big Bird, Elmo, Grover, Zoe, and Rosita, paid tribute to Rogers by singing a medley of some of his most popular songs, including "Won't You Be My Neighbor", "It's You I Like", "Everybody's Fancy", "Many Ways to Say I Love You", and "It's Such a Good Feeling".[109] Once they finished, a small clip of Rogers accepting an Emmy was played, which led the audience to give a standing ovation.[110]

In January 2018, it was announced that Tom Hanks would portray Rogers in an upcoming biographical film titled A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood directed by Marielle Heller.[111] That same year, the documentary film Won't You Be My Neighbor? based on the life and legacy of Rogers, was released to critical acclaim and became the highest-grossing biographical documentary film of all time.[112]

Awards and honors

Rogers being presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President George W. Bush in the East Room of the White House on July 9, 2002

On New Year's Day 2004, Michael Keaton, who had been a stagehand on Mister Rogers' Neighborhood before becoming an actor, hosted the PBS TV special Fred Rogers: America's Favorite Neighbor. It was released on DVD on September 28 that year. In 2008, to mark what would have been his 80th birthday, Rogers' production company sponsored several events to memorialize him, including "Won't You Wear a Sweater Day", during which fans and neighbors were asked to wear their favorite sweaters in celebration.[113] The event takes place annually on his birth date, March 20.[114]

Rogers received the Ralph Lowell Award in 1975.[115] In 1987, he was initiated as an honorary member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity, the national fraternity for men of music.[116] The television industry honored Rogers with a George Foster Peabody Award "in recognition of 25 years of beautiful days in the neighborhood" in 1992;[117] previously, he had shared a Peabody award for Mister Rogers' Neighborhood in 1968. Rogers was a National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international professional music fraternity.[118] He was inducted into the Television Hall of Fame in 1999.[119] One of Rogers' iconic sweaters was acquired by the Smithsonian Institution, which displays it as a "Treasure of American History".[120] In 2002, Rogers received the PNC Commonwealth Award in Mass Communications.[121]

In 1991, the Pittsburgh Penguins named Rogers as their celebrity captain, as part of a celebration of the National Hockey League's 75th anniversary,[122] based on his connections to Pennsylvania and Pittsburgh. Card No. 297 from the 1992 NHL Pro Set Platinum collection commemorated the event, making Fred one of only twelve celebrity captains to be chosen for a sports card.[123]

George W. Bush awarded Rogers the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2002 for his contributions to children's education, saying that "Fred Rogers has proven that television can soothe the soul and nurture the spirit and teach the very young". A year later, the U.S. Senate unanimously passed Resolution 16 to commemorate the life of Fred Rogers.[2] It read, in part, "Through his spirituality and placid nature, Mr. Rogers was able to reach out to our nation's children and encourage each of them to understand the important role they play in their communities and as part of their families. More importantly, he did not shy away from dealing with difficult issues of death and divorce but rather encouraged children to express their emotions in a healthy, constructive manner, often providing a simple answer to life's hardships." Following Rogers' death, the U.S. House of Representatives in 2003 unanimously passed Resolution 111 honoring Rogers for "his legendary service to the improvement of the lives of children, his steadfast commitment to demonstrating the power of compassion, and his dedication to spreading kindness through example."[124]

The same year, the Presbyterian Church approved an overture "to observe a memorial time for the Reverend Fred M. Rogers" at its General Assembly.[125] The rationale for the recognition of Rogers reads, "The Reverend Fred Rogers, a member of the Presbytery of Pittsburgh, as host of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood since 1968, had a profound effect on the lives of millions of people across the country through his ministry to children and families. Mister Rogers promoted and supported Christian values in the public media with his demonstration of unconditional love. His ability to communicate with children and to help them understand and deal with difficult questions in their lives will be greatly missed."[126]

In 2003, the asteroid 26858 Misterrogers was named after Rogers by the International Astronomical Union in an announcement at the Carnegie Science Center in Pittsburgh.[127] The science center worked with Rogers' Family Communications, Inc. to produce a planetarium show for preschoolers called "The Sky Above Mister Rogers' Neighborhood", which plays at planetariums across the United States.[128]

Many of the artifacts from the set of Mr. Rogers neighborhood, including the tree of X the owl, the make-believe neighborhood and the inside entrance to Mr. Rogers home is on display at the Heinz History Center in Pittsburgh. Also included is a life figure of Mr. Rogers and a sweater he wore on the television show.

Several buildings, monuments, and works of art are dedicated to Rogers' memory, including a mural sponsored by the Pittsburgh-based Sprout Fund in 2006, "Interpretations of Oakland," by John Laidacker that featured Mr. Rogers.[129] Saint Vincent College in Latrobe, Pennsylvania, completed construction of The Fred M. Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children's Media in 2008.[130] The Fred Rogers Memorial Statue on the North Shore near Heinz Field in Pittsburgh[131] was created by Robert Berks and dedicated in 2009.[132] The statue was placed in front of the surviving footing of the Manchester Bridge, which was cleaned and carved out in order to place the statue there.

In 2015, players of the Altoona Curve, a Double-A affiliate of the Pittsburgh Pirates, honored Rogers by wearing special commemorative jerseys that featured a printed facsimile of his classic cardigan and tie ensemble. After the game the jerseys were auctioned off with the proceeds going to the local PBS station, WPSU-TV.[133]

On March 6, 2018, a primetime special commemorating the 50th anniversary of the series aired on PBS, hosted by actor Michael Keaton.[134] The hour-long special also features interviews by musician Yo-Yo Ma, musician Itzhak Perlman, actress Sarah Silverman, actress Whoopi Goldberg, actor John Lithgow, screenwriter Judd Apatow, actor David Newell, producer Ellen Doherty, and spouse Joanne Byrd Rogers, as well as clips of memorable moments from the show, such as Rogers visiting Koko the gorilla, Margaret Hamilton dressing up as The Wizard of Oz's Wicked Witch of the West, and Jeff Erlanger in his wheelchair singing "It's You I Like" with Rogers.[135]

Fred Rogers appeared on a commemorative US postage stamp in 2018. The stamp, showing him as Mister Rogers alongside King Friday XIII, was issued on March 23, 2018, in Pittsburgh.[136]

On September 21, 2018, Google Doodle honored him with a stop motion video of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.[137] At 90, his widow, Joanne Byrd Rogers, still lives in Pittsburgh, where she has honored her husband's memory by being an advocate for children and encouraging them to take on leadership roles.[138][139][140][141][142][143][144][145]

Filmography

Television

Honorary degrees

Advertising

On October 23, 2018, during the first game of the 2018 World Series, Rogers' first television commercial aired for Google's Pixel 3 smartphone. In the ad, Rogers sings "Did You Know". This is the first time his voice or images have been used to advertise a product on television.[160]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ According to Mister Rogers' Neighborhood producer Hedda Sharapan, Rogers used television to communicate his message;[19] David Newell, who played Mr. McFeely on the Neighborhood, said, "Television was a vehicle for Fred, to reach children and families; it was sort of a necessary evil".[20]
  2. ^ See Wolfe, pp. 9-16 for a complete description of the structure of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood.

References

  1. ^ John Donvan (February 2, 2018). "Mr Rogers ... Cool Dude" – via YouTube.
  2. ^ a b "Bill Text – 108th Congress (2003–2004) – S.CON.RES.16.ATS". THOMAS. Library of Congress. March 5, 2003. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  3. ^ Jackson, K.M.; Emmanuel, S.M. (2016). Revisiting Mister Rogers' Neighborhood: Essays on Lessons About Self and Community. McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7864-7296-3. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  4. ^ Sostek, Anya (November 6, 2009). "Mr. Rogers takes rightful place at riverside tribute". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
  5. ^ a b Harris, Aisha (October 5, 2012). "Watch Mister Rogers Defend PBS In Front of the U.S. Senate". Slate Magazine. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d DeFranceso, Joyce (April 2003). "Remembering Fred Rogers: A Life Well-Lived: A look back at Fred Rogers' life". Pittsburgh Magazine. Archived from the original on January 3, 2005. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  7. ^ "Special Collectors' Issue: 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time". TV Guide (December 14–20, 1996). 1996.
  8. ^ "Fred McFeely Rogers Historical – Latrobe – PA – US – Historical Marker Project".
  9. ^ a b Harpaz, Beth J. (July 18, 2018). "Mister Rogers: 'Won't you be my neighbor?' fans can check out Fred Rogers Trail". Burlington Free Press. Associated Press. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  10. ^ a b "Early Life". Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning & Children's Media. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  11. ^ a b Woo, Elaine (February 28, 2003). "It's a Sad Day in This Neighborhood". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  12. ^ a b King (2018), p. 19
  13. ^ a b "7 items that tell the story of Mister Rogers, America's favorite neighbor". EW.com. June 9, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  14. ^ a b Comm, Joseph A. (2015). Legendary Locals of Latrobe. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4671-0184-4.
  15. ^ Gross (1984), event occurs at 4.27.
  16. ^ Jacobson, Lisa (February 11, 2013). "Remembering Mr. Rogers". Presbyterian Historical Society. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
  17. ^ "Terry Gross and Fred Rogers". Fresh Air with Terry Gross. NPR. February 28, 2003. Retrieved January 21, 2019. Show originally aired 1985
  18. ^ Schuster, Henry (February 27, 2003). "Fred and me: An appreciation". CNN.com. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  19. ^ a b c King, p. 266
  20. ^ King, p. 265
  21. ^ Hendrickson, Paul (November 18, 1982). "In the Land of Make Believe, The Real Mister Rogers". Washington Post. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  22. ^ Gross (1984), event occurs at 6.38.
  23. ^ "Highlights in the life and career of Fred Rogers". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. February 27, 2003. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  24. ^ Tiech, p. 10
  25. ^ "Fred Rogers". Pioneers of Television. PBS.org. 2014. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  26. ^ "Early Years in Television". Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning & Children's Media. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  27. ^ Tiech, p. 9
  28. ^ a b c Broughton, Irv (1986). Producers on Producing: The Making of Film and Television. McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7864-1207-5.
  29. ^ "Sunday on the Children's Corner, Revisited". Presbyterian Historical Society. February 15, 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  30. ^ Schultz, Mike. "Sylvania Award". uv201.com. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  31. ^ a b "Fred Rogers Biography". Fred Rogers Productions. 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  32. ^ a b Flecker, Sally Ann (Winter 2014). "When Fred Met Margaret: Fred Rogers' Mentor". Pitt Med. University of Pittsburgh. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  33. ^ a b King, p. 126
  34. ^ King (2018), p. 145
  35. ^ Roberts, Soraya (June 26, 2018). "The Fred Rogers We Know". Hazlitt Magazine. Penguin Random House. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
  36. ^ Matheson, Sue (2016). "Good Neighbors, Moral Philosophy and the Masculine Ideal". In Merlock Jackson, Sandra; Emmanuel, Steven M. (eds.). Revisiting Mister Rogers' Neighborhood: Essays on Lessons about Self and Community. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-4766-2341-2.
  37. ^ King, p. 150
  38. ^ "How Mr. Rogers and Mr. Dressup's road trip from Pittsburgh to Toronto changed children's television forever". National Post. July 11, 2018. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
  39. ^ "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood and Beyond". Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning & Children's Media. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
  40. ^ Bahr, Lindsey (September 27, 2013). "Mister Rogers pic in development with 'Little Miss Sunshine' directors". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  41. ^ "Children's TV Host Fred Rogers Dies At 74". PBS News Hour. February 27, 2003. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  42. ^ Burns, Asia Simone (February 7, 2018). "Mister Rogers Is Coming Back To Your Neighborhood, On A Stamp". NPR.org. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  43. ^ King, p. 164
  44. ^ a b Estrada, Louie (February 28, 2003). "Children's TV Icon Fred Rogers Dies at 74". Washington Post. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
  45. ^ DeFranceso, Joyce (April 2003). "A Life Well-Lived". Pittsburgh Magazine. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  46. ^ a b Montgomery, David (September 1, 2001). "For Mister Rogers, a Final Day in the Neighborhood". Washington Post. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  47. ^ Jackson, Kathy Merlock; Emmanuel, Steven M (2016). "Introduction". Revisiting Mister Rogers' Neighborhood: Essays on Lessons about Self and Community. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-4766-2341-2.
  48. ^ King, p. 158
  49. ^ King, p. 146
  50. ^ King, p. 158
  51. ^ Wolfe, Mark J.P. (2017). The World of Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. New York: Routledge Publishers. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-315-11008-0.
  52. ^ Woo, Elaine (February 28, 2003). "From the Archives: It's a Sad Day in This Neighborhood". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  53. ^ Jackson, Christine (March 20, 2017). "The Importance of Sweaters and Sneakers in Mister Rogers' Neighborhood". Rewire.org. PBS. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  54. ^ Wolfe, p. 11
  55. ^ King, p. 145
  56. ^ Jackson, Kathy Merlock. "Social Activism for the Small Set". In Jackson, Kathy Merlock; Emmanuel, Steven M. (eds.). Revisiting Mister Rogers' Neighborhood: Essays on Lessons about Self and Community. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4766-2341-2.
  57. ^ King, p. 134
  58. ^ a b Estrada, Louie (February 28, 2003). "Children's TV Icon Fred Rogers Dies at 74". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 10, 2019.
  59. ^ King, p. 192
  60. ^ King, p. 184
  61. ^ King, p. 204
  62. ^ King, p. 204
  63. ^ King, p. 216
  64. ^ King, p. 219
  65. ^ "Mister Rogers' Neighborhood and Beyond". Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning & Children's Media. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  66. ^ Jefferson, Robin Seaton (March 23, 2017). "Siefken Heads Up Fred Rogers Company, Keeping Mister Rogers' Message Relevant For Next Generation". Forbes. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  67. ^ King, pp. 230-231
  68. ^ King, 231
  69. ^ King, p. 240
  70. ^ King, p. 243
  71. ^ King, p. 338
  72. ^ a b Neuhaus, Cable (May 15, 1978). "Fred Rogers Moves into a New Neighborhood—and So Does His Rebellious Son". People. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  73. ^ King, p. 230
  74. ^ King, p. 233
  75. ^ Ogintz, Eileen (March 6, 1988). "Neighborhood Hero". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  76. ^ King, p. 232
  77. ^ Williams, Scott (September 2, 1994). "'Mr. Rogers' Heroes' Looks at Who's Helping America's Children". AP News. Associated Press. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  78. ^ King, p. 357
  79. ^ Juul, Matt (October 10, 2016). "Creator Marc Brown on Mr. Rogers, Memes, and 20 Years of Arthur". Boston Magazine. Retrieved June 5, 2019.
  80. ^ King, pp. 353-354
  81. ^ a b Santomero, Angela (September 21, 2012). "Mister Rogers Changed My Life". The New York Times. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  82. ^ King, p. 353
  83. ^ Owen, Rob (September 2, 2013). "A 'very Fred-ish' birthday for 'Daniel Tiger's Neighborhood'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  84. ^ "Pioneers of Television: Fred Rogers". PBS.org. 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  85. ^ a b c d Burns, Asia Simone (February 18, 2018). "Mister Rogers Still Lives In Your Neighborhood". NPR.org. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  86. ^ King, p. 266
  87. ^ King, p. 267
  88. ^ Strachan, Maxwell (March 16, 2017). "The Best Argument For Saving Public Media Was Made By Mr. Rogers In 1969". HuffPost. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  89. ^ "Mister Rogers defending PBS to the US Senate". June 29, 2007. Retrieved September 1, 2016 – via YouTube.
  90. ^ Bradberry, Travis (September 25, 2014). "How Emotional Intelligence Landed Mr. Rogers $20 Million". Forbes. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  91. ^ "Fred Rogers Beyond the Neighborhood: Senate Committee Hearing". Fred Rogers Center. 1969. Archived from the original on June 17, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2014.
  92. ^ Shea, Christopher (January 10, 2012). "Mr. Rogers and the VCR". WSJ. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  93. ^ "How Mister Rogers Saved the VCR". Mental Floss. June 7, 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  94. ^ Madrigal, Alexis C. (January 10, 2012). "The Court Case That Almost Made It Illegal to Tape TV Shows". The Atlantic. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  95. ^ "Sony Corp. of America v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 (1984)". Supreme Court of the United States of America. 1984. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  96. ^ Dawn, Randee (June 12, 2018). "Fred Rogers' widow reveals the way he proposed marriage — and it's so sweet". Today.com. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
  97. ^ King (2018), p. 54
  98. ^ Maxwell King (September 4, 2018). The Good Neighbor: The Life and Work of Fred Rogers. ABRAMS. pp. 208, 379. ISBN 978-1-68335-349-2.
  99. ^ King (2018), p. 9
  100. ^ Obis, Paul (November 1983). "Fred Rogers: America's Favorite Neighbor". Vegetarian Times. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  101. ^ "Fred Rogers". Biography.com. 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  102. ^ "Grand Marshal Slide Show Main". Tournament of Roses. 2004. Archived from the original on November 11, 2006. Retrieved February 26, 2010.
  103. ^ Owen, Rob; Barbara Vancheri (February 28, 2003). "Fred Rogers dies at 74". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  104. ^ "Fred Rogers dies". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette – via Google News Archive Search.
  105. ^ Vancheri, Barbara; Owen, Rob (May 4, 2003). "Pittsburgh bids farewell to Fred Rogers with moving public tribute". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  106. ^ Vancheri, Barbara (May 4, 2003). Pittsburgh bids farewell to Fred Rogers with moving public tribute, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  107. ^ King, M. (2018). The Good Neighbor: The Life and Work of Fred Rogers. ABRAMS. p. 443. ISBN 978-1-68335-349-2. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
  108. ^ Publicity, PBS (May 17, 2003). "PBS Scores Two Major Wins at Daytime Emmys Televised Ceremony". PBS Scores Two Major Wins at Daytime Emmys Televised Ceremony | PBS About. Retrieved October 28, 2018.
  109. ^ 30th Daytime Emmy Awards (Television). New York, NY: ABC. May 16, 2003.
  110. ^ "Soulful, Inspiring Mister Rogers Movie Trailer Just Might Make You Cry". Vanity Fair. March 20, 2018. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  111. ^ "Won't You Be My Neighborhood Is the Top Grossing Biodoc of All Time". The Hollywood Reporter. July 27, 2018.
  112. ^ "Won't You Wear a SweaterByrd?". Rollins News Center. Rollins College. March 21, 2008. Archived from the original on June 9, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  113. ^ "Wear a sweater, honor Mr. Rogers". Today. February 27, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
  114. ^ Silva, P (July 20, 2015). "Ralph Lowell Award".
  115. ^ Faith Spicer, Cheri (May 2004). "Remembering Our Neighbor: His Lessons on Listening and Love" (PDF). The Sinfonian. sinfonia.org. pp. 19–21. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 29, 2010. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  116. ^ "George Foster Peabody Award Winners". University of Georgia, George Foster Peabody Award.
  117. ^ "National Patrons & Patronesses". Delta Omicron. Archived from the original on March 17, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  118. ^ "Hall of Fame". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
  119. ^ "NMAH – Treasures of American History – American Television (page 2 of 2)". National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  120. ^ "PNC Honors Six Achievers Who Enrich The World". PNC Financial Services Group - MediaRoom. April 20, 2002. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  121. ^ "Can you say ... captain?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 65 (58). October 7, 1991. p. 1. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  122. ^ "Mister Rogers' Hockey Card". Puck Junk. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  123. ^ "Bill Text – 108th Congress (2003–2004) – H.RES.111.EH". THOMAS. Library of Congress. March 4, 2003. Retrieved July 30, 2010.[dead link]
  124. ^ "Recommendations on Business before the 215th General Assembly". General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. 2003. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  125. ^ "Minutes: 215th General Assembly (2003), Part I" Archived July 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Office of the General Assembly, Proceedings of the 215th General Assembly (2003) of the Presbyterian Church, p. 107. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  126. ^ "IAU Minor Planet Center". IAU Minor Planet Center. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  127. ^ "'The Sky Above Mister Rogers' Neighborhood' coming to Delta". Midland Daily News. November 3, 2005. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  128. ^ "2006 Sprout Public Art Mural Kickoff Event Schedule". thisishappening. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  129. ^ "Fred M. Rogers Center". Saint Vincent College. 2010. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
  130. ^ Sostek, Anya (November 5, 2009). "Sculpture of Fred Rogers unveiled on North Side". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved November 9, 2009.
  131. ^ Butter, Bob (November 5, 2009). "World's First Sculpture of American Icon Fred Rogers Unveiled". Reuters. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2009.
  132. ^ Maloy, Brendan (June 11, 2015). "Minor league team honors Mr. Rogers with cardigan uniforms". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved January 23, 2017.
  133. ^ Hinckley, David (March 3, 2018). "Mister Rogers has become 'one of the coolest men on the planet'". Daily News. New York. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
  134. ^ Ryan, Patrick (February 2, 2015). "5 ways to celebrate 'Mister Rogers' Neighborhood' on its 50th anniversary". USA Today. Mclean, Virginia: Gannett Company. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  135. ^ U.S. Postal Service Provides First-Day Date and Locations for 2018 First Quarter Stamp Issuances, US Postal Service news release, December 19, 2017
  136. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rd7X0NsOeRk
  137. ^ [1]
  138. ^ Dawn R. Fred Rogers' widow reveals the way he proposed marriage — and it's so sweet. Today. June 12, 2018 / 11:32 AM EDT
  139. ^ Schlageter W. Children’s Museum of Pittsburgh to honor Joanne Rogers with its 2016 Great Friend of Children Award. Children's Museum Pittsburgh. Accessed 10/28/2018
  140. ^ Kaufman A. Fred Rogers' family keeps the legacy of 'Mister Rogers' Neighborhood' alive with a candid new documentary. Los Angeles Times, June 12, 2018, 3:00 AM
  141. ^ Lyons K. Joanne Rogers on Fred Rogers’ legacy and her Great Friend of Children Award. Current Features, Features. Next Pittsburgh. February 2, 2016. Accessed 10/28/2018
  142. ^ Niedospial L. The Sweet Story Behind Mister Rogers' Nearly 51-Year Marriage to Wife Joanne. MSN Lifestyle. PopSugar, 5/1/2018, Accessed 10/28/2018
  143. ^ Joanne Rogers (profile), Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra website, Accessed 10/28/2018
  144. ^ Sciullo M. Joanne Rogers embodies the life, love and spirit of husband Fred Rogers' legacy. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. January 11, 2018, 3:27 PM, Accessed 10/28/2018
  145. ^ Erdley, Debra. "Thiel College remembers Mister Rogers". TribLIVE.com. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  146. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Honorary Degrees Awarded to Fred Rogers".
  147. ^ "Music student pens Mister Rogers score". Yale Daily News. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  148. ^ "Readers: Goodbye Mister Rogers". Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  149. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients - 1990s | Honorary Degrees". honorarydegree.uconn.edu. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  150. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients of the Past 25 Years" (PDF).
  151. ^ "W.V. UNIVERSITY TO HONOR A NEIGHBOR: MR. ROGERS". Deseret News. April 6, 1995. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  152. ^ "Pa. Physician General, nearly 800 EU students receive degrees - Edinboro University". edinboro.edu. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  153. ^ "Honorary Degree Recipients". Rider University. August 27, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  154. ^ "Commencement; Fordham Class Hears Magician and Peacemaker". Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  155. ^ "Fred Rogers". University Honors | Marquette University. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  156. ^ a b "Academic Hood Quilt". The Fred Rogers Center. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
  157. ^ "Seton Hall Will Have Tribute to Rogers". Huron Daily Tribune. April 17, 2003. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  158. ^ "Joanne Rogers accepts husband's 41st honorary degree". Union College News Archives. June 15, 2003. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  159. ^ Pressman, Aaron (October 24, 2018). "Mister Rogers Stars in His First TV Commercial—For Google". Fortune. Retrieved October 25, 2018.

Works cited

External links